Some of those people will try to assume that, I am writing something for to harm United States. Maybe they will think that, I am part of a plot, like on some theory of conspiracy, to weak American image before the world. I am writing these before anyone read and get on such excuse to say specific that, I totally believe in truth. I don’t think any truth is made for harm. What harm is see the truth and deny it. What harm is see the truth and not take the responsability for it. Those who see the truth and assume their responsability on it are the ones who are dignified by respect.
By the way, I get two big reasons for not try to harm United States. The first one is that, I am a Brazilian born. If somebody think I am writing to harm United States is because also think I would do it for, I don’t know in what way, benefit Brazil. For those who don’t know about the relationship that does exist between Brazil and United States know that, Brazil have a monetary reserve of about 320 billion dollares. And it is its only safeguard for any eventuality. Two thirds of it is invested in American Bounds. To harm United States would be the same as to do it to Brazil. Brazil is taking a serious risk to help United States on its moment of difficulties. If United States goes down, almost certainly, Brazil will be in trouble too. I wouldn’t do the same as Brazil is doing if it was not for family or great friendship.
Another reason in my favor is that, I fathered two kids. My only ones. They are born and lives in United States and I never told them to be more Brazilians than Americans. I don’t put preasure on none of them. If on any day they feel like to choose between one or another country it will be their decision, not mine. What I want is the best for them by their own choice. As I would never harm my children I also have not intent on harm their country.
Particularly, I think the better way of we solve our problems is get together. Peoples and countries. Until now, what we have been told is that, we need to compete because it will make us the best. I totally disagree on it. To compete impose that, some will be harmed in some way. I am in favor of team work. Everybody work for it. Everybody get the prize. Any time you compete you don’t get the best prize. When you are competing you expent to much energy doing things that harm yourself. If these energy wasted from both sides be used for do good things, the prize will always be doubled or tripled.
02. THE SUICIDAL AMERICA
This chapter will not obey my will of put things in a chronological order. But it will explain the name on the book and capture a similar issue present as a Public Health problem in modern American life.
I use to hear 90.9 FM, Boston University Radio. Every time I get in my car I drive hearing something useful. It can be international or national news, shows about music or simple interviews. Usually they interview authors of best sellers books, movie producers or anything else linked to culture. And I love it.
I have a long history learning from them. No longer after I came to United States I discovered the 89.7 FM Public Radio which transmit almost the same content. It helped me learn English, because they speaks in a good accent, so we can pick up it word by word. And I have interest in learn much of the issues showed on those radios stations. My only regret is that, along all those year, almost 17, I never had money to contribut with those Radios.
Well, just by coincidence, recently I heard a show of interview about de suicide problem in United States. The interviewed was a doctor who wrote a book about the problem. Unfortunately I didn’t had much time for see everything. Not even learnned his name. I got only some importante information. So I looked for some more informations at the site of American Foundation for Suicide Prevention – AFSP.
The statistics are some kind of shoking. The last data is from the year of 2007. About 34.000 Americans lost their lives in that year in suicidal attempts. It is the “11th leading cause of death in the United States.” “Suicide is the fourth leading cause of death for adults between the ages of 18 and 65 years in the United States (28,628 suicides).” “Ninety percent of all people who die by suicide have a diagnosable psychiatric disorder at the time of their death.” “There are four male suicides for every female suicide, but three times as many females as males attempt suicide.” “There are an estimated 8-25 attempted suicides for every suicide death.”
We got many more interesting information about the problem at the site such as, “suicide is the third leading cause of death among those 15-24 years old”, but their conclusion was that: “Studies indicate that the best way to prevent suicide is through the early recognition and treatment of depression and other psychiatric illnesses.”
Learning about the problem through the interview on the 90.9 FM Radio, things doesn’t look so clear as the statistical numbers from the AFSP. First of all, the interviewed doctor let it clear: nobody knows exactly what drive people to suicide. They had a theory which say that, it come from the preassures of our times. Would be something linked to modern times. In opposition to it he pointed out that, a indigenous tribe in Amazon Region laughted when they knew that, suicide is a problem in America. They couldn’t understand because never knew none among them who took such idea. For them, suicide is a tabut.
When the argument that in their primitive stile of life they probably shouldn’t have the same kind of preasure as in modern life came out, it is not so easy to have foundation in truth. The tribepeople is in the edge of existence. They get frequent tropical deseases. Their infant rates of death is about 50%. At the end, they got so much preasure as a New Yorkian. The difference would be that, New York offers much more ways of fun things to do than the entire Amazon River Basin.
The doctor author interviewed said, not only that specific tribe but observing the humanity as a whole you can detect amazing endurance in people that live in the edge of life too. Why shouln’t the same be truthful for the now most successful societies in the world?! Suicide is not a problem only for United States.
I don’t know if the interviewed doctor told anything about the relationship between suicide and genetical tendency. The data from AFSP doesn’t mention it. When I was living in Brasil I remember such mention. I don’t remember from who it came, but looks like some families have the problem with more frequence.
On the interview the doctor also said that, often you know some fact that end triggering a suicidal attempt but you don’t know the origin of such will. He also said that, even suicide be a problem bigger than assassination you don’t see it in the news. Asked why it is happen, he wasn’t sure but offered an explanation. In assassination cases you have a clear vilain and a obvious victim. So, is easier to work with such news. I am not so sure about it. As hard is to sale the news of a suicide it a bigger problem and then it should be more important the public know the truth. But looks like even to our more advanced culture does exists something that are tabut. The suicide victim can be ourselves image and ourselves likeness.
What amazed me in the AFSP report is that, they calculate in “8-25 attempted suicides for every suicide death.” So, it mean that, there are between 272,000 and 750,000 attempted suicides each year in United States. This is a big number! But if it is true, I am not convinced that it translate the whole truth. I am in doubt about some part of American population be affected by the tendency for suicide. These selfdestructive behavior is manifested through the prejudice shown by the Tea Party, KKK, Neo-Nazis and sectors from the Republican Party.
Maybe, such behavior is unconscious and unintentional but bring the same result as it was. Those mad people don’t realize how their attitudes are driving United States to selfdestruction. I hope my concerns help them to reconsider their positions for the selfdestruction don’t come to happen.
In my poor point of view I think assassination and suicide are part of the same problem. Those are result of frustrations. The different response come from the person be more egoistic or altruistic. The altruistic prefer to attempt against his or her own life. The opposite is verified on the the egoistic person. Case apart must be considered the “suicide bombs” because their are manipulated before they do it.
The doctor also said that, whatever the number of attempted suicides come true it doubled the number of assanations. Yes, in United States the assassinations are more frequents than others industrialized countries. And, not matter how big this number is, suicides comes in doubled number.
Now I have to assume some speculation. Is that all? And if, only if, is something much bigger than that? If part of deaths ruled as accidents is not but successful suicidal attempt. I am not thinking only in car accidents. You know. Most of deaths by car accidents is ruled as consequent of high speed. So, as it is well known as cause of death, why so many people still driving above the speed limit in every and each high way?
Why should people keep smoking knowing that, it is a factor of risk to their health? Everybody know or heard about the polution problem but why only a small number of people is taking from their lives some modern comforts that result in polution? Is well known that, if each person in the world start consume like an average American we would have nowhere to extract goods for everybody. Then, why it is not enough to people to understand that is something wrong in our way of life and it need to be rethinked? Why so much resistence against the cleaner technology? All of it and many more issues couldn’t be ruled as attempt of suicide?
I really mean that. I think does exist two types of suicide. One you could call by Acute Suicidal Syndrome. This is the one the interviewed doctor and the AFSP told us about. The other is a Chronical Behavioral Syndrome. This more like, I know I will die someday, then I want it but have no guts to do it quickly, so I better take some risk measurements that will end at where others do it quickly.
I think such type of syndrome is present in people like George W. Bush, at those who controlls Wall Street etc. I am in doubt if the same behavior still inside the White House at the Obama administration!
What they did and are doing looks like a cowardish type of behavior. They don’t want a peaceful life for themselves. So what they do is make others life an inferno. Looks like they think like that, if I have to go is better take everybody with me. Alone I donn’t want.
I don’t blame nobody for to be in a suicidal mode. I think every and each one of us have it as secret plan B for life. Most just will never use it because life goes as it can be and not like we want. If I would say one word to those in these edge I would say that, Not matter how big your problem appear to your eyes if you take a time it will disappear by itself. Think about one problem you had 10 years ago. You probably not even remember it was there anymore. But if you attempt against your life and be successful on it, is a decision you cann’t repent for take because it is a non return decision. Never take a definitive decision in times of crisis. Nobody is perfect. A bad judgment can make you create a big problem from a non problem situation. Just be more pacient.
We can take some interpretations about the numbers shown at the data from AFSP and the general causes of suicide. Those conclusions are not from academic research based but it from myself observations of modern life. In my point of view the primitive societies were adapted to conditions the world offered to it. Its ideal were look for happiness. Happiness can be found in simple things from life, like family, friendship etc. “Pursuit of happiness” is one answer for the question: “What are two rights in the Declaration of Independence?” of United States.
Actually, our society is based on to have things. People are looking for to have their whole life. It includes to have another people for them. For that, they sacrifice the simple things in life and never find satisfaction on what they are doing. Like that, the depression comes inevitable and what is happen later is only the consequences.
Maybe it explains why so many more women attempt suicide. Despite of women emancipation in the last century we still living on a macho oriented style of life world. We need to understand that men were competing against each other since thousands of years ago. Women were always among them but nature put us on the front of all risk. And we learn to be more aggressive, sometimes, irrationally aggressive. Because of that, reasonble women can be in more distress in such manly oriented world.
Usually, the lay person attribute to ancient people or to non educated at school people some kind of inferiority. The lay person look at those people and think how their lives must be! They walk instead of drive a car. They don’t even have electrical devices or watch tv! Their lives must be so out of context! But what they lay person don’t know is how much more the “primitive people” giggles and laughs. How much more they take care of each others.
We think that, the life we are having now is the best one since the rise of man in the face of Earth. The problem is that, so much of advance should be translated in more time for fun, more time for love and, specially, more money in the wallet of everyone. But what we are always getting is more and more bills to pay, less and less quality time with our family. So, like that I don’t think we are really in a way to Heaven. We are more in a way to doomsday.
In a posterior chapter I intent to record something about some non schoolling educated people and persecuted non documented immigrant had proved wrong those unfounded in truth modern conceptions.
03. A LITTLE SOMETHING ABOUT HUMAN GENEALOGY
I heard from a lay person that, “you are relative of somebody only until the fourth degree”. To me it is a little complicated to explain on exactly words in English. But she did mean something like that, You don’t need to consider as relative your cousin if yours common ancestors are from your greatgrandparents generation or beyond. I don’t know from where she took such wrong idea. She mentioned something about religion, which I believe in a possibility of mistake made, or medical source, which I doubt. The reality is quite different.
I have studied the genealogy of my family. So I got some good idea about what I am about to say. And I am a medic veterinarian by train and have a degree from college as animal doctor. One class that I got in trouble were just one that workes with, translating from Portugues language, Animal Development. Is something involving genetics and teachs how to make cows produce more milk, chickens lay more eggs, etc. Yes I had some trouble to complete the course because the math involved and I never was good in memorize formulas. I always felt more confortable rationalizing the problems. Getting in trouble in these case doesn’t mean I didn’t learned. Sometimes we learn better when we make mistakes but revise what went wrong. Well, I did it.
Long ago before time some facts were truthfull for genealogy. Although genealogy wasn’t even thought. And when it came to be observed by some people many mistakes were made. Even today the first thing you think you know about genealogy is that, you come from that family with your last name. This is one of the wrong ideas the lay person have about it. Usually, your last name come from your father, who inherited it from his father and so on. So it is true only if you are thinking about what we call paternal lineage. But genetically it do mean little, sometimes, nothing.
We know that, half and a little plus of our genetics come from our mother, and the rest from our father. Then you have to know that, If your greatgrandfather was marriaged to a woman not related to him, your grandparent will be practically half/half. If your grandfather were marriaged to another woman also not related to him, your father will be one quarter of whatsoever your greatgrandfather was. Then, if your mother is in not way found related to your father, you will receive only 1/8 from your greatgrandfather, although you can still have his last name. And you can pass it on to your children, and children of children and so on. Although your gradchildren could get almost nothing from your greatgrandparents.
If you are a lay person, probably you now that, you have a mother and a father. And also, each one of them have a mother and father. So you got four grandparents. What you expect is to get 8 greatgrandparents. And the thing goes on. From each generation before yours you should doubled the number of your great-great-great… So if you are up to do a little exercise, then pick up your calculator and multiply 2 X 2 and keep multiplying the results by 2 for 33 generations. If you be persistent on that work you will learn that, on the 33rd generation before yours, you are supost have 8,589,934,592 great-greats. Too much for you? From the next generation your big number is more than 17 billions. And so on.
The time! Time is more than precious. If you calculate for each generation an average of 30 years, at the end of 33 generations you will find roughly 1,000 years. It mean that, one thousand years ago you are supost have more than 8.5 billions of 33-great-grandparents. And it only from the generation number 33 not the adding of all of it. Now I say it to you, If you don’t have each and every one of those places fill up by some of your ancestors you don’t exist. And you who know something about the existent population from one thousand years ago shall ask, But how!? One thousand years ago we didn’t have people enough. Even today the whole population in the world is less than 7 billion people!
That question get a simple answear. It is because some of your 33-great-grandparents are your ancestors over and over again. Some are probably millions of times and it is why is possible you be, despite of have so inferior number of ancestor than we should expect.
But the extension of the problem is greater. If you do the opposite calculation, you will get the same numbers. What I mean is that, suppose you have two children. And each one of them have two children. And your four grandchildren have two another children for each one, and so on, for about 33 generations. You are expected to get 8.5 billions and plus of descendants just from that generation. It mean that, if you were born on one thousand of years ago, you were supost to have, at least, such number of offsprings. But, as does not exist enough number of people on Earth, where they are?! It is simple to answear.
If your grandchildren, instead of marriage to someone else out of the family marriages to each other you will have not 8 great-grandchildren as expected but only four. I meant, if you have two grandaughters and two grandsons. To you get the expected number, they must have four children for each couple that they formed. Each time a cousin marriages to another our multiplication is expected to decline. When more generations come to pass and cousins marriages to cousins repeatedly, the average number of children to keep the expectation of your offspring is greater and greater. In some cases some couple had to have thousands or millions of children and it is not yet a simple task for human beings.
The truth is that, not only your ancestors fill up repeatedly the places as your ancestors. They do the same to an enourmous number of another people. They are more or less cousins of yours even if you don’t know them. Let me say that, even if from one thousand years ago you have 10,000 couples as ancestors, which is just a fraction of we should expect, you can be in such kind of genetical trap. It is because your 10,000 couples of ancestors would be already close relatives. What prevented us from be extinct as especies were migration and multiplication without limit. Today, solely migration and marriage between different gentical lineages is the best way to keep out our species from extinction.
If you want to simplify things, then know that. If 300 years ago, on the tenth generation before yours, one 10-great-ancestor couple had 10 children and everyone got marriaged, and also got 10 children and so on untill your generation. Then none of the offsprings from them had marriaged to each other, they were supposed to have 10 billion children, only from your generation. It is that cool?! As the people back then had as much children as nature allowed, we are suppost to have at least a couple of common ancestor from that generation with every and each one of our neighbors.
But the thing is not so simple. Not everyone back then got so many children. Many of our uncles and aunties never had children. Even so, we expect that, all couples back then who had some children who got marriaged and had their own children until our generation must be great-grandparents of thousands, maybe even 1 million people. And I am not talking about any polygamist person.
Then, when some site of genealogy announces that, some personality found to be relative of some historical person through its site is because it is using the popularity of the personality for take advantage of the obvious. If you go after your ancestors, even don’t feeling like you are somebody of respect and, naturally, with some lucky because many of our ancestors didn’t have their records well done, you probably will find some historical figure as your ancestor. And then, the people from nowadays whom is said to be personalities are probably your cousins. Somebody once said about my family: “We come from the blood lineage of kings and kings come from our blood lineage.” It is absolutely true for all of us.
And it is one of the reasons I start to study our genealogy. I am not exactly interested in identify kings in my list of ancestors. I am interested in history itself. Then when I find any personality as my ancestor I will be more interested in to know about his or her history. And it should be considered usefull to anyone nor for some.
People use to say that, “History repeat itself over and over again.” I don’t think so! History can’t do nothing by itself. People repeat their mistakes over and over again because they ignore History. Know History is not a hobby for eccentric people but an way of selfdefense to people.
Another reason that make genealogy important to me is that, the medical implications it means. Despite of we know so much about genetics in our days I think the consequences from our close kinship to most of humanity have been largely ignored by the governments. So I do think people should know better those things to prevent some future collapse of our society. Since we learned that we can’t keep having to many children as our ancestors did because our planet is limited we need to try avoid to have children with preventable problem. Our ancestors could have the luxury to have as many children as they preased and nature permited because some took care of others but if we have one healthier and another lack health, the problem will be greater in such small family. And if two children from the your family lack health?!…
So, when somebody say that we are related to another people for about any number of generations is because he or she don’t know nothing about genetics. What is happen is that, our lives is too limited when we consider it by the space of time. Then we have the privilege to know such a small number of generations of our close relatives. Sometimes we consider more some people less related to us as relative than others more related because we are driven by the wrong idea that, relatives are those that we know.
Based on what I know about genetics and animal management I could say that, human beings are more like a poultry bunch.
And I say it consciously. Most people don’t know how ours scientists got to the poultry lineages that lay eggs and produce white meat for us today. What they did were that, selected the ones that naturally already laid more eggs or grow meat more quickly. Then they crossed the more productive to each other. And they repeatedly did it time after time for years in a roll. They even did it crossing mother to its children and father to its offspring.
After they got what they wanted, it is, a lineage that laid more eggs or grew meat more quickly then started to commercialize it. But they have some secrets. They developed at least two lineages for each blend. So what you get on markets is the crossing of the two of them. Then if you try to start your own business from the chickens you can buy alive, it will not be productive as the original is. Unless you do a knew research which will take more time and money from you. For you have your own business in this area you need to partnership with them. And in this case you will do much of the work and them will share the money you made. It is business as they say.
But what this kind of research also brought to our poultry bunch is that, it’s largely more susceptible to deseases and genetics problems. Also the management the chickens are submited, with so many in a small space, can make they spread the deseases to each other in a blink of eyes. So that is why our poultry bunch need many vaccinations and antibiotics added to its regular food. If you go to a farm that produces chicken eggs or meat you will be asked to use an appropriate garment to protect their business against contaminants that you can delivery, even not been aware of nothing.
As our knowledge about genetics advances we learn how to read what is written in our DNA sequence. And, just after the first researchs, the scientists were amazed by the similitudes that does exist in the DNA of each one of us. Doesn’t matter if you are an Inuit, a Caucasion, a native South African or aborigene from Australia. We are more like poultry bunch in our DNA.
If is that true, why we have so much differences on our appearences? I may have one explanation for these. In our primitive lives we were trained to look at the differences. To look at our similitudes was not so important. It is related to our enviroment. In Brazil we have an example of it. Some plants were used by peoples as basis in their diet. The Orientals had rice. The Middle Easterns got wheat. The North Americans through the Occidental South Americans got corn. And the Brazilians have mandioca (Manihot utilissima).
It is a root like potato with more fiber and plenty of starch. We have many ways for cook it. And it can be delicious. But the plant of mandioca have its identical twin. Brazilians call it mandioca brava. I think we could call wild mandioca. The wild mandioca have one of most effective venoms in itself. It got the cyanide. So a little bit of the plant in your stomach and you will be history. Then know the difference between it was a question of life and death.
Mandioca can bring a large amount of food to your table in a cultivated small area. Even the good mandioca can delivery enough syanide to kill anyone or anything that eats it. The good news is that, cooking it evaporates the poison. Brazilian use to feed their cattle with the natural product which is poisonous. But was learned that, if you slice that potato and expose it to sun light it will be clean. So it is done before the cows eat it.
The most venomous part of the plant is its leaves. But a cleaver group of researchers developed a food supplement in there based on mandioca’s leaves. It is used to enrichment of poor in nourishment foods. A small daily quantity from this supplement in a nutritional inadequate food can quickly deliver good healty to malnourished children. The secret is just to take off the venom before it becomes food.
And it all were learned from the called primitive native Brazilian. Now I can see a relationship between the mandioca leaves and undocumented immigrants. If you try to look them with less prejudice you can take off what you think is venom and could make from them a glorious future to United States. Although, I am sure about that, the venom is in the eyes of the people who got prejudice in themselves and not in the undocumented immigrants themselves. Later I will talk more about this issue.
The prejudicial people were intelligent to detect their differences in the faces of others but not enough to learn separate what is different for bad from the difference with not malice.
All enviroment had so many others examples of such things. People everywhere had to look carefully at the landscape before get out of their caves. Predators are known for to merge to the enviroment and not be detected. Who were not able to look hard at the differences probably had not any chance to pass enheritance to us.
So the problem is not because we are so different from each other. Sometimes, back in Brazil, I was often mistaken by my cousins. Even in United States is common people look at me and to think I am an European American from old times. These can be like craziness but I intent to be back to these fact. My close relatives and frieds that I had in visual contact for long time never mistook me for somebody else. But those who had occasional contact just kept doing the same mistake. Even close relatives with less contact did it.
It can be easily verified by parents who have identical twins. If they are identical how to make the difference from one and another? Minimal difference are the answear. You need to have all of your sense in alert to look at those. And it is a natural sense to anybody but you can be trained to enhance your natural sense. Depending on the culture you live on it can be largely used to drive prejudice against the differences. Prejudice is not a natural or rational sense. It is learned from devious cultures.
Maybe, some dislike on what is different is not an intentional prejudice. Is just a natural reaction learned from millennia. What became intentional prejudice is the person start fight against reasoning. I mean, when you start see your skin is different from your neighbor and you know that, it is not any sign of danger but you accommodate on your first impression keeping the warning sign on, even start taking actions against your neighbors as they were really theating your life or your possessions.
By the way, collor of skin is something linked to the enviroment. You have dark skin because of your ability to live on “caliente” tropical and equatorial enviroment. Is just a protein that almost all of us got the skill for produce it. Is called melanin. It works as a natural sun blocker. Lighter skin only mean that you had ancestors who lived long long time in a less luminous enviroment. Then they were selected by nature to let more sun light come through their skins for that they be able produce D vitamin.
The problem is that, sometimes a good thing have some collateral damages. If somebody got pale face together with blue eyes and think it is a great advantage, can slow dow your horses. Blue eyes mean not melanin in your iris. Maybe it don’t make your vision bad but can bring you earlier cataract, if you have the tendency for this illness, if you be exposed to more sun light than you deserve.
If a lighter skin people be submited to an hot enviroment for thousands of generations and the selection be natural, at the end of it every and each of their descendant will have a darker skin. The same is true if a people with darker skin be submited to conditions like in the North Pole. If they refuse to evolve on the apropriated way, they will be history. Unless the darker skin find another source of D vitamin like in pills and the lighter skin people start using a natural sun blocker. Otherwise the lighter skin have to have their activity only at night and sleep on day light.
The prejudicial people are clever enough for see differences but not enough clever to be or to make the difference. Later I may get back to this topic.
04. WHAT IS BE AN EUROPEAN?
Probably, even Americans know that European is someone who was born in Europe. Even they don’t know exactly what or where Europe is. I am not say it by myself but just making fun of myself as it is wild spreaded the American geographical ignorance around the globe. But I am not only talking about the people who live in Europe today. Maybe I should name this chapter as, From Where Did The European People Came? This is a most interesting question.
Fistly, not only European but the Human race came from Africa. If you don’t believe and can prove this theory wrong you probably will win the Nobel Prize just after you turn public your new knowledge.
Sometimes I saw people screamming against this and others scientific theories because dislike or it appear to contradict their old religious beliefs. But I also saw the same people watching tv and believing that, some images were generated in Japan and almost instantly can be watched in United States. They also are capable of believe in doctors taking your heart from your chest, doing some surgical procedure, and reimplant it for you get another chance of life. Does not matter. Those things only are possible today because the long time gathering of knowledge scientists came up with.
I know very well that, scientists make mistakes every day. I don’t have issues about it. We all make mistakes. It is in human nature. The problem is when somebody make any mistake and don’t learn nothing from it. And it is one reason we need some of us know better about human history because tracking all mistakes maybe you can try to avoid repeat it. One good example of it is that, in United States the population was learning to let go prejudicial feelings but looks like this illness were able to reinvent itself and rapidly overcomes the good will of part of the population. It is back now. And is more strong than ever.
So, is really convenient believe in some scientific sayings but not that, all human beings had their origins in Africa. And that, every and any human being is close relative to each other. I don’t know what drive people not believe in such things but I am pretty sure have a big amount of prejudicial feeling on deny it.
From Africa came not only one species of human being but many. But anyone else besides Homo sapiens sapiens is now extinct. The scientists attributed our endurance to our ability of adaptation. Adaptation can be translated as capacity of to solve problems. Not exactly as in math but is something like that. Sometimes it does not depend on our will. For example, it is happen when we encounter an epidemic situation where some new illness take down most of us but some survive because those got an inherent defense against that bad agent.
Then the survivors pass on to their offspring that ability. We are plenty of examples of adaptations inherents to human beings. We live almost in every type of climate on Earth and it is possible only because we are able of modify our body accordling to each different ambient. But we need to say that too: “Slow down the stand because the saint were cast out of clay.” Its just a Brazilian saying for be careful and make no mistakes. Some adaptations need time for be effective and nobody is prepared for every sudden big change.
Let’s though be back to our issue. From Africa all of us came. And some migrated to an area between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea. That region is called Caucusus. And this first group of people who made their dwell there is called Caucasian. Caucasian thrived there and probably on nearby areas untill 75,000 years ago. Around this date is well known that a supervolcano erupted in Indonisia. Scientists are not sure if only it or something else were responsible for start a new ice age era.
Scientists theorized that, the supervolcano erupted and launched so much dust and gases in the air that it blocked some amount of sunlight. And the polution stood on for an enough time to down the average temperature in Earth for some years. And it drove nature to keeping making snow but not melting it. When the atmosphere were clean again the sunlight returned but it were deflected by the now bigger Earth’s white surface. We know that, white sufaces reflects light, dark surfaces absorbs it. So Earth entered in a vicious cycle with no return.
Down the temperature went. More snow came. Bigger the white surface becomes. More sunlight was deflected. Then the winter’s time went longer and colder. At 70,000 years ago the scientists can measure a clear sign that Earth was again in a new Ice Age. Cycles of lower and higher temperatures left their signatures on Earth’s landscape.
Our planet is just like a book with layers of sediments as pages. If you don’t take dust out of your house for one entire year you can imagine what will be at the end of it. Earth also works in the same way. What happen on its surface for thousands of years transforms in sediment at lakes and ocean’s bottons. If it be for long time under pressure can become hard as a rock. And the layers can be distinguished from each other depend on the climate where it was formed. And each time it were formed can be measured by some atoms present in the material.
So as the planet became colder it made food less available to many animals, included human beings. We were in a brink of extinction. Some scientists once says that, they calculated around 1,500 people or so alive just a little time after the supervolcano erupted. Today, some wild animals are returning from this condition with the help of animal protection foundations. Human beings at the time have not protection besides themselves adaptability. But they also used some of intelligence.
Now you have to learn a great lesson from it. At that time we had at least two Homo Sapiens sapiens lineages, the pure African and Caucasian, struggling to keep life going on in Earth. Even the Neanthertal culture managed to do it so but not for too long. It just proved that, some of us, does not matter our genetic background, are made to be resiliant. And all of us who live today in Earth are simbols of this resiliancy from our most ancient ancestors.
But, everyone of us must think about it and try to answear this simple question, If such kind of disaster strick us again how would you manage to keep your life and pass on to your offsprings the prof of your existence? If it happen again I must say that, probably, more than 90% of us will not survive. But the only way to try to keep your own genes around for the next million year is to give this counsel to your kids: be the most diversified as you can and teach your children and children of your children do the same. Stay in love with diversification and put any racial prejudice you learn from your ancestors behind you. To be racial pure is to take a disnecessary risk.
Rather than say if I better should say when human being get back to a situation of near extinction the first victims will be the poultry bunch. Unfortunately, the scientists already know that many of enormous disasters that happen in the past will be happen again so it is not a question of if but when. And this answear nobody knows. When the poultry bunch be forced to live from what nature brings it will not be able to do so because the modifications that scientist did on those animals made it totally dependent on human beings. Is possible that the same come to human being himself because now almost everybody is not linked to natural conditions anymore. For the worse, a disruption such as an eruption of a supervulcano can alter nature itself in a such way that a feel natural things can survive for keep sustenable life by nature.
From the North Pole came a big wall of ice. As layer after layer of snow gathered there it became too heavy. Then the preasure made the glaciation walk down in direction to subtropical places. In a sloth’s paces, year after year after year, it was gaining the landscape. Human beings were clever enough to know that, they had to look for shelter in a warmer place. And they were driven away southbound direction. And the population were divided in groups that ended in South India, probably in Middle East, and along the road through Iberian Peninsula. Basically it means Portugal and Spain.
Let me now just take by loan from the Webster’s II New Riverside Dictionary – Revised Edition – the definition of Caucasian: “Of or being a proposed human racial classification distinguished by light to brown skin color and including peoples indigenous in Europe, N. Africa, W. Asia, and India – n, 1, A native or inhabitant of the Caucasus. 2, A member of the Caucasian racial classification.”
What’s wrong with such definition? Firstly we now know that human being can not be classified by race. Yes! For we divide human being in groups of races we need certain amount of differences accumulated on some group and it can be verified in our DNA, but doesn’t have enough differences in it. We are just too similar, like a poultry bunch. Color of skin can’t be used in our case. Skins in Caucasians is not distinguished by light to brown skin color. If you get to some places in India you can verify that, their skin very from light to black color and don’t end in brown.
Another thing, Caucasians were the first inhabitants of North America and their presence in here is measured from, at least, 17,000 years ago. And it is one of the big mistakes scientists made along History. The old ones theorized that human being was not able to come from Asia to America unless by foot and around 7,000 years ago when the meltdown of the Ice Age made a natural passage from Russia to the Great Plains in United States. Then they theorized that, those classified as Asian people was the first because in Americas after Europeans arrived had only Asians around.
But now is wild known that, long before, Asians Caucasian had been here. But is possible that, Caucasian in North America became extinct even before Asians came. Nobody is really sure yet. A mega fauna which did existed in North America at the Ice Age was also extinct. Sabre toot tiger, mammoth, gigantic slots and car size armadillos were present in North America untill a catastrophic event happen swipping up the big fauna. Man could be among those. What we know for sure is that, man was here many thousand years before we had the passage between Asia and North America open. And Asiatic people could be among them.
Another thing is that, the characteristics of Asiatic people starts to show in the records only from 25,000 years ago. What it suggests is that, they came from a Caucasian family who once lived in Mongolia. From there they multiply and took over Asia, Pacific Islands and Americas. Japan is a good example of both presence. The completely Caucasian people lived there untill 2,000 year ago when the Asiatic came. Even in the begining of the XX century had a small population of native Caucasian there but they were absorbed by the bigger number of Asian looking people.
One more extra information. The first South Americans were not Caucasian nor Asian. They were African like people. It is shown in a skeleton found in Santa Luzia City, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Older than 10,000 year, this fossil was revived through forensic techniques and had the face of Africans or Aborigenes from Australia. And if you take a look at your Mapa Mundi you can imagine that, If ice was so present at the Northern parts of the Globe is possible that it could be even more present in the Southern parts. It is because, at the North Pole you don’t have any land but in the South Pole we have an entire continent.
Old scientists appear to tend ignore how resourceful any human being is. So they don’t like to imagine anyone from more than 10,000 years ago been able to navegate long distances or use the ice edges to do it. But the edge of ice around South Pole could be attractive to Africans because its plenitude of food. At the Ice Age it was much more close to South Africa and people from there could navegate to the edge of the ice cap and by just following the food or by accident ended up in Australia and South America.
But in certain times of the years the climate were not welcoming to human life, so they had to migrate northbound. And it could explain how Aborigene Australian got there or in Brazil. And they walked far far away from South Pole. I can indicate a page on Internet for you make up a better conclusion. It is: http://www.andaman.org/BOOK/chapter54/text-PedraFurada/text-PedraFurada.htm
. Is about the work of professor Niede Guidon in Brazil. It explain what evidences are that man inhabits South America before 36,000 years ago. Maybe 50,000 as professor Guidon believe.
May does exist other possibilities how to explain the presence of human beings in South America in times so prior than we are used to believe. If you look at the map you wont see exactly what was 50,000 thousands years ago because the small islands were bigger and the space between continents was smaller. Even so, the distance between it would be enormous to travel by primitive boats. Although the distance between Brazilian Northeneast and West Africa is the least, I think that, the travel via Southern Atlantic was more likely to happen because ice would help as reference to where to go.
Let’s though be back to our main issue in this chapter. Around 40,000 years ago Spain and Portugal was the better places in Europe to people live the entire year despite the cold. The same group of people found their way across Gibraltar and dwell in North Africa. At that time, they were living in the rushest stage of Ice Age.
So much of water were transformed in ice that, at the edge of the glaciation in the line of New York City we got an wall of ice one mile thick. The line which comes through New York also pass on Portugal, Spain, Italy and over Greece. Since were much less liquid water around, the ocean’s level was much lower than today. So around about today’s shores had no water. To see the shore line in some cases you would need to walk more than 100 miles into the today’s seas and in dry feet.
Even the Black Sea didn’t exist at the time. It was because the Mediterranean Sea was so lower that the communication between it was cut. What we had on its place was a much smaller body of sweet water. It was fed by the rivers around it. As the atmosphere preasure is higher in lower places and it turns to an higher temperature, in that time it could be a good place to live. But a good part of dry land in that Europe is now the botton of its seas. So is possible that, some evidences of existing at the time prehistorical primitive civilizations can be found if we dig in at seas bed sediments.
So, from 40,000 to 13,000 years ago, Europeans were living on only at its southern parts. Around the year 13,000 ago something happen and the ice starts to meltdown. Some scientist theorized that, some iced deposit of gas at the ocean’s botton must have been ignated by a smaller volcanic eruption and it boiled at the botton of the North Atlantic. It produces to much CO2 and it have the ability on to absorb heat from sunlight to warm out the atmosphere. Then the glaciation start to move back to North Pole direction. 10,000 years ago, the big fat European family start to migrate again. Now their movement was northbound.
Now use your imagination and make the links. As human beings are able of multiply themselves like I wrote before, I mean, just a couple having 2 children, who get 2 others each and so on untill the 33th generation, then it could become 8.5 billions in just 1 thousand years, you must understand that in Iberian Peninsula the European were sheltered for 30,000 years. What you expect from it is that, The first group that went there were at least close relatives. But Spain and Portugal together, plus some area under the sea, are not so big and not too small. That group must were organized like a tribe.
After a while they probably were some thousands of people and still cousins. But as their numbers were added they must subdiveded themselves in others tribes. Although they stood close relatives and cousins it is inherent to alive beings have what is called variability. One practical example of it is that, my parents had nine children. Then each one of us, even having much of similitude also, have our differences. I am taller than everyone else. Some are short. My skin is an European like color and one of our brothers have darker skin. Some have curled hair and others waved. Some have dark and others brown hair, although as children the last ones were clear blonded hair. If we look at each item from our bodies we can see multiple combinations.
Lets though imagine that. Our parents were kings and decided to divide the nation in 9 kingdons and each one of us would become new kings and queens. More, if in the division of that kingdom the king stablishs that, the people from the old kingdom would be divided by its looks and the most look alike to the new queens and kings should follow them by their own similitudes with each new sovereign. In this case, the tallest, more European looking, waved hair etcetera had to follow me. And so on to the others.
Imagine though if we stood separated not by a generation but for thousands of years. The descendants of each one of us are expected to be more like ourselves but what should be most visible should be our differences. It should be a shocking meeting again in a reunion of our descendants. Some could never seen another people so taller in their whole lives. Others should never seen people in a such kind of dark skin. And as I said before, the differences could immediately sound the alarm to many. Remember, we are conditioned by nature to identify first the differences and to link it as warning of danger.
A part of it was just what happen to European people. The History didn’t flow like that because about 10.000 years ago the people sheltered in Iberian Peninsula start to move to places more northbound but they kept a cultural link between them. Their religion were alike, they had meetings in some geographical points at their annual festivals, they didn’t have overpopulation and had more wild land to conquest. Also, aroud 7,000 years ago the Atlantic cost worked like an free way to trade from North Africa to Scandinavia. But at some time they totally forgot about be offsprings from one same group of people.
Before I forget, the scientific community is yet to find out if had or not genetical crossing between Caucasians and another kind of human that florished from Middle East to the end of Europe. They are the Neanthertal people. As the Caucasian advanced in the European landscape that people appear to disappear. But have not enough evidence to say that, they made war and Neanthertal became extinct. What evidence show is that, in some cases they lived nearby each other. And does exist a skeleton of a child, from 25-28,000 thousands years ago found in Portugal that appear to be an hibrid between the two human families. Then European can have a little from Neeanthertal but not enough for anybody say it yet.
Even if that possibility is true what I wrote above still valid because about 30,000 year ago neeanthertal man had vanished from the records. So at that time the European population was last gathering in Spain and Portugal. Then the families must have exchanged genetical material between themselves and everybody got the same inheritance. Some could have a little more than others but not enough to make any difference.
What happen after is the big deal. Human beings start to develop all around the world what we call civilizations. Around the Mediterranean Sea we have the Foenicians or people of the sea. Greece came later and named the rest of Europeans as Keltai. Romans came after and inherit the same prejudice adapted to their languase, Celtae. In our language it is translated as Barbarian.
Why the name? Was just because Barbarian were a people more rural than urban. They didn’t learn yet how to write their History. They use to bring their food to their mouth with their nives not spoons or forks. The civilized people would never do something like that! Instead, civilized people started to hunt and make war against them. Just because civilized people wanted their lands, whatsoever they were able to produce and to make slaves out of them. And with such intention Rome became the superpower on its time.
Rome conquered the whole land around the Mediterranean Sea making from it its own lake. It even conquered England. England, France, Italy, Portugal, Spain, Greece are among the land conquered by Rome. Mostly the European from the Northern parts were saved by have nothing but slaves valiable to the Roman interest. Then Rome didn’t conquer North Europe but made incursions there to hunt slaves.
And Rome implanted its Pax Romana. It meant that you are under Roman authority and had to follow its lead or otherwise you could be swept from existence. Under Roman lead you had to pay taxes but get nothing in return. Rome put its troops in your land as an excuse to protect you against alien invasion but mainly the troops were used against yourself interests. You had not right to have a different opinion.
Although was like that, in one issue Roman administration was more open to democracy. You could follow your religion since it didn’t represented any obstacle to its interests. Even Jews could practice their religion despite they couldn’t worship the emperor. At first Romans were against Christianity, having or not reason for that, but later the Emperor Constantius made Christanity the official religion to the whole Empire. And it was not for good. What he wanted was that, everybody were subdued to himself and his followers.
From there on the Empire start to disarray. Christianity were divided in various creeds. Constantius wanted a Church behind himself and wanted settle down the differences. For that he ordered the bishops to do a council at the city of Nicaea. After the Council of Nicaea they published the Creed of Nicaea that instituted everybody in the Empire had to be Christian and follow the dogma of the Trinity as statuted by the Creed of Nicaea. The opositors to these dogma as it was imposed were the Arian.
The Arians gain this name around the time of the Council of Nicaea because the main defender of these Theology was called by the name Arius. The Arian Theology was older than Arius and by obvious reasons knew that, have a Superior Entity which were not created. And the first Christian obvious knew that, Jesus was a creature begotten by that Entity. It is cristal clear through the words attributed to Jesus himself at John, 14:28, “for my Father is greater than I.” If it is so, then we can’t deceive ourselves saying Jesus and God are the same because not even God is Greater than Himself.
The Arian Theology were considered as heretic by the first Council of Nicaea at 325 and later were reaccepted but it may have contributed to the fall of Rome. Even Jesus had warned his followers about the divided kingdom. What I am saying here is that, is important to allow different opinions among us, if in a respectfull way, because you can be alerted of your mistakes by somebody else. If everybody thought everything in the same way you would never know when you is wrong, mistaken or deceived.
When you try to impose to another something which is not essential you will make enemies by an action that is not worthfull. In every dictatorship must have one group of people that believe in their supremacy into decide what are the best solutions in name of others. It is just a kind of selfishness, to attribute to oneself the destiny of others without even hear and be open to do what the others also want.
So, untill the year 381 Arianism were tolerated and Rome were administrated by Arian Emperors. Even they sent some clergymen to teach Arian Christianism to Barbarian peoples outside the Empire’s borders. Then, at that time, in the first Council of Constatinople, Arianism were again considered heretic and the followers were persecuted. Much for a mere coincidence, the Barbarian lead by the Goths invaded and conquered the Empire at 411.
Roman Empire was divided into two parts. Goths took Rome itself for them but the east part of the Empire with the capital in Constantinople or Bizantium stood stand. Later on it was renamed as Byzantine Empire.
The Goths divided their conquest into two parts. On West Europe which includes Central and South France and Spain plus Portugal were taken by the Visigoths. And Italy and nearby lands were taken by Ostrogoths. Since the beginning of Ostrogoths administration the things didn’t worked well. They tried to conciliate things like be a stranger power governing another people in these people own land. The people had ties with the Roman Constantinople which was aways trying to conspire against Goths. Goths was Arian and the population was Nicaean oriented religion. They was open to tolerate different opinion about it but the others not.
Historians classify this period as Middle Ages, sometimes it is remembered as Dark Ages. Ostrogoths were not long in power although their offspring stood in charge. Visigoths stood for longer. The splendor of ancient Rome was gone. Europe became a place for yearly wars. Each separated people trying to subdue its neighbors or trying to freed themselves from their despotism.
Franks were another people from the same background as the Goths in Germany but were long ago allowded to live in Northern France by Roman Empire. Then they opposed to the Goths invasion and were defeated by them. Later on this people became the solely superpower in Europe. But something else happen before it.
Muhammad started his Messianic preaching in the Middle East and 100 years later the Muslins Empire was the biggest ever. It elongated from India to North Africa. In 711 the Visigoths were in warfare against each other because succession disputes. Muslins seized the moment, crossed Gibraltar and invaded Europe from Spain to France. Immediately after came the reaction against it.
One of the Frank’s leaders was Charles Martel or Charles the Hammer. He organized the counter attack and were in part successfull. He stop the advance of the enemy forces and made them retreat to Spain. From there they were unable to remove the invasor.
Later on, the grandson of Charles the Hammer, Charlemagne, was in charge and conquered whole Central Europe. From Italy to Germany. Only some small kingdons were left out. At his time, the Pope in Rome was just a puppet in the hands of the Lombardians. Charlesmagne became not a regular Catholic but an extreme kind of it. Then he defeated the Lombardians and put himself under the blessing of the Roman Catholic Church. At 800 he was crowned as Sacred Roman Emperor. It was an attempt to restore the Roman Empire in the helm of Catholic Church.
It didn’t went far. The Barbarians had the tradition on partnership. All sons of a king was also kings. And each one had the right of to take one part of the kingdom for themselves. Just after was common they make war against themselves to unify the kingdom again under one ruller. The best thing which could happening from it was when they agreed on just create new kingdons and leave the others alone. So, along the time, Europe was again more and more divided. But the real power ended in the Pope’s hands. So the Catholic Church became the real superpower in Europe.
Charlemagne was a king that some wanted santify after his death. But alive he was capable of ordered the death of 10,000 Saxons because they refused let go their beliefs on Paganism. He is considered the father of France and Germany’s monarchies. Catholic he was but also had many wives. He was a schooling non educated person but created the regular system of schooling and ordered his children, even daughters, to be educated. He is more than one controversy.
One information about his reign or his son, Charles, the Pious, that is useful is that, he was unable to reconquest Spain and Portugal and had his only defeat in life when was retreating from Spain and the rear of his army were surprised by the Basques. Later on Charles, the Pious, was able to reconquest Barcelona and the around about became a Frankish Kingdom of Aragon.
What I have to mention about Europeans is that, they forgot about their primary origins. They divided themselves in little families. They named their families as Saxons, Bretons, Gauls, Goths, Lombards, Basques, Luzitans, Franks, Vikings and many many others. They created many opressions against each other and exported it through the America’s invasion and the colonial exploitation in every corner of the globe. They recreated slavery and worsened it. Europeans were able of create also the Inquisition. They exported wars like the Napolean’s wars, I and II World Wars.
The present charpter was designed to point out some bad dids of Europeans. I don’t ignore their good did’s. But I think is necessary to look at the dark side of Europeans because much of the today’s prejudice in the world come from them or their offsprings. So if the prejudice that they feel against others is born from any feeling of superiority, the prejudicial people must be remembered about this dark side. Because if you don’t recognize your weakness and don’t fight against it, it always will turn against yourself.
05. SOMETHING ABOUT EUROPEAN GENEALOGY
Not long ago I start to take a look at myself genealogy. It is a tradition in my family back in Brazil and my father was kind of inspiration to whole family on it. My studies begun just at his and my mother 50 anniversary of marriage. My wife and I just got the notice that we got our green cards in november, 2001. We went Brazil for the first time after 8 years not been allowed to go there. I mean, we could go but had not guarantee to come back. In January 10, 2002 was the 50 anniversary.
The commemorations took place on December because at January 7, 2002, we had another aniversary of marriage. Was the 60th aniversary of my aunt Odila and uncle Eurico. That day was also my father’s birthday. So we had not little to commemorate.
Aunt Odila was my father’s sister until he died in 2003. And her daughter, Ivania, had authorship a book, Family’s Coelho Genealogic Tree. We had grown up with the book at home but never taked a close look in it. Sometimes it felt not necessary because much of the content in the book we already knew by knowing much of the people recorded in there. If we didn’t knew some personally, because they passed away long before we were born, they was still in our memories through our family’s around the fire meetings. I think a can name it like that but mostly of that meetings was at my mother’s father house or many others relative’s kitchen. In this case the fire was present in the stove, where the wood was light.
Kitchen in our big family is a symbol and a way of life. Does not matter if the others use or not appropriated roons to do their meetings. Sometimes our birth place get a little cold, something under 60 Fahrenheit, even around 32. But our meetings around the fire would easily make us forget about the cold. The human heat ignited by the continous laughter was what driven our talking. And always the issue had something to do with our ancestors and their relatives.
Then, at my aunt Odila’s house, my father had the idea of buy more samples of the book. My aunt gave him some and he gave me one. I brough it with me and start to study some details that I never took notice before. Specially how runs our kinship with almost 90% of the population in our town and others town around. But the book was lack on many of our family’s branchs genealogical tree. We call it Coelho’s Family but these name is not but a mention to one of our ancestors who was born in the middle of 1,700s.
This ancestor himself was from Portugal and marriaged to a Brazilian woman. They had five children and two of them were marriaged. At that time, our birth state in Brazil was less than one hundred years old in terms of a bigger European colonization. The Minas Gerais State (General Mines) is what the name says. A big place, just about something less than Texas, with a cord of mountains lined up in what is called Serra do Espinhaco (Spine’s Mountain Hanger) from south to north. There was the place where gold, silver, iron, diamonds and much more stood together untill Europeans came.
So, at the fist half of 1,700s, Brazil had its Gold Rush and Minas Gerais was the place. As a Colony, Portugal was in charge and tried to block migration to there. It wanted to control everything but it was not any easy. The rain forest dominated everything. The rivers, except for some, were difficult to navegate. It flowed to all four and intermediary directions. Sometimes the state is even called by the name, Brazil’s Water Tank. It is where most high altitude in Brazil take its place and its waters feed the rivers which make contact with many others states in South and Brazilian Northeast. Among the problems, some more hot places in the state was full of unknown tropical diseases.
Then Europeans, specially Portuguese people, and Brazilians from others colonies disorderly invaded the place. And they started to bring African slaves. The native Brazilian was there long before anyone else and became subject to prey for slavery, forced conversion and the women was used to marriage after that.
Our genealogy in that book starts on a little later, when the gold became rare and when the Mineiros (miners, the inhabitants of Minas Gerais) started to be more farmers than miners. The Portuguese ancestor who brought our family name, which many of us still using, had the name of Jose Coelho de Magalhaes. Coelho means rabbit. And I will talk later about the reason that name start to be used. Maybe, at the end of his life, he became known by the nickname, Jose Coelho da Rocha.
Later on I learned that his wife, Eugenia Rodrigues Rocha, also called Eugenia Maria da Cruz, was a daughter of Giuseppe Nicatsi da Rocha and Maria Rodrigues. He was an half/half Italian and Portuguese. But untill now we don’t know nothing about his ancestors. Maria Rodrigues was Brazilian and some say she got others surnames which was, de Magalhaes Barbalho. Just like in my name but I am not sure about that. We have reasons to doubt it and one reason to admit that, at least the surname Barbalho was present in the area she probably was born in. But I am keeping looking for evidences to prove how was composed her real name.
What I am interested now is to go back to the issue that entitled the present chapter. We had a tradition on that, our ancestor Jose Coelho de Magalhaes came from another Portuguese named Manoel Rodrigues Coelho. These Portuguese person was a rich man, who got his fortune from gold mining and went Minas Gerais State on the earlier days of the Gold Rush there. Then the tradition is lack on timing because we know that, both of them was born in Portugal. Jose was born around 1,750. Manoel became a public servant at Ouro Preto City, in 1,719. That time he had to be around his 25 or more years old because he took a good position.
It is a little bit too complicated for a man at that time be around his 60s years old, rich and take a risk on to travel through the ocean, be remarriaged, have a son and get back one more time. On that time the expectation on to be successfull on any travel through the ocean was not more than 50/50. The things had to be like that because we have evidences that he was in Brazil later on. Manoel made big contributions to the construction of the Bom Jesus do Matosinhos Sanctuary, in Congonhas City. It is the most recognizable monument from that era in Minas Gerais State, and still been a mark in the marketing of the state. It beginning to be constructed in 1,757 and it ended around 30 years later.
Then I start looking elsewhere for our ancestor origins. And I found someone with the same name, probably the same age, in a internet site. The site is named geneall.net – Portugal, and gathers genealogical information from the whole Europe and elsewhere. It is about ten years old but got records from old documents, maybe, since the activity of genealogy started on Earth. They don’t have everything but just enough data to amaze any lay person.
From the Middle Ages or before what they got is something about the called noble families. But what is a noble family? Is nothing more than a regular family with titles. Then I say why it’s that so. It comes from since our tribal origins. A tribe is necessarily a group of people with many kinship ties. Scientists calculated ancient Egyptians that constructed the Great Pyramids in a number around 100,000 persons. But ancient Egyptian was a nation, not only a tribe.
And, as far as I know yet, I have more than 100,000 relatives and counting. No. I am not talking about people that I know being my relative but I can’t point out any of their ancestors. I am talking just about the direct descendants of the pioneers that populated the cities around my birth place. So, in ancient times my family would be called a nation, not a family.
Among us have some that have good positions as public servants. Others got their positions because their diplomas at colleges. Some got rich as business people. We have those as clergypeople and whatsoever you can say it, they are successful people. But, most of us are just common people. As they say in Brazil, “I have rich people as my relative but they don’t know me, and I also have poor people as relative but I don’t know them.”
Nowadays if somebody say he or she works as weld nobody pay attention on them. 1,000 years ago they would be from the most noble family. That is what made the called nobility then and it came through the ages by genealogy. And nobility is not a exclusivity to Europeans. All around the world we had this kind of differenciation that separated some from the others. Although for too many of us looks like in Africa or ancient Americas you had not nobility it comes from ourselves ignorance about History. The Europeans crushed all existent cultures on those continents and monopolized the right on be noble. It was made easier because mostly of those crushed cultures didn’t use writings.
Nobility doesn’t necessarily mean a noble character. Sometimes it is better applied to an adventurer, soldier of fortune or one who unscrupulously seeks wealth and social position, as defined in the dictionary.
The justification for the existence of genealogy in ancient times had everything to do with succession. You need to think about it. If someone was king and had many children and just one of them had the immediate right to be the successor, the others was put aside but not away. They had to see if the new king was able or not to also have children and if his children would be able to be king. If so, everyone would still be in the line as eventual successor. We need to remember that, wasn’t uncommon that an epidemic situation or an disastrous war wipe out most of the noble people. Then, the next on the line would be choose by the proximity of his kinship with the dead king.
But sometimes the line of successor was never broken for generations. And the brothers and sisters of the first king had themselves their offspringhood. At first, they was usually named for the best positions around the throne. Then their children was downgraded in favor of the children of the king. The grandchildren was dawngraded some more unless they marriaged to someone else equally graduated. Keeping the downgrade, five or ten generations later, most of the offsprings of the first king would be not more than simple peasant. And as a peasant they had to marriage to another from the same kind. It happens to most of us.
In some cases it was why some families were more used to marriage to their kin. In Brazil the lack of information about it let the people start make fun on these in that saying, Is for not spread the fortune. But the intention was not to loose link with the royal blood. By the ignorance those families was putting their offspring at risk get degenarative deseases.
Well, let be back to the issue again! Some of the offsprings of my ancestors, Jose Coelho de Magalhaes and Eugenia Rodrigues Rocha are already recorded in the site geneall.net. Based on some data that I gave, the first generation after them are also posted as descendents of the Jose Coelho de Magalhaes, the nobleman. Before it he was without family. But in reallity I can’t yet say they are the same person. But it does not matter so much. Why?
If the nobleman is not our ancestor he must be our relative. If not him must be another person linked to the royal families that passed on to us the many surnames we have in our genealogy. As I demonstrated before any person born 1,000 years before us could easily be ancestors to everyone alive in Earth today. But because there was borders and prejudice since before 1,000 years ago, just a small number of ancestors must have generated the whole population of each country today. This little number can be thousands or even couple millions. It does not matter.
Let take it as example. One thousand years ago Portugal must had less than a million persons. And there must had at least hundreds or couple thousands called noblepeople. Despite of some immigration occurred along History to there, it didn’t changed anything because the newcomers easily were marriaged to the initial families. So, our ancestor Jose Coelho de Magalhaes, born 750 years latter, would be a totally anomaly if he had not familial ties with them. And his surnames are the most significant evidence of those ties.
Must be easy we be simultaneously descendants of every and each person who lived and made offspring in Portugal a thousand years ago. Since we know that, is possible we have more than 8.5 billions ancestors living in that time, we have more than enough space for be offspring of every and each one Portuguese 33 greats (grandparents) from that time plus a great quantity of Africans and native South Americans. I just wont include here the Asians from India to Japan and Islands around Pacific and Indian Oceans because we have not data that link us to them as our ancestors. Based on my calculations we have enough room to be offsprings of every and each noble and poor person from Iberian Peninsula repeatedly many many times, from 1,000 years ago.
Now I need to do a briefing on the main events that made the Iberian and Portuguese genetics. As I said before the people living in, now and then, Iberian Peninsula was descendants from the group of Caucasians that stablished themselves in that area since around 40,000 years ago. Around 10,000 years ago some moved toward north and populated Europe. At the time before Chist the genetics kept unchanged.
The people which lived in Portugal was called Luzitani. And their cousins lived around. They first had the cultural influence from Celtic culture. Later on they stood as Celtic but had a little influence of Greek and Cartaginean cultures. But those was cultural influences nothing that could make any changing in the genetics. After Romans conquered Cartago they were resistants to Roman influence.
From 219 to 19 B.C. the Luzitani were the most ferocious battle frontier to Rome. Romans born wouldn’t be happy to be deployed in around Luzitani territory. But in 19 B.C., Julius Caesar with help of treason conquered that territory. So it became the Roman Province of Hispania Luzitania. But the name was short lived because the differences between the inhabitants of both territories. It were divided in two, Hispania and Luzitania.
Curious fact occurred around 70 A.D. After the fierce repression on the first Jewish revolt in Israel, Romans sent part of the israeli people to live in Iberian Peninsula. They called themselves by the name of Saphardins with mean that they now was living far way from home. Now imagine that, if 1,000 is enough time for a couple have so much offsprings the Jews first comers there had almost 1,000 years for be ancestors of ours ancestors from 1,000 years ago. And they were not just a couple but, at least, a couple thousands.
But their number was small compared to the whole population living in Iberian Peninsula that could be around 300,000. And the Jews multiply themselves in both ways by marriaging to each others and converting the Celtic Pagans Iberian inhabitants. Like that, the Jewish community became important part of Iberian life. Although their presence didn’t change much the genetics of the population as a whole.
Another significant influence came around 400 years later. With the Goth invasion of Roman Empire, Iberian Peninsula was taken too. With the Goths came a people named Suevi. They installed themselves at the North Atlantic Cost of Spain and Portugal. They found the first considered true Medieval reign in there which was called Gaelecia. They must had been blonded hair because later on the word galego in Portuguese became synonym to blond.
I don’t know exactly the genetical impact they had on Iberian genetics. But some had said that, the Goths and their allies were around 10% of the local population. If so, their impact was not so big and not too small. The Iberian people was long ago cuturally Roman and Catholic Christian since and after Constantius reign. And the Suevi people was absorbed by their cultural background. The Suevi reign endured for almost 200 years until be conquered by the Visigoths around the year 700.
Two more interesting information. Must be before that time it had a migration from the Gaelecia area and populated Ireland and some parts near in England and Scothland. This migration must have occurred before the conversion to Catholicism because Ireland and others parts populated by that stood culturally Celtic. Even the modern studies of DNA had indicated that, the Ireland and English peoples are the most close relatives of Portuguese and Spanish in whole Europe. Genetically those people are just like cousins. And the blonded hair people from the old Gaelecia moved also in great numbers to Brazil at it’s Gold Rush times, in Minas Gerais, on 1,700s.
On 711 the Muslins came and conquered almost the whole Iberian Peninsula. Later on I had to be back to these issue because what they didn’t conquered was only a small part called by the names of Cantabria and Asturias. It is a mountaineous terrain which stretchs from the Pyrinees in North Spain. In there, Pelagio from Asturias and Pedro from Cantabria was able to managed a resistence which at the end, in 1,496, Muslins were thrown out back to Africa.
The Muslins invasion also didn’t made any difference in genetical terms for the genetics in Iberian Peninsula. Arabs were small in numbers and their Empire was too extensive. So what they did was conquer a territory and offered conversion to the conquered population. Then, after that they train the people in religion and arms. Formed the new army which was lead by a small number of Arabs they departed to a new conquest. What they brought to Iberian Peninsula was the Moors. The Moors were the ancient inhabitants of North Africa in connection with Gibraltar. They were just the Caucasian people that crossed Gibraltar at the last Ice Age and was close relatives to Europeans.
But a small number of Arabs were present in that. And they left not only some words in Spanish and Portuguese languages. They also transmited some cultural and genetical components. Not much for say that we are Arab in constitution but enough to say, we are like distant cousins.
The last genetical contribution to the Iberian Peninsula came from others people from Europe Itself. During the period called Reconquista (Retaken) which last for around 500 year for Portugal and almost 800 years for Spain, after the Christians retaken some parts of the territory they invited others Europeans to live in there, which it was called by the name of repopulation. So, some Neederlandians and Bourgandians also became part of our genetical mixture.
Statistically some part of the today’s European population have smaller contribution from Subsahara Africans and Asians from the diverses parts of the Globe.
After said that I may come back to my ancestors. Then I dived dip in the genealogy of the Jose Coelho de Magalhaes first present in the site Geneall.net more than sure that, if he is not our ancestor his ancestors are. And from these I learned something that I would like to pass a few details to whosoever be interested in what I am writing. I will post here a sequence of ancestors he has. I will start from the older couple who will be parents for the next person under. And so on untill we goes to, Pedro (Peter), the duke of Cantabria.
Graciano, the Old – unknown wife
Valens I, Emperor of Occident – Justina
Gala – Theodosius I, Emperor of Rome
Gala Placida – Athahulf, King
Theodoric, King – Flavia Gala Placida
Theodoric I, King – unknown wife
Euric I Balthes, King – Ragnahild
Alaric II Balthes, King – Theodegota of Ostrogoths
Amalric I Balthes, King – Clothilde de France
Leovigild of Septimania Balthes – Theodosia from Cartagene
Hermenegild II Balthes – Ingunda d’Austrasie
Antanagildo Balthes – unknown wife
Adrebasto Balthes – unknown wife
Ervigio Balthes – Liubigotona Balthes
Peter, duke of Cantabria – unknown wife
In that lineage we can see others interesting crossings. For example, Clothilde de France was daughter of Clovis, the Frankish king. Her mother was Saint Clotilda from Bourgandy. So, the powerfull in the end of Roman Empire and beginning of Middle Ages became ancestors of most of royal families throughout the whole Medieval Period in Europe.
We have many crossing lineages around but I am limiting it to not become something confusing. Peter, as his title say, was the duke of Cantabria. And from that territory he lead the resistance.
The other leader were Pelagio. We don’t have his ancestry but he supposed came from noble family because he was taken as hostage by Muslins forces. Then managed to escape and gathered another group of resistence with his fellowmen in Asturias. Pelagio fathered a son but he was killed by a bear in his test to adulthood. It was an ancient tradition that all leader had to be proved. For that his daughter Ermesinda of Asturias became in the line as heir.
Peter of Cantabria had a male heir called by the name Alfonso. Alfonso marriaged to Ermesinda and became Alfonso I, King of Asturias. Since then the name Cantabria disappear from the records and the kingdom was united. They had a heir who became king under the name of Alfonso II. Alfonso II became the most celebrated king to Christians in Iberian Peninsula from that time. He was called, the Chaste because was unmarriaged and entirely dedicated to the Christian cause of reconquest.
His reign endured for 52 years. Some say that he transformed a vaste area between Asturias in the north and Muslins territory in the South in a desert of alive people. But others say it was done by the plague. Important was the results from that. Asturias was a kingdom to small to survive for long against the superior power of Muslins. Then the desert gave time for the kingdom became more populated.
And one event was the key for the salvation of the kingdom. A grave was founded and identified as of Saint’s James, the Minor. Saint James, also called by the latim name Tiago or others languages as Lago and Iago was the disciple of Jesus. The legend says that, he was the first Christian to enter Spain to preach Christianity. Then later he went back to Jerusalem and were decapitated by King Herod Antipas. And his followers brought his body back to Spain for his final rest place.
After the identification of the grave in Compostela (it mean a place by the name Star’s Field) it became famous as pilgrimage center. Christians from all corners of Europe start to go there and experience something magical. Os Caminhos de Santiago (Saint’s James Paths) have an extension of about 500 miles. And the pilgrim had to go there by foot. After the experience they took vows to defend the land and pledged for donations which helped the Reconquest. The legend even say that, Saint James in person came from the sky in a resplendent horse and costume for do battle among Christians.
The Paths of Saint James of Compostela were roamed about by the most famous Brazilian writer from nowadays, Paulo Coelho. He attributed his carrer as books writer to a beginning linked to this starting. But I have not idea if the Coelho in his name come from some known figure to me.
But Alfonso II had not heir by himself. Then the lineage produced by his brother Froila were enthroned in his place. And it followed as the sequence I am posting now,
725 Froila I – Munia Froilaz
743 Froila of Asturias - unknown wife
760 Bermudo, prince of Asturias – Ursina Muniadona from Coimbra
780 Ramiro I, King of Asturias – Paterna from Castilla
800 Ordonho I, King of Asturias – Munadona de Vierzo
838 Alfonso III, King of Asturias – Ximena Garcez, from Pamplona
860 Ordonho II, King of Asturias – Elvira Mendes of Portugal
900 Ramiro II, King of Leon – Onega?…
As you can see, the lineage that I am presenting is only paternal. And usually from the king’s first born. But if anyone is more interest on genealogy can go through the site geneall.net – Portugal and take a look at the ancestry of each mother who appear. They are from noble families and most of them come from Iberian Peninsula. Since that time existed some prejudice against Iberians. They were said to be kind of Barbarians what their only civilized activity was make steel and tools from it.
Alfonso III have an important link on the retaken of Portugal. He were the king that commisioned Vimara Peres to retaken the North of Portugal. Vimara is the Portuguese hero from that time. He dominated the land between the River Minho at the North and the River Douro at the South. He constructed a fortification which became a village named Vimaranes after his name. He was stablished as Count (English earl) and his title became hereditary. Some say that in others monarchies in Europe his title would be duke. The name Vimaranes was also modified to Guimaraes. It became family name and, probably, everyone who have it as name is an offspring of Vimara Peres.
Later on the descendant of Vimara, Nuno Vimaranes tried to freed Portugal from the domain of the Kingdom of Galiza but he was killed in the battle.
Ramiro II were a fierce warrior against Muslins. They called him “El Diablo” (The Demon). His reign coincides to a famous leader in Muslins side. His name, Adb al Rahman III ibn Muhammed, the Great. You can see interesting details from this period in video produced and distributed by PBS HOME VIDEO. At it’s site www.pbs.org
you can call for ISLAM, EMPIRE OF FAITH. What is remarkable about that is the comparison between North Europe, represented by Christian faith then, and Islamic Iberian Peninsula. Is said that, after a nun know the beauty and hygiene in Islamic Spain she had not doubt in say that, Is like to compare darkness and light.
Adb al Rahman III were able to conciliate the three differents faiths under his power. Jewish, Christians and Muslins would serve him in all aspects as equals. But he confronted the opposition from his own counterparts on it. Some felt neglected and his reign became although a great progress in enlightenment but also a constant battlefield.
Despite of the rivalry between the faiths, Ramiro II and Adb al Rahman III agreed on to marriage one of the Ramiro’s sons to a Adb’s cousin. Then the marriage of Lovesendo Ramires to Zayra ibn Zayda was designed to bring peace between the both people. And I will post some more from their genealogy. About Zayra and Adb al Rahman III you can follow their ancestry on the mentioned site. They are direct descendant of the Prophet Muhammad himself. Then, what follow is some of their descendance.
940 Lovesendo Ramires – Zayra ibn Zayda
960 Aboazar Lovesendes – Unisco Godinhes
980 Ermigio Aboazar – Vivili Turtezendes
1,000 Toda Ermiges – Egas Moniz de Ribadouro, Lord of Ribadouro
1,020 Ermigio Viegas, Lord of Ribadouro - Unisco Pais
1,050 Monio Ermiges, Lord of Ribadouro – Ouroana
1,080 Egas Moniz, o Aio – Dordia Pais Azevedo
Lourenco Viegas – Maria Gomes de Pombeiro
1,135 Egas Lourenco (Coelho) – Unknown wife from Pombeiro
1,160 Soeiro Viegas Coelho – Mor Mendes de Gandarei
Here we have an interesting sequence. Through an woman, Toda Ermiges, the royal blood was pass to entered in a family that dominated the region called Ribadouro. What the name mean is, Over the Douro River. It is the region in the north of the Douro River. By that she became a greatgrandmother of Egas Moniz, o Aio. In Portuguese language aia means baby sitter. Aio would be baby sit by a male. The nickname given to Egas Moniz is because he accepted be mentor to Afonso Henriques who later became to be the first king of Portugal.
At the sequence he became also grandfather of Egas Lourenco Coelho. Some authors say that, Egas Lourenco was the first one to use the last name Coelho. It would be happen because he own a farm with the name of She Rabbit Farm. Coelho means rabbit. But it is not proven because he didn’t gave such name to his offsprings.
But his son did. And the reason for his son Soeiro make use of such name have origins in the fight for the Reconquest. Others said to the king that, he was able to penetrate the enemies line without be noticed, as it was done through rabbit’s burrows. Then he adopted Coelho as his last name and passed it on to his children.
Another lineage of historical importance, born from the kings of Asturias is that,
900 Ramiro II, King of Asturias – Ausenda Guterres, from Coimbra
925 Ordono III, King of Leon – Elvira Pais Daza
956 Bermudo II, King of Leon – Elvira Garcez, from Castilla
994 Alfonso V, King of Leon – Elvira Mendes, Sovereign Countess of Portugal
1,015 Sancha, heir of Leon – Fernando Magno, King of Leon and Castilla
1,039 Alfonso VI, King of Castilla – Ximena Moniz
Teresa, from Leon, Countess of Portugal – Henri, from Bourgandy
Teresa, Countess of Portugal, like Egas Moniz, o Aio, was a descendant of King Ramiro who was offspring of Peter and Pelagio. And her father, Alfonso VI, sent a message to whole noble families in Europe promessing riches and even his daughters to those who was willing to help him in the fight against the Moors. Henri, who was son of Henri, Duke of Bourgandy and others accepted the challenge. Alfonso VI kept his word and marriaged Teresa to Henri. They had many sons and daughters.
One of the children was baptized with the name of Afonso, son of Henri or Afonso Henriques as it is the History of Portugal. And was these one child that Egas Moniz promised to his father to take care of him. After Henri of Bourgandy died his wife Teresa had another man and maybe it was the reason for Afonso Henriques start a rebellion to try separate Portugal from the Kingdom of Leon.
At first the he failled on to do it. As his mentor, Egas Moniz gave his word to king Alfonso VII, giving him guarantee that Afonso Henriques would never try it again. But he did and were successful. And is said that, his mentor went from Portugal to the Leon City with an wood attached to his neck in company of all his offsprings to offer their lives because of a broken word. Seen such gesture of nobility, the king gave him pardon and more riches. Nobody knows exactly what happened but some think that, in the first place he gave his word for give more time to Afonso Henriques reorganize his troops and get the second chance to defeat his own mother’s army. But is hard to believe that, Egas Moniz was a such crazy person and able to play with his own and all of his children lives like that. He was probably sincere in everything.
The next sequence of genealogy starts with the King Afonso Henriques.
1,109 Afonso Henriques, first King of Portugal – Mahaut of Savoie
1,154 D. Sancho I, King of Portugal – Dulce, from Barcelona
1,185 D. Afonso II, King of Portugal – Urraca, princess of Castilla
1,210 D. Afonso III, King of Portugal – Maria Peres de Enxara
1,260 D. Afonso Dinis – Maria Pais Ribeiro
1,305 D. Diogo Afonso de Sousa – Violante Lopes Pacheco
1,330 D. Alvaro Dias de Sousa – Maria Teles de Menezes
1,350 D. Lopo Dias de Sousa – Maria Ribeiro
1,370 Violante de Sousa – Rui Vasques Ribeiro
1,410 Pedro (or Rodrigo) Ribeiro de Vasconcelos – unknown wife
1,440 Francisco Queiroz Ribeiro de Vasconcelos – Maria Goncalves
1,470 Isabel Francisca de Queiroz – Diogo Anes Ribeiro de Vasconcelos
1,495 Manuel Dias Ribeiro de Vasconcelos – Joana Ferreira
1,525 Violante de Freitas, the Liar – Lancarote Pinto
1,550 Simeao Pinto Machado – Ana da Mesquita
Antonio Pinto de Mesquita – Maria de Lemos
Simao Pinto de Mesquita – Maria Barbosa
Antonio Pinto de Mesquita – Angela Vieira de Seixas
Bernardo Antonio Pinto de Mesquita – Ana Josefa de Magalhaes Pinto
1,750 Jose Coelho de Magalhaes – (?) Eugenia Rodrigues Rocha
Again, I can’t say with not doubt that this Jose Coelho de Magalhaes is really one of number 5 grandparent of mine and my family. But, if not, someone else will be and his lineage will have a link to some of those presented here. Sure would be a mathematical improbability if it be not like that. Then I am not dying for to be part in that specific lineage. Nobody need to be. Unfortunately most of us does not know from which lineages we came but any and everyone is supposed to have some links with royals lineages. It is a club which does not demands exclusivity.
One important historical figure in that lineage that I want to mention is D. Afonso III, King of Portugal. During his administration portuguese people reconquered the last stand lands in Muslins power in Portugal. He was not to be king because had an older brother who became King Sancho II. But Sancho II was not willing to be submissive to the powerful Catholic Church and it demanded his removal from power. Afonso III was surprised by the decision where he became unespectedly the number one in Portugal.
D. Afonso III was the one to complete the reconquest when he took Algarves and the City of Faro which are at the south of Portugal and next to Gibraltar. His administration to Portugal represents a downturn to what was happening before. Take this excerpt from the Wikipedia as example, “Afonso III paid special attention to what the middle class, composed of merchants and small land owners, had to say. In 1254, in the city of Leiria, he held the first session of the Cortes, a general assembly comprising the nobility, the middle class and representatives of all municipalities. He also made laws intended to restrain the upper classes from abusing the least favoured part of the population. Remembered as a notable administrator, Afonso III founded several towns, granted the title of city to many others and reorganized public administration.” He was the true creator of Parliamentarism long before it became known as government system.
Like others king around his time, Afonso III had wives and concubines. One of his concubines was Madragana, later she was rebaptized as Mor Afonso. About her have some interesting informations. First of all she was daughter of the mayor of Faro. And they were Jew. I think that is interesting because we know every person with genealogical links with Iberian Peninsula is probably a Jewish descendant because Jews were brought by Romans to there since around 70 AD. But is almost impossible to have records of that through this way. Otherwise is not so difficult to track such inheritance by the ascendency on her and others. Through her, personalities of today such as Queen Elizabeth II, of England, are prove to be Jewish descendant as much as Arabian descendant through Zayra ibn Zayda, the daughter-in-law of Ramiro II, King of Asturias.
I am in debt with you because I started to show the lineage Coelho from which my family got one of its most important last names. Well, the lineage above which ends on my supposed ancestor Jose Coelho de Magalhaes have lot of links to the first person, Soeiro Viegas Coelho, to use it as last name. But his most close ancestor with Coelho in his name was his maternal grandaddy. So I will show another sequence of genealogy in opposite way this time. I will start with my ancestor and the couple under his name will be his parents, the next line will get his grandparents and so on.
1,750 Jose Coelho de Magalhaes – Eugenia Rodrigues Rocha
Ana Josefa de Magalhaes Pinto – Bernardo Antonio Pinto da Mesquita
Joao de Magalhaes Coelho – Isabel Maria Pinto
Jeronimo Ribeiro – Maria Teixeira de Seixas
Domingos Coelho de Magalhaes – Antonia Ribeiro
Isabel Pinto de Magalhaes – Belchior Dias
Ana Coelho – Gregorio Magalhaes de Azevedo
Fernando Coelho – Violante Pinto
1,450 Diogo Coelho de Sampaio – Isabel Sampaio
Rodrigo de Sao Paio Coelho – unknown wife
1,370 Fernao Coelho – Catarina de Freitas
1,340 Goncalo Pires Coelho – Maria Silva
1,320 Pero Esteves Coelho – D Aldonca Vasques Pereira
1,290 Estevao Coelho – Maria Mendes Petite
1,260 Pero Anes Coelho – D Margarida Esteves
1,200 Joao Soares Coelho – Maria Fernandes
1,160 Soeiro Viegas Coelho – Mor Mendes Gandarei
From these point we can just link Soeiro Viegas Coelho to himself at the second lineage presented in this chapter. What we can see in the site geneall.net – Portugal is that, many of the people present in those lineage had familiar links to each other. The site provide us with a facilitator resource to identify it. When somebody is descendant of some kings he or she gets a small ball under the name. Each king is linked to one collor. If you point your computer arrow to the ball will appear the name of the king. This way it become easier to track some lineages, although, often you get both parents identified by the same ball so you need to choose what one to follow first. Good thing is you write in a paper the lineage that you are following. If you needed go back will be easier not to get lost.
Now I need to justify the title on these charpter. Its name mention European Genealogy and not only Iberian. The reason I am talking specifically about Portugal is only because I am more familiarized to its History and genealogy. If I had took any other country in Europe as example, even the smallest of them, the results could be mostly similar because all royal families in there got their main ancestors from the same lineage. They are just an extended same family and because all the time they was exchanging brides and bridegrooms was not so different of a poultry bunch.
In the second genealogical sequence above I post just some of the kings of Portugal because didn’t identify others than D. Dinis, son of Afonso III and also King of Portugal, as my ancestor. Don’t be mistaken by the name Afonso Dinis, also son of Afonso III, but not king. We don’t need an extense list of ancestors kings to be relative of everyone else. We can take the mother of Afonso III, Urraca, princess of Castilla, as example to start show the linkage. Lets take some genealogical sequence from her,
Urraca, princes of Castilla – Afonso II, King of Portugal
Eleanor Plantagenet, princess of England – Alfonso VIII, King of Castilla
Henry II, King of England - Eleonor d’Aquitaine
Matilda, Queen of England – Godefroy V Plantagenet, Count d’Anjou
Henry I, King of England – Saint Mathilda, Princess of Scotland
William I the Conqueror, King of England – Mathilde de Flandre
Robert I, Duke of Normandy – Herleva of Falaise
Richard II, Duke of Normandy – Judith of Bretagne
Richard I, Count of Normandy – Gunnor, Princess of Denmark
Looking at such genealogical sequence we can make many links in the European map. Just for you know, the mother of Urraca, Eleanor Plantagenet was sister of Richard the Lionheart. Anybody who knows something about History must see much more than a genealogical sequence in that list. It is more. It History itself on each name and title. The next sequence I will present starts on Judith of Bretagne. See then,
Judith of Bretagne – Richard II, Duke of Normandy
Ermengarde d’Anjou – Conon I, Duke of Bretagne
Adelaide de Vermandois, dame de Donzy – Geoffroi I Grisegonelle, Count d’Anjou
Robert I, Count of Vermandois and Troyes – Adelaide Werra de Bourgandy
Herbert II, Count of Vermandois – Luitegarde or Adele de France
Herbert I, Count of Vermandois – Berthe de Morvois
Pepin II, Count of Vermandois – Rothaeide de Bobbio
Bernardo, King of Italy – Cunegonde de Gellome de Toulouse
Pepin I, King of Italy – Ingeltude d’Autun
Karl der Gross (Charlemagne) – Hildegarde von Vintschgau
Just remember, Normandy is a name that mean, men from north. It was colonized by a group of Vikings that wanted to settle down after the time their cause so much terror to European population. As you can see, Judith and Richard II was granparents of William the Conqueror who took England from the hands of its old lords, the kings of Wessex. The Kings of Wessex are also ancestors of the Iberian royal families. But I will not show any sequence showing that because is yet enough. I want list just one more genealogical sequence in this chapter.
Luitegarde or Adele de France, wife of Herbert II, Count of Vermandois was daughter of Robert I, King of France and Adele de Perthois. But King Robert I, as usual to royal men, had another wife whos name was Beatrice of Vermandois. So, I will post this one more sequence to reveal something that looks like coincidende but is not. Lets see it though,
Robert I, King of France – Beatrice of Vermandois
Hugues the Great, Duke of France - Heduvige von Sachsen
Hugues I Capet, Kinf of France – Adelaide of Poitou
Robert II the Pious, King of France – Constance d’Arles
Robert I the Old, Duke of Bourgandy – Helie de Semur
Henri, Duke of Bourgandy – Beatriz (?) of Barcelona
Henry of Bourgandy – Teresa of Leon
Afonso Henriques, 1st King of Portugal – Mahaut of Savoie
So, we start these tour from the mother of Afonso III, King of Portugal, Urraca, Princess of Castilla, and ended it now with his greatgradparents. I will not post any genealogical sequence for demonstrate it but just mention. Mahaut of Savoie, as the name say it, come from the House of Savoia, the later on royal family of Italy. The House of Savoia is heir of Umberto I Biancamano, Count of Savoia. On the level of greatgrandparents he was descendant of Louis III l’Aveugle, Emperor of Occident and Anna from Bizantium. I think I don’t need to mention that Louis III was also descendent of Charlemagne. But is Anna from Bizantium that bring to us more History.
As her title explains, her ancestry starts on the Empire of Bizantium, passing through Saint Theodora, Empress of Bizantium; Saint Isaac and Saint Narso, kings of Armenia and it goes on diving in times long before Christ. Around the year 500 BC two of her ancestors are Xerxes I, King of Persia and his wife Esther, the woman who had her name naming one of the books of the Bible. After that, her ancestry dives again and ended on a sequence of Egyptian Pharaohs, even Ramses II the Great. But it is too long for post here. Through the House of Savoia, all the royal families in Europe are multiple times descendants of those historical figures.
Many others Europeans royal families appear as our ancestors but I don’t want to loose more time showing it. I can mention some like: Aragon, Navarra, Pamplona, Leon, Galiza, Holland, Hungary, Constantinople, Germany, Kiev, Polland, Osterreich, Danmark, Luxembourg. Even from the Kingdom of Jerusalem, which didn’t stood for long and was just a branch from the French royal family we got some ancestors.
I also can give examples of brides and bridegrooms from the Portuguese Royal Family that marriaged to higher nobility of the rest of Europe. And I verified before if their marriage resulted in offspring because we have many cases where it wasn’t happen, probably in consequence of excessive consanguinity. In this case we have Berengaria, daughter of D. Sancho I and Dulce of Barcelona, who marriaged to Valdemar II, Count of Danmark; D. Afonso, son of D. Afonso II and Beatriz of Castilla, who marriaged to his cousin, Violante Manoel, princess of Castilla. We also have D. Constanca, daughter of D. Dinis and Saint Isabel of Aragon, who marriaged to King Fernando IV, King of Castilla.
To be short and to stay only at the earlier kings of Portugal we have the example of D. Maria, daughter of D. Afonso IV and Beatriz of Castilla, who marriaged to Alfonso IX, King of Castilla. D. Maria and King Alfonso IX were the parents of King Pedro I of Castilla. These one got two daughters with one of his partners, Maria Padilha. The first one, Constanza was marriaged to John of Gand, Duke of Lancaster. The second one, Isabel, was marriaged to Edmund of Langley, Duke of York. And in a quick looking in the genealogy present at the site geneall.net – Portugal I learn that, the Duke of Manchester of today is a direct descendant from these lineage.
06. A BETTER FUTURE FOR OUR CHILDREN AND…
Now I will break the sequence that was given to my writings. It is because I want show something practical from my studies.
It come from the observation that, practically every and each person with a long genealogical History in the Occident is descendant of the most historical figures from 800 or more years ago. Not only from them but from most of the population that lived in their time. How it is possible? Well, what the available genealogy can show us is not more than a glimpse of what is true.
Was a common practice the kings have their wives and concubines, even when it was not a bigamous relationship because they marriaged more than one time after a previous wife had died. Sometimes they had concubines paralell to their official marriages or in between it. What they wanted was make sure to have heir to their throne. But what is useful to us now is to know that, their paralell offsprings usually was taken as lower rank nobility. And as the generations pass on their offsprings was mingled amongst the common people. And as common people their data were not always took with care. The lower ranking nobility themselves thought had things more important to do than to make sure their ancestry was remebered.
But if we take the descendance of Charlemagne as example we can assure that, from the richest to the poorest, mostly of the people in western countries are his offspring. Some eastern also are. And mathematically it is not a bit of surprise because he lived until his death in 814. So, about 1,200 years ago. And he had many wives and concubines securing him a vaste inheritage.
Based on my calculations, anybody who got two or more children could easy be ancestor of the whole population of today’s Earth just by being born around 1,000 years ago. Remembering, if somebody have two kids, four grandchildren, eight greatgrandchildren and so on, at the end of 1,000 years, he or she could have more than 8.5 billions offsprings. The most important is that, our population of today could be descendant of every and each person alive 1,000 years ago simultaneously, since they had children.
It is because the mathematical possibility works in both ways. In 1,000 years long you have the power of produce much more than 8.5 billions offsprings as much you can also be descendant of something more than 8.5 billions ancestors. And I am talking only about the 33th generation after yours and the 33th generation before yours. In 1,000 year you don’t need have more than two children for be ancestor of as much as 15 billions people alive. It is because you can make the addition of the 31, 32 and 33th generations because they will be the grandparents, parents and children.
I know. The mathematical model doesn’t work so well in our practical life. It is because for that be true the marriage between your descendants must be avoided. In practical termes it were almost impossible because some families pass on too much time living in a small territorial area. Then, the descendance of the first people kept marriaging to each other repeatedly. It make from them something like the poultry bunch that I mentioned before. But even only one who person gets out from that vicious circle, let me say 300 years ago, is enough to be responsible for enormously multiply the family number. In these case I am thinking about that person didn’t obey any limitation on have children.
Anyways, even when the descendance of someone keep marriaging to each other for 1,000 years, based on what was our History during such period, what we can expect from it is that, the people who had kids around 1,000 years ago and their children were enough health to keep their lineage until our times, are probably ancestors of millions of people.
It is another consideration you must take from the mathematical model. Not until recently nobody limited their children to a small number like two. If my paternal granddaddy had been born 1,000 years ago and had had so many children and grandchildren as he got, today the Earth population would be many many times his descendant. He got 14 children. 13 of them was marriaged and produced him 101 grandchildren. Only from his side we are around 500 people counting dead and alive. And he was born in 1,890. So, who knows what will be our big number in 880 years from now!
What is the most important question nowadays? I think is that, What will be happen to our children? Most of us want and say that, I wanna construct a better future to my children and children of my children. And I think is something wrong with the construction of that phrase. Firstly we need to construct a better world for them have any future. Secondly, we need better people in our world and it includes ourselves kids.
What I mean by that is that, probably, Charlemagne fought his whole life thinking in give a better future for his children. But he probably also thought only about the children that he knew and, maybe, expected it would keep going for some generations after his departure. I am sure he never thought about his children of today. And it is the biggest mistake everyone can make.
If he knew what I am talking about now maybe would try something different of what he did. It is happen to me in our days. I am different because to me were granted to know something better. Charlemagne thought about a better world to those he already knew or expect to come after him. I think about everybody known or unknown to me. Why? Because is just happen I know that, for I have some millions maybe billions of children in the 33th generation after me is urgent that I take care of everybody who lives in my time because my children will marriage to their children. So to love them and care for them is the same as do the same to my own children.
I know. Once it was thought to you in your church, for those who believe in religion, by your priests. The religious thinking is based on, If we have a Creator responsible for the birth of us then you should honor Him loving all of his creature. But it were never taken well by all human minds. Now what I am saying is that, we have another reason for do the same thing. And this another reason don’t demand you believe in God or have an especific religion. If you plan to have or already have kids, then you must start thinking what will be happen to your children 1,000 years from now because if you don’t prepare them for it, maybe they don’t will make to there and all your time dedicated to them will be wasted.
It could even appear magical but is not. Almost 1,000 years ago the worsest enimies in the world was the Muslins and the Crusaders. Today we are the children of both. So, what good their wars did to us? I can answear only to myself, nothing. Each one reading these text shall respond these question to themselves.
The same thing will happening again. Does not matter the motivations for todays Crusades or Holy War. What the involved in it are doing is wrong. And 1,000 or less years from now the children of Osama Bin Laden will marriage to the children of George W. Bush and Barack H. Obama. No. I am not putting a course on nobody. And I am not divinizing any future. I am just saying what is proved by my calculations.
I can be terrible wrong in my calculations because I am talking about 1,000 years from now without knowing even what will happen tomorrow. My conscience is clean though. I am not saying it will be happen without any condition. As a believer I know that, for it happens God need allow us those 1,000 years from now and the multiplication of everyone need to be smoothly as possible. In these case, we need everybody getting your part on our multiplication.
I am making those calculations presuming that the population in Earth should not excede much more than our todays population in 1,000 years from now. I think it is a good precaution if we don’t have more than two children from now on because our planet is already almost overpopulated by human beings. Some skeptics are saying that these warning had been among us for long time and the population keep growing and nothing happen. They say that, human being is always resourceful and when the problem come somebody will get the answear to solve it.
Our biggest problem is that, the resources in our planet are limited. And it is already sending signs of exhaustion. The planet itself is limited. So, I don’t think have any intelligence on not be cautious about it. If we go all the way untill the point of no return what will happening is nothing more than terrible wars for whatsoever be the last resource of life on Earth. And we should always remember that, today we have enough resource for maybe take care of 50 billions of people on Earth but even if we keep the number stabilized on it, the generations will keep coming.
So 1,000 years from that point we will have 33 generations of 50 billions people living on Earth. It is the same as 1.65 trillion living on Earth at the same time. And we don’t have the least idea how many thousands of years we will have only these one mother Earth to give as food and shelter. Be precautious is not a matter of not be bold is a matter of know the facts.
If you want another practical example of what genealogy and genetics can give you take the couple Bill and Melinda Gates. I think they are the most richest couple in the world. Now lets imagine that, their children will have children and so on multiplying as I said before. Even though the initial generations they will have no problem for lack of money when they become as numerous as 5,000 people they will be not rich as their ancestors and some probably will live a poor life.
If they keep growing in number as I said, they will end marriaging to the children of all of us, from the richest to the poorest of each one of us. And if we don’t take care of each other since now, every criminal, all the politician, each sufferer will be our collective offspring as much as the most successful and intermediary people in their times.
07. A PINCH OF IBERIAN PENINSULA GENEALOGY
Iberian Peninsula Genealogy, on its beginning, is not so complicated. What is not so easy from its studying is just when you start getting back to the same ancestors over and over again. That is for sure, the same thing is happening to all other genealogies in the world. Even if we had the complete data from the Middle Ages until today it wouldn’t be different. The only thing that I would expect to be different from what we already have is that, although we would find some lineages that we never suspect that we had we also, certainly, would be back to the same ancestors more times than we yet do.
It is not any surprise that we have more data only from the known historical personalities and, when the most, from people who was around about their historical records. Often we encounter some data of someone who just appear in the records because he or she were marriaged to some personalities or to one of their children. This person that appear to be brought to life out of nowhere brings within only the father or also the mother. It is like this newcomer not even had a beginning back to thousands years before just like everyone else.
This newcomer is a person usually known as common or peasant. Sometimes also known as poor. But what I am sure is that, forgot in the lack of data and in the spoken tradition, in some point of the time in the History of each people, all of us had the same ancestors, not too far as a lay person can suppose. Our History of privileges of some and exclusion of others is the responsible for such differenciation. And the common people is not more common than anyone else in this planet. We all came from both, common and privileged. And what separates us from others today is more linked to have or not have money.
As I said before, Iberian Peninsula was invaded by the Muslins in 711. The only space that was kept by christian was the two small parts of the territory called by the names of Cantabria and Asturias. From there, christians start to fight and try to reconquest their lands. But the wars prolonged from generation after generation after generation. Some generations even forgot what the fight was about.
As I also mentioned before, only one christian reign in Iberian Peninsula were implanted by other power than Iberians themselves. During the History it became known as Aragon. And the responsible for it was Louis I the Pious, Emperor of the Occident. He was son of Charlemagne and who inherited his crown.
The kingdom of Leon came about only in 910. At that time it was dispopulated and were reconquered by King Alfonso III of Asturias, and his son Garcia I transferred and adopted it as the capital of the kingdom. Since then it became the most important Christian kingdom in the Iberian Peninsula.
Another people present were the Basques. Their domain was the South Atlantic Cost of France and the Central North of Spain. Firstly they had a kingdom named Pamplona and it became known as Navarre.
At the reign of Alfonso III, King of Asturias, the North of Portugal were seized and became a County in the hands of Vimara Peres.
Later on or at the same time Fernan Gonzalez reunified the Kingdom of Castilla. It gainned such name because have a line of castles for the defense of the Kingdom of Leon. In the Wikipedia we can read it, “In 931 the County was reunified by Count Fernan Gonzalez, who rose in rebellion against the Kingdom of Leon, successor state to Asturias, and achieved an autonomous status, allowing the county to be inherited by his family instead of being subject to appointment by the Leonese king.”
One more kingdom were added to this mixture. It was the Kingdom of Galicia which inherited the County of Portugal as its territory. But in 1,128 Portugal also became a separated kingdom. Then those all Christians Kingdoms in the twelve century had taken back around half of the Iberian Peninsula from Muslins conquerors. And they sometimes were more involved in wars against each other than against the Muslins Kingdoms located at the south parts. The shape and sizes of those kingdoms was in constant movement until Portugal was reconquered by Afonso III of Portugal and Fernando, the Catholic, King of Aragon, and Isabel, the Catholic, Queen of Castilla, marriaged to each other and united the whole Spain.
All those kingdoms produced its nobility. And they exchanged brides and bridegrooms within each other and all the others royal families in Europe. And then, as I said before, their blood that came from common people went back to the ordinary people. How?
Basecally when the dominations were exchanged like from the old local power to Romans, from Romans to Suevis and Visigoths, from Goths to Muslins, from Muslins back to Christians, each nobility stood there but lowered to a small ranking. Also, as the wars was going on many considered common people fought side by side their lords. The ones who detached themselves from the others by bravery were granted riches, possess and even brides from the new dominant power. We can observe it when men apparently coming from nowhere beeing marriaged to noble women. As well women without noble background being marriaged to noble men.
But more often we see a new name coming to light and when we start digging for answers we find that, at the ancestors level we find a king or relative in its begining. Later all give examples of it. But let start on how the surnames were adopted.
Around 1,000 years ago we hadn’t had exactly family’s name. Let put here one more genealogical sequence for make easier to explain.
Moninho Viegas, the Gasco – Valida Trocozendes
Egas Moniz de Ribadouro – Toda Ermiges
Ermigio Viegas – Unisco Pais
Monio Ermiges – Ouroana
Egas Moniz, o Aio – Dordia Pais Azevedo
Lourenco Viegas – Maria Gomes de Pombeiro
Egas Lourenco - unknown wife from Penagate
Soeiro Viegas Coelho – Mor Mendes de Gandarei
This is the paternal lineage of the known first user of the surname Coelho (Rabitt). If you look by their second names probably will see not pattern. But it is a clear pattern in that. At that time we was supposed use ourselves names plus a mention to our fathers. The names was given and add one expression that meant, son of. The first one in the list probably had the name Monio and not Moninho. Usually the suffix inho in Portuguese language means little. So, Egas Moniz his son is Egas, son of Monio. Sometimes the expression, son of, comes as prefix as in Viegas. So Viegas means, son of Egas.
From that time we have many names used today. Along History the last names were adopted. Then some names of paternal origins were kept although it are not correspondent to the father’s name. In this case we still having family’s names as Viegas and Moniz but now it mean that, some time in the past its users had ancestors named Egas or Monio.
And also it is why we have names such as, Rodrigues, which mean, son of Rodrigo. Nunes meaning son of Nuno. Peres/Pero. Fernandes/Fernando. Esteves/Estevao. Soares/Soeiro. Martins/Martim. Mendes/Mendo. Vasques/Vasco. Another exception is the surname Anes. It comes from Joao. The difference come from the old writing of the name which was Johanes. So Anes mean son of Johanes or Joao, the modern equivalent for Johanes in Portuguese language. In Spain the tradition is the same only changing the letter s by z. In there the names are Rodriguez, Nunez, Perez and so on. A little difference for Martins whch could become Martinez.
But usually Iberians use two last names or more. It came from old tradition too. At the twelve century this system of naming people was kind of exausted. The population begun to grows and was too many people with the same name. Then the Catholic Church incited the people to use one more surname. Some already was identified by the second name in that time. It was preceded of the words da, de and do. All the three means from the place where the person were born. Da is used when the place have a female name which is the opposite of do. The de doesn’t mean sex.
The American system wrongly identifies the three words as surname. So is common my name come write as De Magalhaes but it shouldn’t be this way. De means from and should always be written by small letters. Along the History some people also suppressed the three words in their names not knowing its importance. It is the case of some members in my family who inherit just the Magalhaes without de.
Examples of names and their mean are, 1. Geraldo Rodrigues da Costa, which should mean, Gerald, son of Rodrigo, born on the coast. 2. Antonio Alvares do Couto. Anthony, son of Alvaro, from a little place. 3. Jose Anes de Guimaraes, Joseph, son of Joao (Johanes), from the Guimaraes City.
As the time past many others names were added to the list. Some were the remembrance of a physical characteristic from the first user. Examples of it are, 1. Alvim, is the same as whitish, 2. Rouco, grating voice. 3. Barbalho, beard like garlic’s roots (Barba is beard and alho is garlic in Portuguese language). Not long ago I heard another explaination for my last name. Someone said that, it came from the Eastern side of the planet and the original name was something like Barb Al, which became Barbalho in Portugal. But we have not evidence about it.
Also profession of ancestors became surnames for some. One example is Cavaleiro which mean horseman. Another is Sapateiro or Zapatero which is the same as Shoemaker. There are those who have the name Navegante that means Navigator.
In some literature I found that, in Portugal were five noble families. And their names were Baiao, Braganca, Maia, Ribadouro and Sousa. But it is not an exact information. What probably could be happen is something like in my family back in Brazil. It is called by the name of Coelho’s Family. But why should I call my family by such name if I don’t use it as surname?
What is happening is that, when the European begun to colonize the area where we came from my ancestors were in charge and were the first Europeans to live in there. Although others was together or came later, most of them ended marriaging to some of Coelho’s relative. Then the family assigns in many names but is commonly called by the name Coelho. And everybody really is at least one time Coelho. And was more than one branch with this same name around. I have in the list of my ancestors who signed Coelho, Coelho de Magalhaes, Nunes Coelho, Coelho de Andrade and Coelho de Almeida. And I am not talking about the others combinations that came later but just the original branches that we don’t know any link to each other.
My doubt about the number five as equals the number of noble families comes from the many different names we have among the nobles and its origins. Like we can see the surname Coelho came later. But it was part of the family called by the name Ribadouro. Then I can show another genealogical sequence to demonstrate it. If we come to the chapter 5 can take a brief looking at the second and third lineages posted there. The second ends with the King Ramiro II of Asturias. And the third starts with his son, Lovesendo Ramires. Then I will start again with them.
900 Ramiro II, King of Asturias – Onega (?)
940 Lovesendo Ramires – Zayra ibn Zayda
960 Aboazar Lovesendes – Unisco Godinhes
980 Trastamiro Aboazar, 1st lord of the Maia – Dordia Soares
1,000 Goncalo Trastamires, 2nd lord of the Maia – Unisco Sisnandes
1.020 Mendo Goncalves, 3rd lord of the Maia – Ledegundia Soares Tainha
1,060 Goncalo Mendes, the Striver – Urraca Teles
1,080 Moninha Goncalves da Maia – Rodrigo Forjas de Trastamarra
1,100 Forjaz Vermuis de Trastamarra – Elvira Goncalves de Vilalobos
1,130 D. Rodrigo Froias de Trastamarra – D. Urraca Rodrigues de Castro
1,150 D. Goncalo Rodrigues da Palmeira – D. Froille Afonso de Celanova
1,170 D. Rui Goncalves Pereira – Sancha Henriques de Portocarreiro
1,220 D. Pedro Rodrigues Pereira – Estevainha Rodrigues Teixeira
1,250 D. Goncalo Pereira – D. Urraca Vasques Pimentel
1,280 D. Vasco Pereira, Count of Trastamarra – Ines Lourenco da Cunha
1,320 D. Aldonca Vasques Pereira – Pero Esteves Coelho
If you go back to the chapter 5 and take a look at the genealogical sequence number 6 posted there, you will find the last couple as Pero Esteves Coelho – D. Aldonca Vasques Pereira. So, what I want show here is how new names was created. At the generation of D. Rodrigo Froias de Trastamarra, the Palmeira (Palm tree) starts without a better explaination. His children adopted Palmeira as surname and his son, D. Goncalo Rodrigues da Palmeira, named all his children after such name except for one, D. Rui Goncalves Pereira. And from there on the name Pereira (Pear tree) also became one of the most common surname in Iberian Peninsula.
Taking a look at the surnames of the wives you can see many others important families names. And it come from noble families too. Estevainha Rodrigues Teixeira, wife of D. Pedro Rodrigues Pereira is descendant of Charlemagne and Fernando Magno, King of Leon and Castilla. The same who appear as greatgrandfather of King Afonso Henriques of Portugal at the 5th genealogical sequence in the chapter 5.
I want show some genealogical sequences that is in the core of Portugal’s History. I will start with Estevao Coelho who was father of Pero Esteves Coelho.
1,290 Estevao Coelho – Maria Mendes Petite
1,330 Branca Pires Coelho – Joao Pires Alvim
1,360 Leonor Alvim – D. Nuno Alvares Pereira, 2nd Condestavel of Portugal
1,380 D. Beatriz Pereira Alvim – D. Afonso, 1st Duke of Braganca
In it we can see that, my ancestor Pero Esteves Coelho was brother of Branca Pires Coelho, who was mother of Leonor Alvim and grandmother of D. Beatriz Pereira Alvim who was wife of D. Afonso, 1st Duke of Braganca. At that time the Braganca family already was established in Portugal and only later the Dukes of Braganca adopted it as their surname but they were also descendants of ancestors from Braganca. I want show the paternal ancestry of D. Afonso.
1,377 D. Afonso, 1st Duke of Braganca – D. Beatriz Pereira Alvim
1,357 D. Joao I, King of Portugal – Ines Pires
1,320 D. Pedro I, King of Portugal – Teresa Lourenco
1,291 D. Afonso IV, King of Portugal – Beatriz, princess of Castilla
1,261 D. Dinis, King of Portugal – Saint Isabel of Aragon
Here we came back to the first kings of Portugal and D. Dinis was son of Afonso III. But D. Joao I was not fit for be king. His brother, D. Fernando I was the righteous heir and he became king. The problem came later because his heir was D. Beatriz and she was marriaged to King Juan I of Castilla. Juan I demanded his right of to be King of Portugal after king Fernando I died. It starts what is called by the name of Crisis of 1,383 to 1,385. For that Castilla and Portugal were involved in a fierce war. And the hero who save the day was D. Nuno Alvares Pereira, who was the father-in-law of D. Afonso, 1st Duque of Braganca. And lets post one more genealogical sequence to show one more thing.
1,360 D. Nuno Alvares Pereira – Leonor Alvim
1,310 D. Alvaro Goncalves Pereira – Iria Goncalves do Carvalhal
1,280 D. Goncalo Pereira, archbishop of Braga – Teresa Peres Vilarinho
1,250 D. Goncalo Pereira – D. Urraca Vasques Pimentel
As you can see above, the greatgrandparents of D. Nuno Alvares Pereira was grandparents of D. Aldonca Vasques Pereira. And her husband, Pero Esteves Coelho, was uncle of Leonor Alvim, the wife of D. Nuno. I will post one more sequence.
1,377 D. Afonso, 1st Duke of Braganca – D. Beatriz Pereira Alvim
1,402 D. Isabel of Braganaca – D. Joao, prince of Portugal
1,428 D. Isabel, princess of Portugal – Juan II, King of Castilla
1,451 Isabel the Catholic, Queen of Castilla – Fernando II the Catholic, King of Aragon
1,485 Catalina of Aragon, princess of Aragon – Henry VIII, King of England
1,506 Mary I, Queen of England – Felipe II, King of Spain
In this last sequence we can see something larger than life. Queen Mary I had not have children. Her nickname was Blood Mary because her father separated the Anglican Church from Catholic Church and she wanted restore it. But as part of the people didn’t wanted it came the clashs and in just one time around 300 people were killed. Also, Felipe II demanded his right to use the English Crown and it ended with his supposed unbeatable army sank in the battle. At the time it was really the most powerful army in the world. But it is another History.
I just want talk a little bit about D. Nuno Alvares Pereira and how he saved the day for Portugal at the Crisis of 1,383/85. He was a young nobleman who had 25 siblings. At least two of his sisters became ancestors of the noble Jose Coelho de Magalhaes who could be my ancestor too. Otherwise some of my other ancestors got the surname Pereira. But we don’t have yet the ways to find the links between my ancestors Pereira from the 1,700 to beyond that. See though this one more sequence,
1,280 D. Goncalo Pereira – Teresa Peres de Vilarinho
1,310 D. Goncalo Pereira – Unknown wife
1,360 D. Brites Pereira – Lourenco Mendes de Vasconcelos
1,400 Rui Mendes de Vasconcelos – Ana Rodrigues Carvalho
1,440 Brites Mendes Carvalho – Fernao da Mesquita, the Old
1,475 Lopo da Mesquita – Violante Machado
1,500 Joao Lopes da Mesquita – Ana Roiz Sobrinho da Mesquita
1,530 Miguel Sobrinho da Mesquita – Catarina Vaz
1,560 Ana da Mesquita – Semiao Pinto Machado
The last couple is already in the 5th sequence from the chapter 5 above. They are ancestor of Jose Coelho de Magalhaes. Many of his ancestors got the surname Vasconcelos. It come from the Vasconcelos Tower where D. Joao Peres de Vasconcelos was the Lord around 1,220. He was marriaged to Maria Soares Coelho, daughter of Soeiro Viegas Coelho. Until now I had shown his descendance through his son, Joao Soares Coelho. In the third line is D. Brites Pereira who was half sister of D. Nuno Alvares Pereira.
The position that D. Nuno had was like a Prime Minister and Secretary of Defense together, as well as Commander in Chief of the Army. As Portuguese people was not willing to become subject to the Castillian king the war came about. Portuguese forces was way beyond that of his enemies. And it was transformed in great confidence to the enemy forces. Castillians was assisted by Frensh forces too. D. Nuno Alvares then armed a trap and lead his army to wait the advance from them. And they used a narrowed and mud terrain as battle field. As the heavy anemies forces couldn’t move well in the field, they became like seating ducks to Portuguese forces.
D. Nuno made sure that was not escape and even the common people came with workers tools to kill the soldiers. Historians think that thousands of noblemen were killed. It broke the moral of the enemy. And, probably, most of them was from the same family of the Portugueses. After that battle which became known as Aljubarrota (also called Padeira – she breadmaker) he organized many raids in the enemy territory to secure that nobody would react. And sure he won the war. The recognition of the Portuguese Independence only was signed in 1,411 in the Treaty of Ayllon. But D. Joao I, who was not fit to be king, ended with the throne and the crown.
Coincidently, D. Nuno Alvares Pereira died of natural causes in the same day Joanna d’ Arch was executed.
In that battle was 200 warrior from England. They brought their archbalests and made some difference for the Portuguese side. Since then, Portugal and England got a Treaty to help each other on its struggles. It is probably the oldest on its genre in the world.
D. Joao I, marriaged to Philippa of Lancaster, princess of England. Later on her surname was adopted in Portugal as Lancastre. The family Lancastre in Portugal is direct descendant from the Lancasters from England. But these second dynasty in Portugal were short live. Portugal kept sending brides and bridegrooms to Spain’s kingdoms and in 1,560 they got a similar situation. Only that time the king in Spain was the powerful Felipe II, who had marriaged to Mary I, Queen of England.
After others broken lineages in the successory process in Portugal Manuel I came to the throne. He was called by the nickname of the Lucky One. It was because he inherited the throne without be the first in line. Later in his administration the Great Discoveries took place. Vasco da Gama turned the Cape of Good Hope in South Africa openning the way to India for the Portuguese commercial interests and Pedro Alvares Cabral discovered Brazil.
But it was too good. He fathered the next King of Portugal, Joao III, who fathered Maria, princess of Portugal, who had been the first wife of Felipe II, King of Spain. Joao III, King of Portugal had also a righteous son to be king with the name of Joao. And he fathered only one son, Sebastiao. Sebastiao became king but was kind of lunatic who wanted reedict the Cruzades and assembled his armies intended to conquest the Moors territory in North Africa. In there he disappeared from sight without leaving any heir. Felipe II saw in it his opportunity to conquer Portugal, unifying the two crowns. He got almost no resistance.
Only 60 years later, from 1,580 to 1,640, the sovereign Reign of Portugal were restored. Who became the king was D. Joao IV. These fourth Joao, King of Portugal, was algo the VIII Duque of Braganca. Going back in the lineage he was 5greatgrandson of D. Afonso, 1st Duke of Braganca and D. Beatriz Pereira Alvim, the daughter of D. Nuno Alvares Pereira.
Byond the name Coelho be involved in the ancestry of the kings of Portugal the women who was marriaged to the Duques of Braganca had many ancestors that also was ancestors of the lineages that fathered Jose Coelho de Magalhaes. Around the years 1,820s the Portuguese royal family was divided in two branches. One kept the reign in Portugal and another was established in Brazil. Later the Republic were proclaimed in Brazil in 1,889, what in Portugal came to happen only in 1,910.
In Spain we have the same families names as Portugal’s. Sometimes is said that, some just translated from one language to another. Even the Coelho is said to be signed as Conejo, which is the same Rabitt on both sides. But Portuguese people also use the names imported from Spain. Examples of it are, Menezes, Gurgel, Giron, Ponce de Leon, Lima, Bezerra, Lara, Maldonado and many more. One that I never saw in Brazil is Bivar. It appear in the name of D. Rodrigo Diaz de Bivar. He was called by the nickname of El Cid. Also Matamouro. Matamouro means Moors killer. A something that don’t add to ours ancestry but he is Jose Coelho de Magalhaes ancestor too. He is mentioned in the video “Islam, Empire of Faith” produced by www.pbs.org
I want to add one more event from Portuguese History in these chapter, intended more to show some curiosity than genealogy. A name often remembered from the Iberian Peninsula History is of Ines de Castro. Castro also is a noble name from Spain backyard, more precisely from Galicia, and is in our ancestry. But usually nobody knows who she was.
To start, lets read a little excerpt from the Wikipedia: “Ines came to Portugal in 1340 as a maid of Infanta Constance of Castile, recently married to Prince Pedro, the heir to the Portuguese throne. The prince fell in love with her and started to neglect his lawful wife, endangering the already feeble relations with Castile. Moreover, Pedro’s love for Ines brought the exiled Castilian nobility very close to power, with Ines’s brothers becoming the prince’s friends and trusted advisors. King Afonso IV of Portugal, Pedro’s father, disliked Ines’s influence on his son and waited for their mutual infatuation to wear off, but it did not.”
Afonso IV did everything on his power to separate the couple and didn’t reached his will. Then he ordered three of his most trustfull advisors to kill Ines. One of them was Pero Esteves Coelho, who is in our ancestry. Pedro gave his word to his father that he wouldn’t seek vengeance for the assassination. But after he succeeded his father it was just what he did. He captured two of the executioners and killed them by openning their chests and taking their hearts by hands, in a public exibition. It was for symbolize his own heartbroken.
Those passages where celebrated by the poet Luis Vaz de Camoes in his memorable epic, Os Lusiadas. The elements are all in there and I think that, Shakspeare did use it as inspiration for his novel, Romeo and Juliet. He though had the genius to soften the facts and displace the stage. I am not saying that, he copied Camoes. But, as usual, every artist is inspired by others works. And the best thing he did was just soften the facts because the truth was too much cruel. If he had his writings too close to the facts he would buy trouble for himself because the close relationship between England and Portugal.
The History is better than the novel in some way. Anybody who get the curiosity for it, the Internet is plenty on others informations.
In no moment is my goal show that I am descendant of Europeans royals and nobles families. I don’t think will get any benefit from it. What I want is show that, I don’t have any exclusivity on it. Since the Americas were colonized by Europeans I believe in that, the absolute majority of people born in all the Americas, with links to the Europeans families, is unquestionable descendant of royals and nobles Europeans families. It doesn’t guarantee to us no other privilege than we all be, in some way, cousins.
08. CENTURIES AND PEOPLE THAT DESIGNED OUR COMMON HISTORY
Commonly the History of United States is presented as an extension from the English History. But it is more a consequence of what had been occurred in Europe as a whole and it have close links to Brazilian History, although Brazil as an autonomous country didn’t exist yet.
Every major historic event in Europe, from the last centuries of Middle Ages left some fingerprint in our common History. Firstly, at the end of Middle Ages we have a powerful Catholic Church dominating everything of the day-by-day life in Europe. At the XIII century we have some discontentement with the deviation of the churchpeople behavior from what it should be. The Church Office is the superior power and allowed the aristocracy to exercise it on its behalf. The Church became an incestuous field where it as mother generates the aristocracy and together they generated the next generation of aristocratic people.
The people under their power was nothing more than slaves. Many new ideas, included religious ones, are discharged as simple heresies. The Church didn’t paid any attention to what was the craving from poor souls and fleshs. The Church put itself in a defense mode instead of allow any different form of thinking. It instituted the Saint Office Tribunal, commonly known as Inquisition. It meant that, not matter what you did, you would be accused of heresy if it involved any questioning about religious issues or authority issues. Everything became God’s mandate.
Another interesting chapter is about Renaissance. Some historians classifies it as an intellectual movement from the XIV to XVII centuries. And it started and came to us from Italy, bringing a changing in “literature, philosophy, art, politics, science, religion, and other aspects of intellectual inquiry” as it is described by the Wikipedia. Although this one is important one, we had a prior Renaissance within the Muslim Empire.
The Muslins already had translated many ancient texts from Latim and Greek origins. And they were the ones that applied it in they arts and lives. By bringing some reborn knowledge to Iberian Peninsula they caused the comparison to they Empire as light in contrast to the rest of Europe as totally darkness at earlier centuries of Middle Ages. Is because of that the Middle Ages are also called Dark Ages.
And I think that, was for the reason Europe was culturally behind Muslim world that the Reconquest in Iberian Peninsula took so long. After their establishment in there and demonstration of be a more tolerant power and more just at the time toward poor people, the people had not reason to revolt against them knowing that, it could meant a downgrade to their lives.
To push the people against the Muslins lords the Christians strategists came up with a series of demonizations, even accusing Abd al Rahman III ibn Muhammed, the Great of be an homossexual. They took advantage of the fact that, the Muslim leader had sent an young Christian, Pelagio, to death because he refused to convert to Islam. Although it is also horrible, Christians never felt ashamed of do the same to those who had other faiths. We known what were done to Pagans, Jews and even Muslins at that time. So, to accuse Abd al Rahman of homossexualism were more appealingly to the ignorant mobs from the Middle Ages. It still do, although it is not anymore the seven-heads-beast to most of us today.
Another chapter linked to it was the Crusades. The Crusades were a diversion tactic used by the Catholic Church for take from itself the attention for many missleadings commited by its administrators. It is an old practice used by bad leaders. Crusades are not exactly what is usually said to be. We had around a dozen Cruzades against Muslins power over Jerusalem and around others three dozens against them in Iberian Peninsula and against Europeans who had different beliefs from the Catholic dogmas. Even the Catholics from Iberian Peninsula was dismissed from fight against Muslins in Jerusalem because they were already engaged on it at their own lands.
But the Church tactics fired back. During the Crusades the European soldiers learned a better way of life and brought it to home. In their luggage came also new knowledge and the taste for goods that Europe didn’t offered. Even after the end of the Crusades for Jerusalem in the last years of the XII century the established trade didn’t stop. Muslims had the control of commerce from Asia and Africa but Italians were the ones who distributed it to the rest of Europe.
And is in these context that Europeans also start to look for humanistic knowledge which lead to break the Church’s monopoly. The clergy and aristocracy were no more the only ones able to produce and consume knowledge and expensive products. The population start growing in number and riches. The urbanization of the population once living most in the countryside is responsible for the emerging of a new class, the burgesses. The therm reffer to urban dweller.
The use and production of paper which Muslins had intensively trade from China and the invention of the press by Gutenberg were the preconditional tools to make knowledge available to the increasing number of schooling educated people. More knowledge also brought more available universities.
Portuguese people was long trying to make oceanic navivation and on that the great name is prince Henry the Navigator, son of king Joao I and Philippa de Lancaster, princess of England. He dedicated his entire life to the cause of navigation and it paid off. Firstly they started navigating around the African Coast where in 1,415 they conquered Ceuta from Moors forces. At that time they also asked permission to the pope for practice enslavery out of conquered Muslins and the authorization was granted. Later on this permission was reinterpreted for justify the enslavery of subsaharian Africans.
Along the XV century Portugueses also discovered the Archipelagos of Madeira and Azores. It is the begining of the Great Discoveries and the new colonization out of Iberian Peninsula. In 1,498 Vasco da Gama achieved the most of the Iberian ambitions finding the way to India through oceanic navigation. In april 21, 1,500, the capitain Pedro Alvares Cabral find what his tripulation thought to be an island but they had arrived in Brazil. Later the mistake were corrected but the Portuguese crown dedicated itself almost entirely to the easier way to make riches through commerce with the East. Brazil stood as minor interest for 50 years.
At the Spain’s side the monarchs Fernando II, the Catholic, King of Aragon and his wife, Isabel, the Catholic, Queen of Castilla ended the Reconquista of Spain, taken the last Muslim Reign, Granada, at 1,492. In 1,494 they stroke great luck as Christopher Columbus arrived in Americas sayling westbound ways instead of India as he was looking for. At the same year Spain and Portugal signed the Treaty of Tordesilhas that guarantee a sharing of whole Americas for both. The part granted to Portugal was no more than what is today almost all of Brazilian Northeast and half of Southeast regions. It is around a quarter of today Brazil’s lands but dozens of times bigger than Portugal itself.
Now we have to use our brains to understand the situation. Just after those facts the long time hardwork in Portugal was paying back. And Spain was struggling with the incompetence of its administrators. They had conquered Granada and soon after what they did was to kill or enslave one fifth of Muslims population. Two fitths were expelled back to Moors dominion in North Africa. The two fifth left were persecuted in such ways that they also left later. They did the same to Jews. And these ones migrated to a more tolerant places where today is Netherland, Belgium, Luxembourg, Germany, Polony and another countries around. Later on their offsprings will regret such decision although not one knew what was to come.
As I said before, Portugal had not more than 1.7 million inhabitants at that time. Spain expelled around one million which was a considerable part of its population. Among the expelled, killed or enslaved was most of its craftsmanship and entrepreneurs. They used the religion as excuse to do that. But what they was really looking for was to make a quick money to finance the exploitation of the promessing new colonies.
It is what we always see in History. Bad governors don’t look further to do their acts. If their administration is in needy of a major amount of money they first thinking is from whom they will take it. The Muslins and Jews were the first victims of the Spainish discoveries. The Amerindians and Africans were affected just after. But as we will see later, the people from Spain became also victim by the foolishness of their kings.
I didn’t mention before but was another major fact that help design our History from the XV century on. It started with Eramus of Rotterdam’s critics on Churchmen behavior. His intent was that, to change the behavior within the Church. But the extreme pride among clergypeople wouldn’t allow such thing. After him came others like Martin Luther and John Calvin (Jean Cauvin) who were more explicit in their criticism of the old ways used by the Catholic Church. Their attitude lead to the movement called Reformation. And even Luther regretted the upheaval he had unintentionally provoked.
Along the centuries the Catholic Church had acting as deaf in front of the demanded changings by the people. It monopolized the knowledge and interpretation of the Christian Scriptures. The written books were only in latim language which was a dead language out the priesthood corners. Even second class priests didn’t knew some aspects of the language. Then, when Luther translated it to common language many people could see the difference between what was written and what was being thought.
After that the Reformation was in place. We had many conflicts around Europe and some princes and kings seized the opportunity to get rid with the Vatican. Basically the Reformation gave them the opportunity of have a national religion with could be used on themselves interests. Later on it brought to the Enlightened Despotism or Enlightened Absolutism which was administrations of kings that thought that, they don’t had to render account to nobody but God Himself. Examples of countries that were freed from the Vatican’s influence, Sweeden, Finland, many parts of Germany, England and many more. Examples of those that opposed Reformation was Portugal, Spain and Italy.
And the kings from those nations linked the upheaval just after the begining of Reformation to the literacy. So the illiteracy became a tool in their hands for the domination of themselves peoples. They kept the biblical text in latim and the people without letters. These was one of the reason that fired back against the people and those countries and their colonies. The upheaval was not a direct consequence of the Reformation but of the Papacy and kings hardheaded.
For I make the chapter a little more interesting, I need to post here two more sequences of genealogy. The first one is one example of how the king Fernando II, was descendant of the kings of Portugal.
1,261 D. Dinis, king of Portugal – Saint Isabel of Aragon
1,290 D. Constanca, princess of Portugal – Fernando IV, King of Castilla
1,311 Alfonso XI, king of Castilla – Leonor Nunez de Guzman
1,335 Fradique Alfonso de Castilla – unknown wife
1,354 Alfonso Enriquez de Castilla – Juana Mendoza de Ayala
1,390 Fradique Enriquez de Castilla – Mariana Ayala de Cordoba
1,425 Juana Enriquez – Juan II, king of Aragon
1,452 Fernando II, the Catholic, King of Aragon – Isabel, the Catholic, Queen of Castilla
The second is from the ancestry of king Felipe II. It will help us to explain some links between the Histories of United States, Iberian Peninsula and Brazil.
1,357 D. Joao I, king of Portugal – Philippa of Lancaster, princess of England
1,391 D. Duarte, king of Portugal – Leonor, princess of Aragon
1,434 D. Leonor, princess of Portugal – Friedrich III, kaiser des Heiligen Romischen Reiches
1,459 Maximilian I von Osterreich – Marie, duchesse of Bourgogne
1,478 Philipp I der Schone, Erzherzog von Osterreich and king of Castilla – Juana, la Loca, Queen of Castilla
1,500 Karl V, Kaiser des Heiligen Romischen Reiches, king of Spain – D. Isabel, princess of Portugal
1,527 Felipe II, king of Spain - D. Maria/Mary I/Elisabeth of Valois/Anna von Osterreich
Now what we have here?! Felipe II had four strategical marriages that put him in the way of successory process of other countries. His first wife, Maria, was daughter of D. Joao III, king of Portugal. Mary I, was queen of England. Elisabeth was princess of France, daughter of Henry II, king of France. And Anna was daughter of the Kaiser Maximilian II. His mother, D. Isabel, was daughter of D. Manuel I, king of Portugal. And his grandmother, Juana, the Crazy, was daughter of Fernando II, the Catholic and Isabel, the Catholic. Waw! It is something to be counted for!
His father, Charles V, kaiser of the German Sacro Empire was in the front line of opposition against the Reformation. And he just followed his steps.
After the Reformation in its way the Catholic Church and the kings that was against it called for the Counter-Reformation. And the Catholic Church were also reformed but although it became a better Church than what was before, was not enough to regain the lost power. The countries that adopted new faiths didn’t returned to Catholicism, except for Polony, Bohemia, Hungary, and were partially effective in Netherlands, France and South of Germany. Among the changes approved by the Counter-Reformation was the creation of the Order of Jesuits by Ignacio de Loyola.
As the Old World was no more a monopoly of Catholic Church and faith the Jesuits were used as spear points in the catechism of the New World. And as the domain of Spain and Portugal were set up worldwide the Catholicism was also brought with them.
I have to turn back to an important issue. The Spanish Inquisition. Inquisition was long used by Catholic Church at Middle Ages times. And it was disarmed for good. But the Catholics kings, Fernando II of Aragon and his wife Isabel the Castilla blackmailled the pope to authorize them to have its tools at hand for use against their enemies. They said to the pope that, if they don’t got what they wanted they would call back the army that was in use to protect the Vatican’s interests.
As the pope was in a inferior position he accepted but later regreted because the Spanish Inquisition was used against good Christians also. The permitission was intent to give power to the kings to prosecute forceful converted Jews or Muslins that returned to their old faiths. Those kings had decided to forcefully convert the followers of others faith in a decree which statuted that, the conversion was an obligation and the option was, move out of their helm of power. Many people had been baptized as Christians but secretly kept practicing their faith.
But the Spanish Inquisition in the hands of Tomas de Torquemada, the old confessor of Queen Isabel, became a tool for terrorize any opposition. And it sent part of the Spanish people to others corners of the planet just because they had Jewish or Muslim faiths.
Later I must get back to these issue. In our days we have a part of American population trying to send back 12,000,000 of undocumented immigrants as it was the right way of solve our economics problems. They are been mislead by false prophets and false prophecies. Even the President of the United States Mr. Barack H. Obama and his staff, after around just 2.5 years in power, had been complying with their distorted ways of see things, and already deported around 1,000,000 of our valuable undocumented citizens. It is already firing back unto us.
Recently Mr. Obama suspended the massive deportation in an attempt to review it case alleging his administration want send back just those that are involved in crimes. The suspicion is that he is using just a strategy for not lose the immigrants votes in the election next year. Without it he probably will lose his reelection. The truth if that, by his words appear the president understand the risks of United States loses such population but by the past posture of his administration he looks just like a fool.
The proof that D. Manuel I, the Lucky One, was not so lucky came with his marriages. He had three wives. The first was Isabel de Aragon y Castilla; the second was Maria de Aragon y Castilla. Both was sisters and daughters of Fernando II and Isabel. The third one was Leonor de Austria, princess of Spain. She was daughter of Charles V, the Kaiser, and king of Spain, who was also father of Felipe II, king of Spain. So he was not only strained by the borders with Spain but also by the marriages.
And one condition on his marriages was that, he had to do the same in Portugal as the kings in Spain. D. Manuel I was not willing to apply it on the Portuguese people. But he had to do something. And the Portuguese were more liberals in these issue and allowed Jews migrated to its colonies, even Brazil. Probably at that time the Muslim population in Portugal was already small because Portugal had long reconquered its territory and who hadn’t converted on that another time, around 1,250, thought better move to Muslim’s territories in Spain.
Portugal had being the responsible for the begining of the Great Navigations and as the Brazilian saying teachs us, Killed two rabitts in an only one stick swing. Slowly but surely, the worldwide commerce was dislocated from Italian Cities and Muslins around the Mediterranean Cities to Lisbon. The cities state in Italy had the monopoly before to make commerce with the Muslins.
But Spain had some share on it because Granada was part of the Muslim Empire. When Fernado II and Isabel conquered Granada and start to persecute Muslims because their faith it fired back on its economy. Lisbon became the attractive port for merchants once residents in Italy and the Muslim world. It is the first migration in History where the rich people migrated to a new place searching for new opportunities. Usually, migration is related to poor and persecuted.
The enviroment that they encountered in Portugal was different from what they had in Italy. In Portugal and Spain the kings was looking for businesses that pay taxes and wanted the monopoly for the State. But in Italy they had begun the first notions of capitalism. They had banks and already worked with papers. The only one other place that they could find a similar economic enviroment was in the cities where today is Netherland. The cities there were like the long gone Cities States of ancient Greecy.
Netherland was before just a County, territory of Burgandy. But it were inherited by Charles V, the kaiser of the Sacro German Empire, and king of Spain. Charles V had fighted against the Reformation but were not able to impose his will. Part of his old possessions became more liberal in relationship to religion. Then, Protestants, Jews and Catholics was freed to make their businesses in the cities like Amsterdan and Rotterdan as well as practice their religions. But that part of the Empire were gave to Felipe II, as present from his father, Charles V.
One sign about the Italian importance in the commerce and transcontinental navigation is the names of some of the explorers on the Great Discoveries. As we know, Christopher Columbus is credited as the first capitain to drive a fleet to the New World. Amerigo Vespucci was in the fleet capitained by Pedro Alvares Cabral that first went to Brazil. And Giovanni da Verrazzano was the first to navigate the North American Atlantic Coast, under the service of France, in 1,524, where he entered the New York Harbor and Narragansett Bay. Martin Waldssemuller named the new continent America on his world map of 1,507 in Lorraine, after the latinized name Amerigo, in honor to Vespucci.
The general public learned about the discovery of the New World only in 1,503, through the publication of a letter attributed to Amerigo Vespucci. We must never forget that, at the time of the Great Navigations the sailors was like the astronauts of today. What they encountered could be comparable to discover a new planet with life, plenty of alien plants, plenty of alien animals and plenty of alien civilizations. And the secrecy looked out for the monopoly of exploration.
I will post here two more genealogical sequences. The first one pertain to Nicolau Coelho. He was pilot of ship and navigated in the expedition of D. Vasco da Gama. Whem they went back he was so excited about the discovery that departed in the expedition of Pedro Alvares Cabral who arrived in Brazil. Later he died, in 1,504, returning from India, probably at the Mozambique Coast.
1,450 Nicolau Coelho – Brites Rodrigues de Ataide
1,420 Pedro Coelho – Luisa de Gois
1,400 Catarina de Freitas - Fernao Coelho, I lord of Felgueiras and Vieira
1,380 Mecia Vaz Sampaio – Martim Fernandes de Freitas
1,360 D. Maria Pereira – Vasco Pires de Sampaio
1,370 D. Maria de Menezes – Alvaro Pereira
1,330 D. Afonso Telo de Menezes – unknown wife
1,310 D. Guiomar Lopes Pacheco – D. Joao Afonso Telo de Menezes
1,290 D. Maria Rodrigues de Vilalobos – D. Lopo Fernandes Pacheco
1,260 Rui Gil de Vilalobos – Teresa Sanchez
1,240 Maria Diaz de Haro – D. Rui Gil de Vilalobos
1,220 Lope Lopez de Haro, el Chico – Berengaria Gozalez Giron
1,190 Urraca Alfonso de Leon – Lope III Diaz de Haro
1,171 Alfonso IX, king of Leon and Castilla – Inez Iniguez de Mendonza
1,151 D. Urraca, princess of Portugal – Fernando II, king of Leon
1,109 D. Afonso Henriques, 1st king of Portugal – Mahaut de Savoie
Well, I don’t think we need to repeat what comes next. At the third line from these genealogical sequence we can see the names Catarina de Freitas and Fernao Coelho. Back at the chapter 5 they are there as ancestors of my supposed ancestor, Jose Coelho de Magalhaes. Some time ago I looked at the site geneall.net - Portugal to verify if Nicolau Coelho had our blood in his veins and the site was silent about it. Now looks like an actualization were done. So, it is new even for me. In the present lineage we can point out many others common ancestors like the name Pereira from Nicolau’s greatgrandmother come from the same ancestors of D. Nuno Alvares Pereira.
Only one observation about that sequence. If we look at the dates prior the names we will see some incoherence in the sequence because appear that, D. Maria de Menezes were born after her daughter, D. Maria Pereira. But it comes because the dates come from differents documents and not always from the birth certificates. Some of the dates come from estimations because not everyone of our ancestors had a birth certificate or baptism certification. Usually, the dates come from the registrations of marriages.
Lets post also the genealogical sequence for Pedro Alvares Cabral.
1,468 Pedro Alvares Cabral – D. Isabel de Castro
1,433 Isabel Gouveia de Queiroz – Fernao Cabral
1,405 Joao Gouveia de Queiroz – Leonor Fernandes Coutinho
1,380 Leonor Alvares de Queiroz – Vasco Fernandes Gouveia
1,350 D. Elvira de Castro – Fernao Goncalves de Queiroz
1,310 D. Alvaro Pires de Castro – Maria Ponce de Leon
1,290 Pedro Fernandes de Castro – Aldonca Lourenco de Valadares
1,270 Violante Sanchez – Fernando Rodrigues de Castro
1,250 D. Maria Afonso Teles de Menezes – Sancho IV, king of Castilla
1,225 D. Afonso Teles de Menezes – Maior Gonzalez de Giron
1,205 D. Teresa Sanchez – Alfonso Tellez
1,154 D. Sancho I, king of Portugal – D. Maria Pais Ribeiro
1,109 D. Afonso Henriques, 1st king of Portugal – Mahaut de Savoie
To simplify our data here I didn’t mention the many titles those personalities used. But as I extensively searched the ancestors of Jose Coelho de Magalhaes I noticed many others links between his ancestry and these bunch of historical figures. One example of another common ancestor that those navigator shared is D. Alfonso IX present in the lineage of Nicolau Coelho. He was ancestor of Sancho IV, king of Castilla, present as ancestor for Pedro Alvares Cabral.
Another important personality in our History books is Fernao de Magalhaes (Magellan), the navigator. He was the capitain of the fleet that circumnavigated Earth the first time in History. He died during the voyage, in 1,521, but his name stood as the one who did it. He also is descendant of many of those ancestors above. And was direct descendant of D. Afonso III, king of Portugal, and Maria Peres de Enxara.
About Vasco da Gama the most wolrdly known navigator from that time we don’t have data saying he had familiar links with the royal or noble families. But his wife, Catarina de Ataide had. She was descendant of Egas Moniz, o Aio and so of Charlesmagne; Hugues I Capet, king of France and Fernando I Magno, king of Leon and Castilla. From the side of Egas Moniz, she was in the lineage that created the family name Fonseca (dry fountain). D. Vasco da Gama became the second vice-roy in India. And although it don’t come from him I found in the Internet a family from there with the signature Fonseka and they claim be descendants from the Portuguese Fonseca.
The fact of all major Portuguese explorers were from nobles families indicates to us that, the secrecy of the exploration was in course. And it was used to avoid the competition with other countries. Since the begining, Portugal and Spain did everything in their power to keep the monopoly of the colonization of the New World. But, as Brazilians say, they just wanted to hug the world with their legs. The world was to big to such small population that lived in Iberian Peninsula. And the kings of Spain, with their pride and prejudice just let go a better rule for themselves in our History.
09. THE BEGINING OF NEW YORK AND UNITED STATES
Before I take the issue we have to recall some of the common History of Americas. Prior to 1,600 the Americas were pratically a monopoly of Spain and Portugal. And just after the modern discovery it was not paying back the expenses for its discovery. What drove most of the expeditions on the earlier days was to find a new way to Oriental Indias, as Portuguese and Spanishs called Asia. Portugal was already profiting for his discovery around Africa. And except for the luxurious biological diversity they thought Americas had nothing more to offer. The mention of “Em se plantando, tudo da.” (If you plant anything, will harvest), by the scriber of the Cabral’s expedition, Pero Vaz de Caminha, wasn’t taken seriously at first.
So, as the difficulties of initial exploration was amountening the use of imagination also exploded. Three legendary accountings populated the heads of the adventurers at the time. One was the Fountain of Youth. It came from Greek mythology as if was possible to have a spring of waters that give us eternal life in our bodies. The second was the “El Dourado” or a city casted in gold. And the third was the “Emerald Mountain”.
In the earlier days of exploration, Juan Ponce de Leon came to Americas in the second voyage lead by Christopher Columbus. He was a veteran of the War of Reconquista and helped in the fight for Granada in Spain. Following directions gathered with caribbeans natives he conquered Puerto Rico. After he be established as governor of the island he was overthowed by his adversaries. But he kept his dreams and went to Bimini Island, Bahamas, following a native legend of an Youth Fountain there. At these voyage he experienced the Gulf Stream which is a strong current from the Gulf of Mexico to Europe, later on used to boost the sail boats returning to there.
From Bimini he kept looking for the Fountain of Youngh and ended at the Florida Coast. The name Florida come from the time he discovered Florida which was Easter (Pascua Florida in Spanish). The name also is linked to the lush vegetation. Florida in English means Blossom and should not be pronounced with ascent on its first syllable since the name is not translated. Flores and flowers are the synonyms for Spanish and English. Juan Ponce the Leon never found what he was looking for and died from a wound of an indian arrow, in 1,521, after be retrieved from Florida to Cuba.
More than twenty years after the discovery, Vasco Nunez de Balboa were the first one to find a passage from the Atlantic Boundaries to the Pacific. He crossed the Isthmus of Panama in 1,513 opening the way to Spanish people to conquer the West Coast of Americas.
Only in 1,519 Hernan Cortez with cleverness and help of the enemies of Mayans conquered the City of Mexico and its Empire. Immediately after begun the flow of riches that Spanish kings was long looking for. The Mayan Civilization had long the knowledge to work with precious metals and gems. Then, instead of have to work for it they just took from the others treasury.
Since the passage through the Isthmus of Panama was open it made easier to Spanishs make contact with the Incas living in the high Andes in 1,532. And Francisco Pizarro conquered the people and brought more riches to Spain.
But what excited the European Imagination were a desastrous voyage made by Francisco de Orellana and his companions. He tried something different for the time. From Peru they travel into the Amazon Forest. First they disassembled their boats, carried it through the mountains and forest until found navigable rivers at Amazon Basin. Then they start a difficult voyage looking for the way to the Atlantic again.
His voyage were recorded by Friar Gaspar de Carvajal and were done at the years 1,541 and 1,542. Just some of the initial group survived but was enough to Friar Carvajal describe a civilization that lived on the Amazon Basin that was so large that they could see their houses shining white during the day and their fires during the night for hundreds of miles. Constantly they had to navigate in the middle rivers to avoid native’s arrows.
But they also were invited by some to eat their surprising abundant table. The Spaniards never had seen such variety of hunt, fish, fruits and vegetables. And the descriptions of Friar Carvajal was taken as legend because later on that civilizations were never found, until now. But it created the legend of “El Dourado”. For centuries Europeans were looking for cities casted in rock and covered in gold as they was used to see in many ancient civilizations around the world. But in the Amazon Basin rock is scarce.
Only recently the account of Friar Carvajal is been proven. The Amazon loam is a poor soil. And if wasn’t for the rain forest it would be like a desert. Archaelogists then found numerous sites of habitations on the margins of the rivers. More than that, they also found miles and miles of man made loam. Those sites are called “Terra Preta” or ”Terra Preta de Indio” (Black loam” or “Indian’s Black Loam”). They discovered also that, it begun to be built in around 500 years BC and extended to after 900 AD. It is the common loam added by charcoal, animal bones and manure and broken pottery.
The length is variable between 3 to 6 foots from the superficie. And thousands of years later the soils still working fine even suggesting that are some microbiological components because are accounts of regenerations after part of the soil be removed. What is amazing is that, there are the equivalent of France and Germany size together of man made “Terra Preta” in the Amazon Basin. Scientists are trying to reproduce such formidable agricultural advance but didn’t realized yet how it was made. The “Terra Preta” production of food may be better than our most advanced technology of today. If so, can be used for save billions of lives in the future.
Yet, in the stage of civilization the European people was at XVI century they may wouldn’t conquer the Americas from native population if had not help from Hell. What I mean is that, inadivertently they brought with them their common diseases like measles, smallpox, tuberculosis and even cold or influenza. Since millennia the peoples from Africa, Asia and Europe were in contact to each other and also in contact to big domestic animals. It gave them certain amount of immunity against many germs that was deadly to Americans natives peoples. In a rough calculation some say that around 90% of the population were dead after encounter the Europeans. In some cases, they were infected before even knew any European and it was cause of the extermination of entire civilizations.
Now, scientists are taking the conclusion that it was just what was happen to Amazon Basin Civilizations. And the European who was looking for cities made out of rock were totally mislead by their ignorance. The civilizations that lived in the Amazon Basin constructed from what was most available to them, wood, soil and others parts of plants.
At that voyage made by Francisco Orellana the name of the river was changed to Amazon. The legend says that, the navigators saw what appeared to them be horsewomen riding their ponies at the river banks. Then the name of the river was a remembrance of the Amazons from the Greek History. Still in Portuguese language the word amazonas means horsewomen or cowgirls.
All the Spanish explorers are from noble families. I took a look at the geneall.net – Portugal but the site is not showing it yet. Some of them like Juan Ponce de Leon have some ancestors there without the links to the royal families. But I know that, the name Ponce de Leon is a result from the marriage between Aldonca Alonso de Leon and Pedro Ponce de Cabrera. D. Aldonca was daughter of Alfonso IX, king of Castilla and Leon with D. Aldonca Martins da Silva. And she was born around 1,215. Otherwise the last names of the female ancestors of Juan are commonly used in noble families such as Guzman, Baeza, Ayala, Figueroa y Manuel.
Another interesting observation is about Francisco Pizarro, the Conqueror of the Inca Empire. The site doesn’t indicates he come from the royal families but, as a conqueror, the first treasure he took from the Incas were two of the daughters of Atahualpa, the last Inca Emperor, who was killed by the Spanish to pave their way to keep the Empire. Angelina and Ines Youpanqui were part of a pattern of behavior of Portuguese and Spanish conquerors. At the XVI century most of them didn’t brought their Caucasian women. Instead, they marriaged to or simple pass to live with some new converted native.
Lets go to the Portuguese side of the History. Although Pedro Alvares Cabral is said to be the first Portuguese to went Brazil, have some controversy about it. We know that, the Spanish explorer Francisco Yanez Pinzon were at the Brazilian Coast before. And he went the Amazon River. His expedition even gave the name “Mar Dulce” (Sweet Sea) to it, maybe not realizing it was a river, three months before Cabral. But there was not Brazil yet because by the Treaty of Tordesilhas it belonged to Spain.
Others Portuguese explorers are also said to be in Americas, even before Chrstopher Columbus. Is said that, Afonso Sanches was the one who indicated where was the Antilhes Islands because he had been there before, when the famous explorer arrived in Madeira Island. And at least two other Portugueses, Joao Coelho and Duarte Pacheco, had been in Brazil before the year 1,500. But officially the one who got the orders from D. Manuel I, the Lucky One, to take posse of the land were Cabral.
For thirty years the only economic activity Portugal had in Brazil was the exploitation of brazilwood which offerred a prized red dye to Europeans. Brazil also had many others wood along its lush green carpet at the whole coastal area. The exploitation were so intense that today Brazil’s Coasts have just a remote remembrance of what was before. Mostly of Brazilians don’t even know the brasilwood tree that gave name to the country.
About the thirty initial years is said that, Brazil became the place for expatriated criminals. And is current a mockery about it. “An Angel asked God, My Lord, all the others countries in the world have serious problems such as vulcanoes, earthquakes, tornadoes, Hurracanes, enormous mountains, snow, cold winters, deserts and more, why should You grant to Brazilians a so Eden like place? And God responded to the Angel, My friend, you need to take a better look. Did you noticed the quality of people is destined to live there?
The mockery is repeated by the ignorant people not realizing that, the initial expatriated that was sent to Brazil was probably not criminals like assassins and thieves. They were exiled because their different beliefs or because were in a political opposition party. The joke was also used by prejudicial people every time Brazilian economy went one of its downs. And it was more often than highs. And those prejudicial people, usually the rich or descendants of noble origins, referred as “Joe little people” the descendance of native Brazilians, Africans and the exileds, linking them to the mockery.
As we will see later, most of Brazilian, at least those who have roots from the Brazilian colonial times, are descendants of all of them. And more, the “Joe little people” was never in fall. They never were in charge of nothing and their hardwork was allways used for the riches of a small elite. The mockery was always a trick from the cowards and the evil-minded who wanted to blame the victims for their own crimes.
In the thirty first years the Portuguese colonization in Brasil isn’t resumed only to trade valuable wood for trifles between indigenous peoples and the colonizers as it is mentioned by some historians. The most important event from that time was just the initiation of the genetics of Brazilian people. We must remember that the English colonization begun more than one century after the one of Spanish and Portuguese. The begining of each one have a different motivation. And, most of all, Spanish and Portuguese didn’t sent women with the colonists since their culture was malecentric and the oceanic travelling yet was in an experimental stage.
Then the Portuguese men couldn’t help themselves against their maleish instincts. And they felt in love with the “indias” at the first sight. They had too much time for gather the brazilwood with the help of the indians and pile it up along the shore lines, in some improvised warehouses, waiting the next shipment that could be in six months or next year. They never was sure. Meanwhile they occupied their time making the next generation, literally.
Martim Afonso de Sousa was sent to Brazil to organize the first attempt of colonization there. Portugal was aware about the incursions of English, French and Dutch expoiling the brazilwood in the absence of Portuguese defenders. Sousa went Brazil to establish colonies and organize the defense of the territory. With the help of Jesuits he found Sao Vicente, the first Brazilian City and Sao Paulo de Piratininga, where today is Sao Paulo, the biggest city there and Also Santos City, the busiest port in South America, and Santo Andre, which became a industrial city, near Sao Paulo City.
In 1,533 he went back to Portugal and was sent to India where he also was needed to defend the Portuguese possessions there. In 1,542 he was named Vice-Roy of India. He end his days back in Portugal, where he died at 1,571.
The next chapter of Brazilian History is known as Hereditary Captancies. Just after Martim Afonso de Sousa been in Brazil, the king D. Joao III start taking others measures to defend Portuguese colonies from alien invasions. What was decided was to divide the Brazilian territory in colonies given to noblepeople to start the European Colonization effectively. To Martim Afonso de Sousa was given two of the colonies, Sao Vicente and Rio de Janeiro. But he never went back there. Only his descendants inherit it.
Martim Afonso de Sousa established a pattern of organization that prevailled in Brazilian adminstration for centuries. His son Pero Lopes de Sousa inherited the Capitancy of Sao Vicente. And, probably, his son-in-law, Estevao Gomes da Costa inherited the Capitancy of Rio de Janeiro. I am saying probably because I am not so sure but my doubt is based in facts. Is my intention to show one more genealogical sequence to give a better idea of what was going on in Brazil at that time.
1,210 D. Afonso III, king of Portugal – Madragana or Mor Afonso
1,250 Martim Afonso Chichorro – Ines Lourenco de Valadares
1,280 Martim Afonso Chichorro II – D. Aldonca Anes de Briteiros
1,320 Vasco Martins de Sousa Chichorro – Ines Dias Manoel
1,341 Martim Afonso de Sousa – Aldonca Rodrigues de Sa
1,385 Martim Afonso de Sousa – Violante Lopes de Tavora
1,425 Pedro de Sousa – Maria Pinheiro
1,460 Lopo de Sousa – Brites de Albuquerque
1,490 Martim Afonso de Sousa – unknown wife
Isabel Lopes de Sousa – Estevao Gomes da Costa
Felipa Gomes da Costa – Vasco Pires da Mota
Atanasio da Mota – Luzia Machado
Eufemia da Costa Mota – Joao de Godoy Moreira
Gaspar de Godoy Colaco – Sebastiana Ribeiro de Morais
Maria Pedroso de Morais – Joao Correia da Silva
Escolastica de Morais – Joao da Cunha Ataide
Maria Candida da Cunha Ataide – Francisco Joaquim de Andrade
1,798 Francisco de Paula Andrade – Joana Rosa de Andrade Lage
1,835 Elias de Paula Andrade – Rosa Amelia Silveira Drummond
1,860 Carlos de Paula Andrade – Julieta Augusta Drummond
1,902 Carlos Drummond de Andrade – Julieta Augusta Drummond
From what was going on in Brazil I decided to elongate the genealogical sequence were Martim Afonso is almost in the middle. First of all I wanted to show the first couple which is formed by our known ancestor, king Afonso III of Portugal and his lover, Madragana. I already mentioned her because she was daughter of the mayor of Faro when the Reconquista of Portugal was done by that king. She came from a Jewish family and is ancestor of many important others, like queen Victoria of England.
But I also wanted to remember the Brazilian poet Carlos Drummond de Andrade who was just one of the descendants of Martim Afonso de Sousa. His family Andrade were established in Itabira City, Minas Gerais, since his greatgrandfather. One of my greatgrandmothers, Ercila Coelho de Andrade, was born there and passed to us that, she was the poet’s cousin but nobody paid attention on what degree or how it come. Through other lineage I discovered that, the poet is also descendant of D. Dinis, king of Portugal and also is cousin of the most famous Portuguese poet, Luis Vaz de Camoes.
Today we have tried to find the link but untill now we are empthanded. At the time all registers was made by the Catholic Church and the ink of some pages of the books from Itabira evaporated. To see what is written on it today we need special tools that we can’t afford. So we need patience and luck because in Brazil some people can take the books and just throw it away imagining that, it have not any interest.
Since now I will indicate the following video in these address: http://e-relevante2009.blogspot.com/2010/4/apresentacao-de-belo-horizonte-para-o.html
. Don’t worry, is in English language and was produced by the American International Affair Department. It does a little idea about the links of partnership between Brazil and United States back in 1,948. Is interesting to you see it because it shows Itabira, Belo Horizonte, Ouro Preto City and Minas Gerais. Pay special attention on what is said about the strategic position of the State to the American defense at that time. I will remind later the video.
But I also intend to show something interesting about Brazilian History. In United State we have the Legend of Pokahontas based in real facts. Brazil also have many stories that looks similar to one of Pocahontas. One of this is about Joao Ramalho. The legend about him say that, he was about to be killed by a indian chief when the daughter’s Chief put herself between the two and asked for his life because she planned marriage him. And it is only in the legend.
In fact, what we know is that, when Martim Afonso de Sousa arrived in Sao Vicente his staff were surrounded by members of the local tribe. When they thought they had to fight for their lives someone came to just announce that, everything was ok. Was Joao Ramalho, a Portuguese adventurer who had long been friend with the indians. Ramalho had left his wife in Portugal. And the father Manoel da Nobrega, who was a Jesuit among the Sousa’s staff, marriaged him to a old companion named Bartira. Bartira was also Christianized with the name fo Isabel Dias. She was daughter of Tibirica, the great cacique (chief) of the trbe.
But it is not the entire truth. The indians hadn’t rules against man have more than one woman. As they regarded Ramalho with great respect many other chiefs also brought him their daughters. And he was a many times bigamous. But nobody was concerning about it in such enviroment. Ramalho and his many sons lived around where is Sao Vicente, Santos, Sao Paulo and the Ribeira Valle. They furnished to the coming ships goods from the land, made repairs on ships, and hunted indians from others tribes to sale them to slavery. Also is said that, the sons of Joao Ramalho was particularly cruels to their own kins.
Like that it is how the Brazilian genetics starts. And I will put one more genealogical sequence showing one way how, probably, millions of Brazilian are direct descendants of native Brazilians. I want show one example how the descendants of Martim Afonso de Sousa and Joao Ramalho are the same. He was with Sousa in the foundation of Sao Vicente, Sao Paulo and Santo Andre and if was not for him, maybe we would have a different History in Brazil. Another observation about Joao Ramalho is that, some historians suspect he were a New Converted (Jew converted to Christianity). His parents names was Joao Velho Maldonado and Catarina Afonso.
Tibirica – unknown wife
1,500 Isabel Dias (Bartira) - 1,493 Joao Ramalho
Catarina Ramalho – Bartolomeu Camacho
Unknow Camacho – Jeronimo Dias Cortes
Ana Camacho - Domingos Luis, the charcoal maker
Bernarda Luis Camacho – 1,575 Amador Bueno da Ribeira, the acclaimed
Isabel da Ribeira – Domingos da Silva Guimaraes
Isabel da Silva Bueno – 1,670 Domingos de Castro Correia
Joao Correia da Silva – Maria Pedroso de Morais.
From that point we came back to the ancestors of the poet Carlos Drummond. The couple above is one of his 3greatgrandparents shown in the previous genealogical sequence.
Our next topic will be the Hereditaries Captaincies. As I said before, the king Joao III of Portugal must had been advised by Martim Afonso de Sousa about the raids that pirates from others Europeans nations was doing to take goods from Brazilian Coast and he decided to create the Hereditaries Captaincies. It was based on an previous experience done in Madeira Island. The Brazilian territory colonised by Portugal were divided in 15 parts. Each one given to a nobleman to administrate. All the risks and financial obligations was assumed by the Captain-Mor, the private entrepreneur. The entrepreneur got the power to do decisions there.
But only two of the captaincies brought good results. Both of them had prioritized the exploration on sugar cane fields. One was the Pernambuco Captaincy which was owned by Duarte Coelho. Today, in the same place we have the Pernambuco State replacing that Captaincy. Begining in that time the Brazilian History Books classifies the next 150 years as Sugarcane Cycle. Lets post one more genealogical sequence.
1,370 Fernao Coelho, 1st lord of Felgueiras and Vieira – Catarina de Freitas
1,420 Martim Coelho – Joana de Azevedo
1,435 Goncalo Coelho – (Violante Magalhaes)
1,480 Duarte Coelho, lord of Pernambuco – Beatriz de Albuquerque
1,539 Jorge de Albuquerque Coelho – D. Catarina da Silva
1,591 Duarte de Albuquerque Coelho, count of Pernambudo – D. Joana de Castro
I started from Fernao Coelho and Catarina de Freitas now because they are already present at the chapter 5 as ancestors of Jose Coelho de Magalhaes and at the chapter 7 as grandparents of Nicolau Coelho, the pilot of ship from the voyages of D. Vasco da Gama and Pedro Alvares Cabral. So Duarte Coelho was a close kin of Nicolau. We have to take some precaution here into interpret that Violante Magalhaes was the mother of Duarte Coelho. Probably not. He was son of Goncalo Coelho, 3rd lord of Felgueiras and Vieira, but none is sure about the name of his mother.
Duarte Coelho was called by king Sebastiao of Portugal to his desastrous adventure in the North of Africa and where he disappeared. The death of D. Sebastiao ended been taken to Felipe II as opportunity for united the two crows. The period between 1,580 to 1,640 Portugal and Spain formed the Iberic Union under the crown of Spain. This period is classified as Philipine Dynasty because Portugal were administrated by three kings named Philip, from Spain.
In Pernambuco, Duarte Coelho founded his capital, Olinda. (Oh Beauty). The legend says that, at the first sight Coelho said the words and the name were stamped. He probably also brought with him a family of colonists that signed Barbalho. The Barbalho family is present in the next chapter of Brazil’s History but is largely ignored by historians outside the State of Bahia. The family also have an important link in the History of New York, although it is indirect.
Just to illustrate the undermeaning of what of the facts that helped construct our common History I will put here something happen to me in United States. I saw a advertisement on tv from the Historical Research Corp saying that, we could contact them and they would send us something about our family name origins. And more, we could ask about a second name, charge free. So I asked about my two names, Magalhaes and Barbalho. The Magalhaes name they got right. But about the Barbalho they sent me the answer that I will copy here.
“The Historical Research Center has been researching names for nearly 20 years. Our database is the most extensive of its kind in the world covering over 1,000,000 names from 135 different countries and cultures. Each name is researched individually and specific information is provided relating to the name.
Unfortunately, one of the names you ordered for the free Origin and Meaning scroll is not currently on our database. We are sending out the rest of your order. Our database is constantly being updated with new names and information about the names that we have already researched. As a valued customer, we are offering a 25% discount if you wish to place an order for a Celebration Scroll for this name that is not currently on our database. By ordering a Celebration Scroll for this name, our researchers will compose a document that will contain fascinating information about the name including the earliest recorded date and the circumstances surrounding that event, the meaning and origin, specific historical references to bearers of the name, immigration details, variant spellings and notable bearers. We also provide a written description of the Coat of Arms and a full color rendering of that Coat of Arms. By placing an order for a Celebration Scroll for this name we will add it to our database and other members of your family will be able to get the same information about this name.”
I know. This is just a commercial correspondence. But I would expect something more from anyone who alleged have more than 1,000,000 names in his database. The Coat of Arms I found later at the blog of some of my friends back in Brazil. His name is Ormuz Barbalho Simonetti. In the Brazilian internet is plenty of informations about the name and, unfortunately, most of all about a politician who recently was processed and impeached for bad doings. I will continue my description to show the link between my family name and the History of New York.
Unfortunately, what looks like success to Brazilians brought not good results to Africa. The cultivation of sugarcane at the time, as any other agricultural activity, demanded too much hardworkers and the Europeans made the option for import slaves from Africa because was much more difficult to enslave the natives in their own land. Since then the Africans were exchanged by a product from the sugarcane itself, the cachaca (an alcaholic beverage), or bought for money.
The commerce of people were not only disgasting for the reduction of an human being to such kind of disregard. It provoked the disrupture of African Society. Brought wars to the continent and adventurers with only one thing in mind, make easy money. Africa became hostage for at least four and half centuries to the madness of our ancestors.
After the negative results of most of the Hereditaries Captaincies in Brazil the Portuguese Crown decided to change its tactics for colonise Brazil. Now was named a General Governor who had the power of a Vice-Roy. The chosen one for the position was Tome de Sousa. Someone who had the same genetical background of Martim Afonso de Sousa. He went Brazil in 1,549 with 1,000 people. They were at the militar service, priests (the first Jesuits in Brazil) colonists and 400 exiled for minor crimes in Portugal.
Tome de Sousa founded Sao Salvador City which still Bahia State capital. It was an strategic point, equidistant from Sao Vicente in the south and Olinda in the norte. It was to be the first Brazilian capital and stood until the next fase of Brazilian History where the capital were transferred to Rio de Janeiro. Sousa stood in Brazil only four years, since 1,549. After he went back to Portugal he became the king adviser in Brazilians issues. And he advised the creation of many villages along the coast to attract more colonists.
At that time, Portugal was having some problems with the competition for the Oriental commerce, the Spanish was been more successful by the mineral riches they were already taking from Americas and Brazil was been under siege from others Europeans, who wanted to settle down in Americas too. The English, French and Dutchs didn’t recognized the Treaty of Tordesilhas alleging they never heard about any Will of Adam giving the monopoly to Spain and Portugal. It is a sign of our common History. The law is always imposingly high, until the interests become higher.
One problem that Tome de Sousa encountered in Brazil was the absence of respect for the law. One of his companions, Pero Borges, who went there as a guardian for the law expressed something like these in a letter, “Have in this land many marriaged men back in the reign whom live here for many days, doing nothing for live but to live in concubinage with at least a pair of gentile women, been worse than the gentile people…”
Pero Borges asked punishment to everybody and the king Joao III, wisely, gave an amnesty to everything that was done before the presence of Tome de Sousa in the land except for,” cinco casos de heresia, sodomia, traicao, moeda falsa e morte de homem cristao”. (five cases of heresy, sodomy, treason, false coin and killing of a Christian man). He was well informed how hard life appeared to those so far away from home and was more judicious to have such courageous people as allies than enemies. And it paid off later.
Since the begining of Brazil’s colonization, as I mentioned before, also the Brazilian genetics start to form. And also the Portuguese language start gaining new words to define new situations. So the kids of a Portuguese with the native women had to be defined. And they started to call them caboclo (female, cabocla). Since Africans was brought to Brazil in a condition of slaves, soon made more sense to take there women together because was cheaper produce slaves kids in Brazil than import the original.
But a much higher number of European men was in Brazil than Caucasian women. Portuguese men was not shy on have sex with any kind of women. From these relationship was formed the mulato (female, mulata). Even along the centuries to come, rich people who had many slaves, kept having concubines from their “senzalas”. (the place where the slaves was kept when was not working). To Brazilians, the interracial marriages or relationships wasn’t taken as amazement. It became prejuditially watched later on, when more Europeans went to Brazil and was formed an whiter elite.
Even so, the prejudice in Brazil was softened by the presence of a bigger part of the population that was already product of interratial marriages. Even I can say from my time of young age. Brazilian music was plenty of three words. Mulata, cabocla and saudade. Back then, no man had a dream of Cinderela, Snow White or Aurora. Those was just stories for children. Our princesses was called not by their names but their genetic contents. Was said that, is almost impossible to man resist the charming of the mulata or cabocla.
And I think Americans experienced the magical power from the result of an interracial marriage in the presidential elections of 2008. President Obama make a mistake identifying himself as black person. He is mulato which is not a bad or a super happening. He is just proof that, when love does exists all the borders will be gone. Love doesn’t recognizes barriers. I will be back to these issue later.
Saudade is a word that Brazilians believed not other language was able to reproduce. Is a feeling of missing someone or something so much that it become close to a desease. It was the feeling from the Africans and Portuguese about their ancestors lands and relatives. Is a feeling from the bottom of indians hearts who recorded the lost freedom. Now is the feeling of all who are result of the interracial ancestry.
Then with its riches in the loams and beauty in its sceneries, Brazil instigated the avarice of others European peoples. We have a chapter dedicated to the attempt of invasion of Brazilian lands. We have two chapters in the Brazilian History called, Frensh Invasions and Dutch Invasions (Invasoes Holandesas).
The French Invasions have some influences in Brazilian History. Since Martim Afonso de Sousa went Brazil he had recomended the construction of a city at Guanabara Bay. But the indians around was not friendly to Portuguese then the project was not but it. At the time of the second general governor, Duarte da Costa, a Frenchman, Nicolas Durand de Villegagnon, who new the place convinced some to establish a Frensh colony there. The name given to the project was Antartic France.
And they started by constructing a fort, making contact to the hostile tribes to Portuguese, making trade with the indians to valuable goods from the land and sending it to France. The commerce was going well until the third General Governador of Brazil don’t came. His name was Mem de Sa, and a small part of his ancestry is shown in the next genealogical sequence.
1,500 Mem de Sa – Guiomar de Faria
1,460 Goncalves Mendes de Sa – unknown wife
1,410 Joao Goncalves de Miranda Sotomaior – Filipa de Sa
1,380 Fernao Anes Sotomaior – Constanza de Zuniga
1,340 Pedro Alvares de Sotomaior – 1,360 Elvira Mendes de Benevides
1,310 Fernan Anes de Sotomaior – Maria Anes da Novoa
Alvaro Pires de Sotomaior – Ines Anes de Castro
1,290 Elvira Anes Marinho – Pedro Alvares de Sotomaior
1,270 Joao Pires Marinho – Teresa Pais Marinho
1,250 Sancha Vasques Sarraza – D. Pedro Anes Marinho
1,230 Vasco Peres Sarraza – unknown Anes da Novoa
1,210 Pedro Soares Sarraza – Elvira Nunes Maldonado
1,190 Maria Afonso de Leon – Soeiro Aires de Valadares
1,171 Alfonso IX, king of Leon and Castilla – D. Teresa Gil de Soverosa
1,151 D. Urraca, princess of Portugal – Fernando II, king of Leon
1,109 D. Afonso Henriques, 1st king of Portugal – Mahaut of Sovoie
Usually, the noble people is not linked through just one lineage to royal families. In the case of Mem de Sa it is not different. One of the alternatives that link him to royal families can be shown by the genealogical sequence. Starting from D. Sancho I, second king of Portugal and also son of D. Afonso and Mahaut of Savoie.
1,154 D. Sancho I, king of Portugal – D. Maria Pais Ribeira, a Ribeirinha
1,205 D. Teresa Sanches – Alfonso Tellez
1,225 D. Joao Telo de Menezes – Elvira Goncalves Giron
1,250 D. Goncalo Anes Raposo – D. Urraca Fernandes de Lima
1,280 D. Beatriz Goncalves Raposo – Joao Pires da Novoa
1,310 Maria Anes da Novoa – Fernan Anes de Sotomaior
The last couple is already at the genealogical sequence above as 3greatgrandparents of Mem de Sa. And paying a little more attention to the names we also can see links to the genealogical sequences presented for the navigators. As I said before, everybody is relative in some way.
Mem de Sa had to secure the rest of the Brazilian Coast and pacify revolts of tribes around the capital, Salvador, Bahia State. He sent his nephew, Estacio de Sa, to deal with the Frensh problem. He made an alliance with indians from the now Espirito Santo State and asked for help from Sao Vicente. They were successful onto destroy the Fort Coligny, constructed by Villegagnon. And also founded a new city named after the name of the infant king, D. Sebastiao. Like that, the City of Sao Sebastiao do Rio de Janeiro was born. Later on the name were reduced to Rio de Janeiro.
But the war was just on its begining. The Frensh settlers went to the interior among their allies indians where they kept trading and attacking Portuguese settlements. Estacio de Sa reorganized the defense and continued the fight untill the Frensh were totally subdued. At the time he had the help of two Jesuits. Manoel da Nobrega and Jose de Anchieta. The two of them are like legend in Brazil. They were the ones that catechized the indians, organized them in settlements like Europeans and introduced them to the European culture.
Although the job done by the Jesuits reduced the Indians to a less level in the Brazilian society they also tried to prevent them to be enslaved. They were never successful in that case and the descendants of Indians and Portugueses were the responsibles for conquered the Brazilian interior in ways not friendly to others indians there. Another name from the time was of the chief Arariboia. For his help to Estacio de Sa he was presented with lands next to Rio de Janeiro. He founded a settlement which is today Niteroi, ex-capital of Rio de Janeiro State.
At the end of the conquest, Estacio de Sa died in consequence of wounds in battle. But the Frensh was expelled. Later on they tried another settlement at the Brazilian Northeast and were more successful. They founded the City of Sao Luiz, now Maranhao State capital. In there they planned to establish a colony name Equinoctial France. Around 1,616 they also were expelled by the Portuguese settlers. At the end they were successful onto find a place in South America where became to be the Frensh Guiane. Brazilians and Frenshs had others difficulties in their relationship but nothing so serious as those two.
Now we are back in business. The promise in the title of these chapter is talk something about the beginning of New York and United States. But it start in Europe with the mess created around the question of religion and the question of economic power. When Charles I, the kaiser and king of Spain left the power, Philip II, king of Spain inherit Spain and what later became known as Low Countries. And over there had some freedom of religion and economy. But Philip II didn’t take it for granted. Then the northern part of the possession declared its independence.
They held eight years of war, after 1,581, against Philip II forces. And the war was spreaded throughout the world. Is said that, the war against Spain created the nationalistic feeling that created a new nation. But the key component of these new nation was the creation of the first world’ big corporation. The Dutch West India Company. The company begun to look for a new way to India but found a good field to fur trade in today’s New York State, around the Hudson River. The company were the responsible for initiate the colonization, bringing colonists and giving lands to their work. They are responsible for the foundation of New Amsterdan which became to be called New York after the colony be taken by the English king, and for the foundation of New Orange, which is known today as Albany.
We need to remember that, that big corporation was an imense investiment. From the middle of the XVI century until England took the power, the Dutchs were the biggest naval force in the world. Maybe Philip II had assembled the most powerful navy at the time but the Dutchs controlled a merchant navy and an armed navy together. And since the Invencible Armada of Philip II were dismantled by the English Navy, the Dutchs dominated the trade around the Globe.
The Dutchs that in Brazil are called Hollandians are also responsible for three attempt of invasions there. They had invested in the production of sugarcane in Brazil and since they was at war with Spain, and Brazil became colony of the United Iberia, they thought to have the right of retaliate the decision of king Philip II in prohibit the commerce between Dutchs and the possessions under his helm.
Their first attempt were against the capital, Salvador, at the State of Bahia. It occurred during the years of 1,624 and 1,625 but the people repelled the attackers. The adventure was proven too costly for the company but in 1,630 they seized the intire shipment of one year of silver from the Spanish Colonies. And used it to finance the Invasion of the Captaincy of Pernambuco. During 24 years the colony were held by the Dutchs.
At first the resistence were done only by the population. Basically leadered by the “Senhores de Engenho” (Lords of Mills). The resistence had not an unified command. Each leader had his group and attacked in an Indian’s fashion or guerrilla. It made the Dutchs don’t go too far in the interior. But the long war made some Lords of Mills adhere the cause of the Dutchs.
Between 1,637 to 1,644, the Brazilians even celebrates it, were the time of the presence of the Count Maurice of Nassau who had a good administration to the people. He remodelled the City of Olinda and its port, Recife. Later on Recife became the State’s Capital. He also was tolerant in question of religion and open the colony to immigration of Protestants and Jews alike. Even is in Pernambuco the oldest Synagogue in Americas.
The Monarchy of Portugal was restored in 1,640 ending the 60 years under the Spanish Crown. Brazilians adhered to the party of the Duke of Braganca who became king under the name of Joao IV. But the Dutchs conquered more lands taken the whole Coastal area from Pernambuco to Maranhao State, even the capital, Sao Luis. And then they start the invasion of the interior. It brought the people to insurrection. Many of the leaders moved to Salvador, Bahia.
The count Maurice of Nassau visualized a more powerful colony if he also taked Salvador. And prepared a new expedition to the city with his main force, many times superior than that of Portuguese and Brazilian. At the Brazilian side although was a specialist who’s name was Luis Barbalho Bezerra. Luis organized the defense and gave to Nassau a Pyrrhic Victory. The victory didn’t have a prize because the Dutchs were unable to take Salvador and the costs were that high that Maurice of Nassau was called back to Netherland.
The situation then deteriorated when the new administrators of the company requested more taxs and liquidations of loans given to the Lords of Mills. The Brazilian people came together this time and the Brazilian nationality start to be constructed. The History books always mention three liders of the revolt, the Lord of Mill Andre Vidal de Negreiros; the native Felipe Camarao and the African descendent, Henrique Dias. They represented all the people who fought to liberate Brazil from Dutch colonization with all of its genetics.
The end of the war is accepted as 1,654 but only in 1,664 was signed the final Treaty and Portugal agreed to pay 63 tons of gold for the constructions they had done in Brazil. It was paid in 40 years with the production of sugar. With the end of Dutch domination many Jews and Protestants moved to New Amsterdam. The Dutchs who learned how to process sugar transferred the production to their Caribean Islands. When it was practically a Brazilian monopoly the product was valuable almost as gold, costing around US$ 50,00/pound in today’s money. Since then the production soared and the price got down. It was the end of the first Cycle of Sugarcane in Brazil.
Luis Barbalho Bezerra, the hero, lost his health and fortune in the war. Long before it ended he moved to Rio de Janeiro where he became governor in 1,643 to 1,644 when he died. He left two young sons, Agostinho and Jeronimo Barbalho Bezerra who enherited the prestige of their father. Agostinho later was also governor of Rio de Janeiro and died of an unknow fever while was looking for precious metals and gems at the Sweet River (Rio Doce).
Jeronimo was leader of an important revolt called “A Revolta da Cachaca” in Rio de Janeiro. That revolt was caused by the corruption in the administration. He was hanged in a counter-revolt leadered by the old corrupt governor, while they was waiting for a decision from the Portuguese Crown. But the reason was given to the revolted people of Rio de Janeiro who removed the corrupt governor from power. Later on we will see that a great number of mineiros (citizens born in Minas Gerais State) are descendants of those Barbalho Bezerra.
At the American side, before the country be United and even States, the king Charles II of England was the responsible for unify the Colonies, taking control of it. From the 13 initial colonies, four were created from the New England Territory. As we know, this part of the country was colonized by a population eagering for religious freedom. But what we can say also is that, they wanted their own freedom of religion but the pilgrims are known by be religious intolerant with others. From New England came the colonies of New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island and Connecticut.
The other eight, south and west of New York, was more diversified but had not an eagerly desire to make from this country a Democratic State where everyone would live as equally created by God. Names of those are, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia. So, New York, the last of the 13 initial colonies to adhere the Union of all, had fundamental intellectual, religious and economic influences in the constitution of the liberties in United States. Without the principles of freedom established by our Forefathers in the Constitution, probably, United States would never be the great country of today.
And, in some way, United States is a product of the whole historical chapters preceding its creation. Even in a least degree of importance the chapter of Brazilian History called by the name “Invasoes Holandesas” (Dutchs or Hollandians Invasions) and ”Insurreicao Pernambucana” (Pernambuco’s Insurrection) which was lead by whites, Indians and Blacks against economics impositions. Ironically, the opressor in Brazil brought Brazilians to United States who’s descendants later on helped to create these noble nation. And, inadvertently, the Barbalho Family was involved in the whole History of United States.
Only after 1,664 king Charles II of England took from the Dutchs the Colony of New Netherland. It was renamed New York after the title of Duke of York and Albany. The Dutchs reconquested the province during the years of 1,673 and 1,674 when they exchanged it for what is today Suriname, in the north of South America. And to end these chapter I want to show one more genealogical sequence.
1,630 Charles II, king of England – D. Catarina de Braganca, princess of Portugal
1,600 Charles I, king of England – Henriett Marie de Bourbon – princess of France
1,566 James I, king of England, Scots and Ireland – Anna, princess of Danmark
1,545 Henry Stewart, Duke of Albany – Mary Setwart, queen of Scotland
1,516 Matthew Stewart, 4th earl of Lennox – Margaret Douglas
1,490 John Stewart, 3rd earl of Lennox – Anne (Elizabeth) Stewart
1,475 Elizabeth Hamilton – Matthew Stewart, 2nd earl of Lennox
1,450 Mary Stewart, princess of Scotland – James Hamilton, 1st Baron of Hamilton
1,430 James II Stewart, king of Scotland – Maria van Egmond
Joan Beaufort – 1,394 James I Stewart, king of Scotland
1,373 John Beaufort, 1st earl of Somerset – Margaret Holland
1,340 John of Gand, Duke of Lancaster – Catherine Swinford Roelt
1,312 Edward III, king of England -Philippa de Hainaut
1,284 Edward II, king of England – Isabelle, princess of France
1,240 (?)Leonor, princess of Castilla – Edward I, king of England
1,200 Fernando III, the Saint, king of Castilla – Jeanne d’Aumale, countess of Ponthieu
1,171 Alfonso IX, king of Leon and Castilla – Berengaria, princess of Castilla
1,151 D. Urraca, princess of Portugal – 1,137 Fernando II, king of Leon
1,109 D. Afonso Henriques, 1st king of Portugal – Mahaut of Savoie
The lineage above doesn’t show all the many times Charles II is descendant of the same kings of Portugal and Spain. Only if we follow each one of his maternal ancestry we can see it clearly. His wife, D. Catarina de Braganca was daughter of the first king of Portugal after the restoration in 1,640, king Joao IV and his wife Luisa de Guzman. Charles II had not children with D. Catarina de Braganca but took 8 concubines and fathered 15 children. And it was not an exception for the kings behavior at his time. And we can imagine, why shouldn’t every and each one of us be offsprings of such productiveness?!
10. THE RAISING OF OURS NATIONS
Here in United States the English colonization starts from 1,607. And was a more culturally diversified colonization. Even people from others nationalities like Germans, Dutchs, Scots, Irish and also Portuguese came to the Atlantic Coast. About religion they were all sort of denominations that sparkled from the Protestant Reformation or else. Also a minor number of Catholics. After a hard begining the colonies became more successful as Europe expanding its population demanded more agricultural products.
Products like tabaco and cotton were examples of what represented the success of the Colonies. And just like the rest of Americas, the Colonies, specially those in the south, became dependent on hardwork hands. In the south sanitary conditions were not ideal to European labors so the importation of slaves from Africa became essential part of the business. In the north the economic activity was not so lucrative then the presence of African slaves was least.
The first Europeans to inhabit Americas after its Columbus rediscovery was the Spaniards. Florida yet was Spanish Colony and around the Gulf of Mexico they had been established. And the Frensh established themselves at the Lousiana Territory.
We must remember that, the European population begun its growth thanks to a more availability of foods such as corn, potatoes, tomatoes and many others from Americas. Probably, the spices from the Oriental Indias also helped on the prevention of infectious deseases too. And the wealth in many kind of forms brought from the Colonies from the whole world made possible the advancing in science, technology and knowledge as an whole.
Back in Brazil, at the XVII century, Portuguese colonists had established themselves in a strait shore line, from north to south. The number one product of exportation was the sugar. And while it was more valuable, the Portuguese Crown prohibit the creation of cattle in there. So, as it was needed for nourishment to people and for transportation of everything a timid interiorization begun at the Northeast of the country. It accounts for the conquest of the “Sertao”. Sertao is a Portuguese word to describe an wild west.
Since the establishment of the General-governors in Brazil they organized some expeditions to the interior in name of the Portuguese Crown. Those was called “Entradas” (Enterings) and had the objective of seek for something valuable, specially precious metals and gems. These ones was limited by the Treaty of Tordesilhas. Usually the point of departure was the capital, Salvador.
Another kind of expedition was called “Bandeiras” (Flags). It was of private initiative and most of all begun from the Sao Vicente Capitancy. Sao Vicente was the capital which was at the shore line and most of the expeditions begun from the villages of the uplands, usually Sao Paulo. It is why the men in the Bandeiras was called Bandeirantes, and today sometimes the people born at the State of Sao Paulo are also called by that name, like their ancestors was also called. But at that time they also was called Vicentinos (from Sao Vicente Capitancy). Today they are called Paulistas.
One of the motivations for those expeditions was the legend mentioned before, ”The Emerald Mountain”. Native Brazilians passed on the story to Portuguese colonists that had a Sacred Mountain in the interior of the land made of green gems. Then because of the natural riches Spaniards had encountered on their side of Americas, Portuguese concluded that it would be emerald. So, they start looking for it.
They also collected an indian account for the legend of Sabarabussu (Resplandent Mountain). Was a legend like El Dourado. Later on Portuguese interpreted as it been the “Serra da Piedade” (Piety Mountain). It is a peak of around 5,200 feet high above sea level. Today it is part of the City of Caete, is one of the symbols of Minas Gerais and is a touristic point with a old Chapel (construction ended in 1,770) and astronomic observatory. But many other peaks made history in the State as it was used as referencial points for travelers and because its around abouts be rich in minerals and gems. Examples are the Itambe Peak (Acute Peak) and Caue Peak (Brothers Peak).
Agostinho Barbalho Bezerra, who was Governor of Rio de Janeiro (1,660-1,661) was sent by the king Afonso VI to look for the Emerald Mountain in December 17, 1,663. He did good services to the Portuguese Crown, and fought among his father Luis and brother Jeronimo at the war against Dutchs, and even were presented with the Santa Catarina Island. Today is where the state capital, Florianopolis, of Santa Catarina State stands. But in one of his expeditions he contracted an unknown fever and died in around 1,670, Rio de Janeiro.
So, the job to look for the Emerald Mountain was passed on to Fernao Dias Pais Leme. Fernao was a Bandeirante and he is the most inspiring researcher of his kind in that time. Usually, Bandeirantes entered in the future Brazilian Territory looking for indigenous people and taken them as slaves. Fernao Dias did the same. He lead Bandeiras that entered the Brazilian South and established a village, Parnaiba, Sao Paulo, with 5.000 enslavered indians. His main concern after be chosen, was to locate the Emerald Mountain. And with it in his mind established many farms along the ways where later became to be the Minas Gerais State. Those farms originated villages which became cities.
Is possible that, the legend of the Emerald Mountain made the Paulistas blinded for other riches in around Minas Gerais State. Despite of years researching, some green gems located by Fernao Dias expeditions revealled to be just turmalines, a less worthy gem. In 1,681 he also died by an unknown fever. His son Garcia went back to Sao Paulo and his son-in-law, Manoel de Borba Gato kept his work. And lets post one more genealogical sequence. This time for Fernao Dias.
1,609 Fernao Dias Paes Leme – Maria Garcia Betim
Pedro Dias Paes Leme – Maria Leite da Silva
Fernando Dias Paes Leme – Lucrecia Leme
Pedro Leme – Izabel Paes
Antao Leme - unknown wife
1,505 Antonio Leme – Catarina de Barros
1,480 Maria Adao Ferreira – Martim Leme
1,440 Adao Goncalves Ferreira – Brites Pires
1,407 Goncalo Aires Ferreira – Isabel Ferreira
1,380 Isabel Pereira Lacerda – Gomes Ferreira
1,360 Martim Goncalves Lacerda – D. Violante Pereira