*The present book will be available in English and Portuguese languages. Portuguese version underneath the page. Sorry folks, my English is not enough good to be considered from a real writer but is good enough for most readers understand the meaning of my writings.
*Este livro esta disponivel em Ingles e Portugues. A versao portuguesa esta abaixo da versao inglesa.



The present book can be the last one I ever write. Despite the name I am not planing to go. The reason for it be the last one is very simple. I don’t remember since when I have been writing things with been no paid for. I always do it for the pleasure of giving my advise with the intention of be helpfull to people I don’t even know and to my friends. Buy the way it is taking much from my time. And I have a life. A life everybody say is modern. And in a modern life you have to pay for everything that you uses. And even sometimes for things that you will never use. And I’m not talking about anything out of the essential. In today’s money it is not chip. And, time is it.

By the way, as a hobby that I got, many times I have been paying for it. As a responsible father I think I need sacrifice myself pleasure in favor of to construct a safe future to my offspring.

Just a mere coincidence I am becoming a naturalized American citizen. Probably, as the 1st of september, 2011 is coming fast, today is August 11, I will not be able to finish it before that. I don’t know if it will be good enough and for how many people that would try to dismiss what I have to say using the old excuse: “But he’s not American!”. But I see those things from the bright side. As a new American nobody can say that I am a allien with envy.

Another positive side is that, I may be a Brazilianist with insights that the natural born American can’t have.

It is not new to me but is always usefull know that, speech is “one right or freedom from the First Amendment” on our Constitution. Although freedom of speech is a right “of everyone living in the United States”. Does not matter if is or not citizen. And finally, “give an elected official your opinion on an issue” is one “way that Americans can participate in their democracy”. In my way of see things, give an opinion is our right in first place and, secondly, is also our duty. Everything is in the brochure: “Learn About the United States Quick Civics Lessons for the Naturalization Test”, printed in name of the “U.S. Department of Homeland Security [U. S. Citizenship and Immigration Services].

I will offer this advise to all elected official in our Country, specially the presidents.

But somethings must be clear and loud around here. I’m not a doctor of anything. I don’t know nothing but what I had experienced in my own life. The opinion which I will express in these writings don’t come from any institution or nationality. I am the solely responsible for to think and write. The responsability for read and understand will be not mine. So I will ask you reader to excuse me for some incorrectly use of the words that can drive you to any wrong conclusion. You need know that I came to our country only after my 35th anniversary, without knowing almost nothing of English. And what I know now come from observation and nor from schoolling. As I am  used to write in Portuguese language I know that, some small change on the words can meant a big difference on what you want to say. So disregard the meaning of big man if I write it instead great man. In Portuguese language we have the same difference. But you write “homem grande” when you mean big man and “grande homem” when you mean great man.

What I want to write in these book is something about History, economics, politics, migration, prejudice and pride. Maybe, something about genealogy. I will use also some of my autobiography. I will try avoid the citations of names when it doesn’t make the issue. Otherwise I will be glad to name the people who I want to be clear about whom I am talking.

Since I don’t know details from the History of other countries, I mean, I know something about de Worldwide History collectively but not details from the particularly History of much of the countries, I will need to use Brazil’s History, which I know the most, for do some comparisons. I don’t mean to compare United States to Brazil. But I want point out some events where both of them were close allies, or events where each one were affected by events on another. I think that, in some historical facts many other countries were together, under the lead of United States, but certain details are out of my reach, even belonguing to Brasil itself.

My intention is organize my way of thinking in separated articles. Each one about a different issue. I will try to post it in a chronological events order. So, any reader can read the articles separated. But the meaning of everything shall be perceived when you read the articles altogether.

     Some who read these book shall be feel offended by my opinions. It does not come from my will. These is a problem from the human nature. Some people just cann’t allow others to think different of them. They just think the world in their mind is the best one. So, everything that appear to contradict it should be treated as abomination. I cann’t controll their feelings. I try to controll myself feelings letting them have themselves opinions although I donn’t agree with them. If they want to reasoning with me in a civilized way I am totally open to it.
     Some of those people will try to assume that, I am writing something for to harm United States. Maybe they will think that, I am part of a plot, like on some theory of conspiracy, to weak American image before the world. I am writing these before anyone read and get on such excuse to say specific that, I totally believe in truth. I don’t think any truth is made for harm. What harm is see the truth and deny it. What harm is see the truth and not take the responsability for it. Those who see the truth and assume their responsability on it are the ones who are dignified by respect.
     By the way, I get two big reasons for not try to harm United States. The first one is that, I am a Brazilian born. If somebody think I am writing to harm United States is because also think I would do it for, I don’t know in what way, benefit Brazil. For those who don’t know about the relationship that does exist between Brazil and United States know that, Brazil have a monetary reserve of about 320 billion dollares. And it is its only safeguard for any eventuality. Two thirds of it is invested in American Bounds. To harm United States would be the same as to do it to Brazil. Brazil is taking a serious risk to help United States on its moment of difficulties. If United States goes down, almost certainly, Brazil will be in trouble too. I wouldn’t do the same as Brazil is doing if it was not for family or great friendship.
     Another reason in my favor is that, I fathered two kids. My only ones. They are born and lives in United States and I never told them to be more Brazilians than Americans. I don’t put preasure on none of them. If on any day they feel like to choose between one or another country it will be their decision, not mine. What I want is the best for them by their own choice. As I would never harm my children I also have not intent on harm their country.
     Particularly, I think the better way of we solve our problems is get together. Peoples and countries. Until now, what we have been told is that, we need to compete because it will make us the best. I totally disagree on it. To compete impose that, some will be harmed in some way. I am in favor of team work. Everybody work for it. Everybody get the prize. Any time you compete you don’t get the best prize. When you are competing you expent to much energy doing things that harm yourself. If these energy wasted from both sides be used for do good things, the prize will always be doubled or tripled.
     This chapter will not obey my will of put things in a chronological order. But it will explain the name on the book and capture a similar issue present as a Public Health problem in modern American life.
     I use to hear 90.9 FM, Boston University Radio. Every time I get in my car I drive hearing something useful. It can be international or national news, shows about music or simple interviews. Usually they interview authors of best sellers books, movie producers or anything else linked to culture. And I love it.
     I have a long history learning from them. No longer after I came to United States I discovered the 89.7 FM Public Radio which transmit almost the same content. It helped me learn English, because they speaks in a good accent, so we can pick up it word by word. And I have interest in learn much of the issues showed on those radios stations. My only regret is that, along all those year, almost 17, I never had money to contribut with those Radios.
     Well, just by coincidence, recently I heard a show of interview about de suicide problem in United States. The interviewed was a doctor who wrote a book about the problem. Unfortunately I didn’t had much time for see everything. Not even learnned his name. I got only some importante information. So I looked for some more informations at the site of American Foundation for Suicide Prevention – AFSP.
     The statistics are some kind of shoking. The last data is from the year of 2007. About 34.000 Americans lost their lives in that year in suicidal attempts. It is the “11th leading cause of death in the United States.” “Suicide is the fourth leading cause of death for adults between the ages of 18 and 65 years in the United States (28,628 suicides).” “Ninety percent of all people who die by suicide have a diagnosable psychiatric disorder at the time of their death.” “There are four male suicides for every female suicide, but three times as many females as males attempt suicide.” “There are an estimated 8-25 attempted suicides for every suicide death.”
     We got many more interesting information about the problem at the site such as, “suicide is the third leading cause of death among those 15-24 years old”,  but their conclusion was that: “Studies indicate that the best way to prevent suicide is through the early recognition and treatment of depression and other psychiatric illnesses.”
     Learning about the problem through the interview on the 90.9 FM Radio, things doesn’t look so clear as the statistical numbers from the AFSP. First of all, the interviewed doctor let it clear: nobody knows exactly what drive people to suicide. They had a theory which say that, it come from the preassures of our times. Would be something linked to modern times. In opposition to it he pointed out that, a indigenous tribe in Amazon Region laughted when they knew that, suicide is a problem in America. They couldn’t understand because never knew none among them who took such idea. For them, suicide is a tabut.
     When the argument that in their primitive stile of life they probably shouldn’t have the same kind of preasure as in modern life came out, it is not so easy to have foundation in truth. The tribepeople is in the edge of existence. They get frequent tropical deseases. Their infant rates of death is about 50%. At the end, they got so much preasure as a New Yorkian. The difference would be that, New York offers much more ways of fun things to do than the entire Amazon River Basin.
     The doctor author interviewed said, not only that specific tribe but observing the humanity as a whole you can detect amazing endurance in people that live in the edge of life too. Why shouln’t the same be truthful for the now most successful societies in the world?! Suicide is not a problem only for United States.
     I don’t know if the interviewed doctor told anything about the relationship between suicide and genetical tendency. The data from AFSP doesn’t mention it. When I was living in Brasil I remember such mention. I don’t remember from who it came, but looks like some families have the problem with more frequence.
     On the interview the doctor also said that, often you know some fact that end triggering a suicidal attempt but you don’t know the origin of such will. He also said that, even suicide be a problem bigger than assassination you don’t see it in the news. Asked why it is happen, he wasn’t sure but offered an explanation. In assassination cases you have a clear vilain and a obvious victim. So, is easier to work with such news. I am not so sure about it. As hard is to sale the news of a suicide it a bigger problem and then it should be more important the public know the truth. But looks like even to our more advanced culture does exists something that are tabut. The suicide victim can be ourselves image and ourselves likeness.
     What amazed me in the AFSP report is that, they calculate in “8-25 attempted suicides for every suicide death.” So, it mean that, there are between 272,000 and 750,000 attempted suicides each year in United States. This is a big number! But if it is true, I am not convinced that it translate the whole truth. I am in doubt about some part of American population be affected by the tendency for suicide. These selfdestructive behavior is manifested through the prejudice shown by the Tea Party, KKK, Neo-Nazis and sectors from the Republican Party.
     Maybe, such behavior is unconscious and unintentional but bring the same result as it was. Those mad people don’t realize how their attitudes are driving United States to selfdestruction. I hope my concerns help them to reconsider their positions for the selfdestruction don’t come to happen.
     In my poor point of view I think assassination and suicide are part of the same problem. Those are result of frustrations. The different response come from the person be more egoistic or altruistic. The altruistic prefer to attempt against his or her own life. The opposite is verified on the the egoistic person. Case apart must be considered the “suicide bombs” because their are manipulated before they do it.
     The doctor also said that, whatever the number of attempted suicides come true it doubled the number of assanations. Yes, in United States the assassinations are more frequents than others industrialized countries. And, not matter how big this number is, suicides comes in doubled number.
     Now I have to assume some speculation. Is that all? And if, only if, is something much bigger than that? If part of deaths ruled as accidents is not but successful suicidal attempt. I am not thinking only in car accidents. You know. Most of deaths by car accidents is ruled as consequent of high speed. So, as it is well known as cause of death, why so many people still driving above the speed limit in every and each high way?
     Why should people keep smoking knowing that, it is a factor of risk to their health? Everybody know or heard about the polution problem but why only a small number of people is taking from their lives some modern comforts that result in polution? Is well known that, if each person in the world start consume like an average American we would have nowhere to extract goods for everybody. Then, why it is not enough to people to understand that is something wrong in our way of life and it need to be rethinked? Why so much resistence against the cleaner technology? All of it and many more issues couldn’t be ruled as attempt of suicide?
     I really mean that. I think does exist two types of suicide. One you could call by Acute Suicidal Syndrome. This is the one the interviewed doctor and the AFSP told us about. The other is a Chronical Behavioral Syndrome. This more like, I know I will die someday, then I want it but have no guts to do it quickly, so I better take some risk measurements that will end at where others do it quickly.
     I think such type of syndrome is present in people like George W. Bush, at those who controlls Wall Street etc. I am in doubt if the same behavior still inside the White House at the Obama administration!
     What they did and are doing looks like a cowardish type of behavior. They don’t want a peaceful life for themselves. So what they do is make others life an inferno. Looks like they think like that, if I have to go is better take everybody with me. Alone I donn’t want.
     I don’t blame nobody for to be in a suicidal mode. I think every and each one of us have it as secret plan B for life. Most just will never use it because life goes as it can be and not like we want. If I would say one word to those in these edge I would say that, Not matter how big your problem appear to your eyes if you take a time it will disappear by itself. Think about one problem you had 10 years ago. You probably not even remember it was there anymore. But if you attempt against your life and be successful on it, is a decision you cann’t repent for take because it is a non return decision. Never take a definitive decision in times of crisis. Nobody is perfect. A bad judgment can make you create a big problem from a non problem situation. Just be more pacient.
     We can take some interpretations about the numbers shown at the data from AFSP and the general causes of suicide. Those conclusions are not from academic research based but it from myself observations of modern life. In my point of view the primitive societies were adapted to conditions the world offered to it. Its ideal were look for happiness. Happiness can be found in simple things from life, like family, friendship etc. “Pursuit of happiness” is one answer for the question: “What are two rights in the Declaration of Independence?” of United States.
     Actually, our society is based on to have things. People are looking for to have their whole life. It includes to have another people for them. For that, they sacrifice the simple things in life and never find satisfaction on what they are doing. Like that, the depression comes inevitable and what is happen later is only the consequences.
     Maybe it explains why so many more women attempt suicide. Despite of women emancipation in the last century we still living on a macho oriented style of life world. We need to understand that men were competing against each other since thousands of years ago. Women were always among them but nature put us on the front of all risk. And we learn to be more aggressive, sometimes, irrationally aggressive. Because of that, reasonble women can be in more distress in such manly oriented world.
     Usually, the lay person attribute to ancient people or to non educated at school people some kind of inferiority. The lay person look at those people and think how their lives must be! They walk instead of drive a car. They don’t even have electrical devices or watch tv! Their lives must be so out of context! But what they lay person don’t know is how much more the “primitive people” giggles and laughs. How much more they take care of each others.
     We think that, the life we are having now is the best one since the rise of man in the face of Earth. The problem is that, so much of advance should be translated in more time for fun, more time for love and, specially, more money in the wallet of everyone. But what we are always getting is more and more bills to pay, less and less quality time with our family. So, like that I don’t think we are really in a way to Heaven. We are more in a way to doomsday.
     In a posterior chapter I intent to record something about some non schoolling educated people and persecuted non documented immigrant had proved wrong those unfounded in truth modern conceptions.
     I heard from a lay person that, “you are relative of somebody only until the fourth degree”. To me it is a little complicated to explain on exactly words in English. But she did mean something like that, You don’t need to consider as relative your cousin if yours common ancestors are from your greatgrandparents generation or beyond. I don’t know from where she took such wrong idea. She mentioned something about religion, which I believe in a possibility of mistake made, or medical source, which I doubt. The reality is quite different.
     I have studied the genealogy of my family. So I got some good idea about what I am about to say. And I am a medic veterinarian by train and have a degree from college as animal doctor. One class that I got in trouble were just one that workes with, translating from Portugues language, Animal Development. Is something involving genetics and teachs how to make cows produce more milk, chickens lay more eggs, etc. Yes I had some trouble to complete the course because the math involved and I never was good in memorize formulas. I always felt more confortable rationalizing the problems. Getting in trouble in these case doesn’t mean I didn’t learned. Sometimes we learn better when we make mistakes but revise what went wrong. Well, I did it.
     Long ago before time some facts were truthfull for genealogy. Although genealogy wasn’t even thought. And when it came to be observed by some people many mistakes were made. Even today the first thing you think you know about genealogy is that, you come from that family with your last name. This is one of the wrong ideas the lay person have about it. Usually, your last name come from your father, who inherited it from his father and so on. So it is true only if you are thinking about what we call paternal lineage. But genetically it do mean little, sometimes, nothing.
     We know that, half and a little plus of our genetics come from our mother, and the rest from our father. Then you have to know that, If your greatgrandfather was marriaged to a woman not related to him, your grandparent will be practically half/half. If your grandfather were marriaged to another woman also not related to him, your father will be one quarter of whatsoever your greatgrandfather was. Then, if your mother is in not way found related to your father, you will receive only 1/8 from your greatgrandfather, although you can still have his last name. And you can pass it on to your children, and children of children and so on. Although your gradchildren could get almost nothing from your greatgrandparents.
     If you are a lay person, probably you now that, you have a mother and a father. And also, each one of them have a mother and father. So you got four grandparents. What you expect is to get 8 greatgrandparents. And the thing goes on. From each generation before yours you should doubled the number of your great-great-great… So if you are up to do a little exercise, then pick up your calculator and multiply 2 X 2 and keep multiplying the results by 2 for 33 generations. If you be persistent on that work you will learn that, on the 33rd generation before yours, you are supost have 8,589,934,592 great-greats. Too much for you? From the next generation your big number is more than 17 billions. And so on.
     The time! Time is more than precious. If you calculate for each generation an average of 30 years, at the end of 33 generations you will find roughly 1,000 years. It mean that, one thousand years ago you are supost have more than 8.5 billions of 33-great-grandparents. And it only from the generation number 33 not the adding of all of it. Now I say it to you, If you don’t have each and every one of those places fill up by some of your ancestors you don’t exist. And you who know something about the existent population from one thousand years ago shall ask, But how!? One thousand years ago we didn’t have people enough. Even today the whole population in the world is less than 7 billion people!
     That question get a simple answear. It is because some of your 33-great-grandparents are your ancestors over and over again. Some are probably millions of times and it is why is possible you be, despite of have so inferior number of ancestor than we should expect.
     But the extension of the problem is greater. If you do the opposite calculation, you will get the same numbers. What I mean is that, suppose you have two children. And each one of them have two children. And your four grandchildren have two another children for each one, and so on, for about 33 generations. You are expected to get 8.5 billions and plus of descendants just from that generation. It mean that, if you were born on one thousand of years ago, you were supost to have, at least, such number of offsprings. But, as does not exist enough number of people on Earth, where they are?! It is simple to answear.
     If your grandchildren, instead of marriage to someone else out of the family marriages to each other you will have not 8 great-grandchildren as expected but only four. I meant, if you have two grandaughters and two grandsons. To you get the expected number, they must have four children for each couple that they formed. Each time a cousin marriages to another our multiplication is expected to decline. When more generations come to pass and cousins marriages to cousins repeatedly, the average number of children to keep the expectation of your offspring is greater and greater. In some cases some couple had to have thousands or millions of children and it is not yet a simple task for human beings.
     The truth is that, not only your ancestors fill up repeatedly the places as your ancestors. They do the same to an enourmous number of another people. They are more or less cousins of yours even if you don’t know them. Let me say that, even if from one thousand years ago you have 10,000 couples as ancestors, which is just a fraction of we should expect, you can be in such kind of genetical trap. It is because your 10,000 couples of ancestors would be already close relatives. What prevented us from be extinct as especies were migration and multiplication without limit. Today, solely migration and marriage between different gentical lineages is the best way to keep out our species from extinction.
     If you want to simplify things, then know that. If 300 years ago, on the tenth generation before yours, one 10-great-ancestor couple had 10 children and everyone got marriaged, and also got 10 children and so on untill your generation. Then none of the offsprings from them had marriaged to each other, they were supposed to have 10 billion children, only from your generation. It is that cool?! As the people back then had as much children as nature allowed, we are suppost to have at least a couple of common ancestor from that generation with every and each one of our neighbors.
     But the thing is not so simple. Not everyone back then got so many children. Many of our uncles and aunties never had children. Even so, we expect that, all couples back then who had some children who got marriaged and had their own children until our generation must be great-grandparents of  thousands, maybe even 1 million people. And I am not talking about any polygamist person.
     Then, when some site of genealogy announces that, some personality found to be relative of some historical person through its site is because it is using the popularity of the personality for take advantage of the obvious. If you go after your ancestors, even don’t feeling like you are somebody of respect and, naturally, with some lucky because many of our ancestors didn’t have their records well done, you probably will find some historical figure as your ancestor. And then, the people from nowadays whom is said to be personalities are probably your cousins. Somebody once said about my family: “We come from the blood lineage of kings and kings come from our blood lineage.” It is absolutely true for all of us.
     And it is one of the reasons I start to study our genealogy. I am not exactly interested in identify kings in my list of ancestors. I am interested in history itself. Then when I find any personality as my ancestor I will be more interested in to know about his or her history. And it should be considered usefull to anyone nor for some.
     People use to say that, “History repeat itself over and over again.” I don’t think so! History can’t do nothing by itself. People repeat their mistakes over and over again because they ignore History. Know History is not a hobby for eccentric people but an way of selfdefense to people.
     Another reason that make genealogy important to me is that, the medical implications it means. Despite of we know so much about genetics in our days I think the consequences from our close kinship to most of humanity have been largely ignored by the governments. So I do think people should know better those things to prevent some future collapse of our society. Since we learned that we can’t keep having to many children as our ancestors did because our planet is limited we need to try avoid to have children with preventable problem. Our ancestors could have the luxury to have as many children as they preased and nature permited because some took care of others but if we have one healthier and another lack health, the problem will be greater in such small family. And if two children from the your family lack health?!…
     So, when somebody say that we are related to another people for about any number of generations is because he or she don’t know nothing about genetics. What is happen is that, our lives is too limited when we consider it by the space of time. Then we have the privilege to know such a small number of generations of our close relatives. Sometimes we consider more some people less related to us as relative than others more related because we are driven by the wrong idea that, relatives are those that we know.
     Based on what I know about genetics and animal management I could say that, human beings are more like a poultry bunch.
     And I say it consciously. Most people don’t know how ours scientists got to the poultry lineages that lay eggs and produce white meat for us today. What they did were that, selected the ones that naturally already laid more eggs or grow meat more quickly. Then they crossed the more productive to each other. And they repeatedly did it time after time for years in a roll. They even did it crossing mother to its children and father to its offspring.
     After they got what they wanted, it is, a lineage that laid more eggs or grew meat more quickly then started to commercialize it. But they have some secrets. They developed at least two lineages for each blend. So what you get on markets is the crossing of the two of them. Then if you try to start your own business from the chickens you can buy alive, it will not be productive as the original is. Unless you do a knew research which will take more time and money from you. For you have your own business in this area you need to partnership with them. And in this case you will do much of the work and them will share the money you made. It is business as they say.
     But what this kind of research also brought to our poultry bunch is that, it’s largely more susceptible to deseases and genetics problems. Also the management the chickens are submited, with so many in a small space, can make they spread the deseases to each other in a blink of eyes. So that is why our poultry bunch need many vaccinations and antibiotics added to its regular food. If you go to a farm that produces chicken eggs or meat you will be asked to use an appropriate garment to protect their business against contaminants that you can delivery, even not been aware of nothing.
     As our knowledge about genetics advances we learn how to read what is written in our DNA sequence. And, just after the first researchs, the scientists were amazed by the similitudes that does exist in the DNA of each one of us. Doesn’t matter if you are an Inuit, a Caucasion, a native South African or aborigene from Australia. We are more like poultry bunch in our DNA.
     If is that true, why we have so much differences on our appearences? I may have one explanation for these. In our primitive lives we were trained to look at the differences. To look at our similitudes was not so important. It is related to our enviroment. In Brazil we have an example of it. Some plants were used by peoples as basis in their diet. The Orientals had rice. The Middle Easterns got wheat. The North Americans through the Occidental South Americans got corn. And the Brazilians have mandioca (Manihot utilissima).
     It is a root like potato with more fiber and plenty of starch. We have many ways for cook it. And it can be delicious. But the plant of mandioca have its identical twin. Brazilians call it mandioca brava. I think we could call wild mandioca. The wild mandioca have one of most effective venoms in itself. It got the cyanide. So a little bit of the plant in your stomach and you will be history. Then know the difference between it was a question of life and death.
     Mandioca can bring a large amount of food to your table in a cultivated small area. Even the good mandioca can delivery enough syanide to kill anyone or anything that eats it. The good news is that, cooking it evaporates the poison. Brazilian use to feed their cattle with the natural product which is poisonous. But was learned that, if you slice that potato and expose it to sun light it will be clean. So it is done before the cows eat it.
     The most venomous part of the plant is its leaves. But a cleaver group of researchers developed a food supplement in there based on mandioca’s leaves. It is used to enrichment of poor in nourishment foods. A small daily quantity from this supplement in a nutritional inadequate food can quickly deliver good healty to malnourished children. The secret is just to take off the venom before it becomes food.
     And it all were learned from the called primitive native Brazilian. Now I can see a relationship between the mandioca leaves and undocumented immigrants. If you try to look them with less prejudice you can take off what you think is venom and could make from them a glorious future to United States. Although, I am sure about that, the venom is in the eyes of the people who got prejudice in themselves and not in the undocumented immigrants themselves. Later I will talk more about this issue.
     The prejudicial people were intelligent to detect their differences in the faces of others but not enough to learn separate what is different for bad from the difference with not malice.
     All enviroment had so many others examples of such things. People everywhere had to look carefully at the landscape before get out of their caves. Predators are known for to merge to the enviroment and not be detected. Who were not able to look hard at the differences probably had not any chance to pass enheritance to us.
     So the problem is not because we are so different from each other. Sometimes, back in Brazil, I was often mistaken by my cousins. Even in United States is common people look at me and to think I am an European American from old times. These can be like craziness but I intent to be back to these fact. My close relatives and frieds that I had in visual contact for long time never mistook me for somebody else. But those who had occasional contact just kept doing the same mistake. Even close relatives with less contact did it.
     It can be easily verified by parents who have identical twins. If they are identical how to make the difference from one and another? Minimal difference are the answear. You need to have all of your sense in alert to look at those. And it is a natural sense to anybody but you can be trained to enhance your natural sense. Depending on the culture you live on it can be largely used to drive prejudice against the differences. Prejudice is not a natural or rational sense. It is learned from devious cultures.
     Maybe, some dislike on what is different is not an intentional prejudice. Is just a natural reaction learned from millennia. What became intentional prejudice is the person start fight against reasoning. I mean, when you start see your skin is different from your neighbor and you know that, it is not any sign of danger but you accommodate on your first impression keeping the warning sign on, even start taking actions against your neighbors as they were really theating your life or your possessions.
     By the way, collor of skin is something linked to the enviroment. You have dark skin because of your ability to live on “caliente” tropical and equatorial enviroment. Is just a protein that almost all of us got the skill for produce it. Is called melanin. It works as a natural sun blocker. Lighter skin only mean that you had ancestors who lived long long time in a less luminous enviroment. Then they were selected by nature to let more sun light come through their skins for that they be able produce D vitamin.
     The problem is that, sometimes a good thing have some collateral damages. If somebody got pale face together with blue eyes and think it is a great advantage, can slow dow your horses. Blue eyes mean not melanin in your iris. Maybe it don’t make your vision bad but can bring you earlier cataract, if you have the tendency for this illness, if you be exposed to more sun light than you deserve.
     If a lighter skin people be submited to an hot enviroment for thousands of generations and the selection be natural, at the end of it every and each of their descendant will have a darker skin. The same is true if a people with darker skin be submited to conditions like in the North Pole. If they refuse to evolve on the apropriated way, they will be history. Unless the darker skin find another source of D vitamin like in pills and the lighter skin people start using a natural sun blocker. Otherwise the lighter skin have to have their activity only at night and sleep on day light.
     The prejudicial people are clever enough for see differences but not enough clever to be or to make the difference. Later I may get back to this topic.
          04. WHAT IS BE AN EUROPEAN?
     Probably, even Americans know that European is someone who was born in Europe. Even they don’t know exactly what or where Europe is. I am not say it by myself but just making fun of myself as it is wild spreaded the American geographical ignorance around the globe. But I am not only talking about the people who live in Europe today. Maybe I should name this chapter as, From Where Did The European People Came? This is a most interesting question.
     Fistly, not only European but the Human race came from Africa. If you don’t believe and can prove this theory wrong you probably will win the Nobel Prize just after you turn public your new knowledge.
     Sometimes I saw people screamming against this and others scientific theories because dislike or it appear to contradict their old religious beliefs. But I also saw the same people watching tv and believing that, some images were generated in Japan and almost instantly can be watched in United States. They also are capable of believe in doctors taking your heart from your chest, doing some surgical procedure, and reimplant it for you get another chance of life. Does not matter. Those things only are possible today because the long time gathering of knowledge scientists came up with.
     I know very well that, scientists make mistakes every day. I don’t have issues about it. We all make mistakes. It is in human nature. The problem is when somebody make any mistake and don’t learn nothing from it. And it is one reason we need some of us know better about human history because tracking all mistakes maybe you can try to avoid repeat it. One good example of it is that, in United States the population was learning to let go prejudicial feelings but looks like this illness were able to reinvent itself and rapidly overcomes the good will of part of the population. It is back now. And is more strong than ever.
     So, is really convenient believe in some scientific sayings but not that, all human beings had their origins in Africa. And that, every and any human being is close relative to each other. I don’t know what drive people not believe in such things but I am pretty sure have a big amount of prejudicial feeling on deny it.
     From Africa came not only one species of human being but many. But anyone else besides Homo sapiens sapiens is now extinct. The scientists attributed our endurance to our ability of adaptation. Adaptation can be translated as capacity of to solve problems. Not exactly as in math but is something like that. Sometimes it does not depend on our will. For example, it is happen when we encounter an epidemic situation where some new illness take down most of us but some survive because those got an inherent defense against that bad agent.
     Then the survivors pass on to their offspring that ability. We are plenty of examples of adaptations inherents to human beings. We live almost in every type of climate on Earth and it is possible only because we are able of modify our body accordling to each different ambient. But we need to say that too: “Slow down the stand because the saint were cast out of clay.” Its just a Brazilian saying for be careful and make no mistakes. Some adaptations need time for be effective and nobody is prepared for every sudden big change.
     Let’s though be back to our issue. From Africa all of us came. And some migrated to an area between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea. That region is called Caucusus. And this first group of people who made their dwell there is called Caucasian. Caucasian thrived there and probably on nearby areas untill 75,000 years ago. Around this date is well known that a supervolcano erupted in Indonisia. Scientists are not sure if only it or something else were responsible for start a new ice age era.
     Scientists theorized that, the supervolcano erupted and launched so much dust and gases in the air that it blocked some amount of sunlight. And the polution stood on for an enough time to down the average temperature in Earth for some years. And it drove nature to keeping making snow but not melting it. When the atmosphere were clean again the sunlight returned but it were deflected by the now bigger Earth’s white surface. We know that, white sufaces reflects light, dark surfaces absorbs it. So Earth entered in a vicious cycle with no return.
     Down the temperature went. More snow came. Bigger the white surface becomes. More sunlight was deflected. Then the winter’s time went longer and colder. At 70,000 years ago the scientists can measure a clear sign that Earth was again in a new Ice Age. Cycles of lower and higher temperatures left their signatures on Earth’s landscape.
     Our planet is just like a book with layers of sediments as pages. If you don’t take dust out of your house for one entire year you can imagine what will be at the end of it. Earth also works in the same way. What happen on its surface for thousands of years transforms in sediment at lakes and ocean’s bottons. If it be for long time under pressure can become hard as a rock. And the layers can be distinguished from each other depend on the climate where it was formed. And each time it were formed can be measured by some atoms present in the material.
     So as the planet became colder it made food less available to many animals, included human beings. We were in a brink of extinction. Some scientists once says that, they calculated around 1,500 people or so alive just a little time after the supervolcano erupted. Today, some wild animals are returning from this condition with the help of animal protection foundations. Human beings at the time have not protection besides themselves adaptability. But they also used some of intelligence.
     Now you have to learn a great lesson from it. At that time we had at least two Homo Sapiens sapiens lineages, the pure African and Caucasian, struggling to keep life going on in Earth. Even the Neanthertal culture managed to do it so but not for too long. It just proved that, some of us, does not matter our genetic background, are made to be resiliant. And all of us who live today in Earth are simbols of this resiliancy from our most ancient ancestors.
     But, everyone of us must think about it and try to answear this simple question, If such kind of disaster strick us again how would you manage to keep your life and pass on to your offsprings the prof of your existence? If it happen again I must say that, probably, more than 90% of us will not survive. But the only way to try to keep your own genes around for the next million year is to give this counsel to your kids: be the most diversified as you can and teach your children and children of your children do the same. Stay in love with diversification and put any racial prejudice you learn from your ancestors behind you. To be racial pure is to take a disnecessary risk.
     Rather than say if I better should say when human being get back to a situation of near extinction the first victims will be the poultry bunch. Unfortunately, the scientists already know that many of enormous disasters that happen in the past will be happen again so it is not a question of if but when. And this answear nobody knows. When the poultry bunch be forced to live from what nature brings it will not be able to do so because the modifications that scientist did on those animals made it totally dependent on human beings. Is possible that the same come to human being himself because now almost everybody is not linked to natural conditions anymore. For the worse, a disruption such as an eruption of a supervulcano can alter nature itself in a such way that a feel natural things can survive for keep sustenable life by nature.
     From the North Pole came a big wall of ice. As layer after layer of snow gathered there it became too heavy. Then the preasure made the glaciation walk down in direction to subtropical places. In a sloth’s paces, year after year after year, it was gaining the landscape. Human beings were clever enough to know that, they had to look for shelter in a warmer place. And they were driven away southbound direction. And the population were divided in groups that ended in South India, probably in Middle East, and along the road through Iberian Peninsula. Basically it means Portugal and Spain.
     Let me now just take by loan from the Webster’s II New Riverside Dictionary – Revised Edition – the definition of Caucasian: “Of or being a proposed human racial classification distinguished by light to brown skin color and including peoples indigenous in Europe, N. Africa, W. Asia, and India – n, 1, A native or inhabitant of the Caucasus. 2, A member of the Caucasian racial classification.”
     What’s wrong with such definition? Firstly we now know that human being can not be classified by race. Yes! For we divide human being in groups of races we need certain amount of differences accumulated on some group and it can be verified in our DNA, but doesn’t have enough differences in it. We are just too similar, like a poultry bunch. Color of skin can’t be used in our case. Skins in Caucasians is not distinguished by light to brown skin color. If you get to some places in India you can verify that, their skin very from light to black color and don’t end in brown.
     Another thing, Caucasians were the first inhabitants of North America and their presence in here is measured from, at least, 17,000 years ago. And it is one of the big mistakes scientists made along History. The old ones theorized that human being was not able to come from Asia to America unless by foot and around 7,000 years ago when the meltdown of the Ice Age made a natural passage from Russia to the Great Plains in United States. Then they theorized that, those classified as Asian people was the first because in Americas after Europeans arrived had only Asians around.
     But now is wild known that, long before, Asians Caucasian had been here. But is possible that, Caucasian in North America became extinct even before Asians came. Nobody is really sure yet. A mega fauna which did existed in North America at the Ice Age was also extinct. Sabre toot tiger, mammoth, gigantic slots and car size armadillos were present in North America untill a catastrophic event happen swipping up the big fauna. Man could be among those. What we know for sure is that, man was here many thousand years before we had the passage between Asia and North America open. And Asiatic people could be among them.
     Another thing is that, the characteristics of Asiatic people starts to show in the records only from 25,000 years ago. What it suggests is that, they came from a Caucasian family who once lived in Mongolia. From there they multiply and took over Asia, Pacific Islands and Americas. Japan is a good example of both presence. The completely Caucasian people lived there untill 2,000 year ago when the Asiatic came. Even in the begining of the XX century had a small population of native Caucasian there but they were absorbed by the bigger number of Asian looking people.
     One more extra information. The first South Americans were not Caucasian nor Asian. They were African like people. It is shown in a skeleton found in Santa Luzia City, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Older than 10,000 year, this fossil was revived through forensic techniques and had the face of Africans or Aborigenes from Australia. And if you take a look at your Mapa Mundi you can imagine that, If ice was so present at the Northern parts of the Globe is possible that it could be even more present in the Southern parts. It is because, at the North Pole you don’t have any land but in the South Pole we have an entire continent.
     Old scientists appear to tend ignore how resourceful any human being is. So they don’t like to imagine anyone from more than 10,000 years ago been able to navegate long distances or use the ice edges to do it. But the edge of ice around South Pole could be attractive to Africans because its plenitude of food. At the Ice Age it was much more close to South Africa and people from there could navegate to the edge of the ice cap and by just following the food or by accident ended up in Australia and South America.
     But in certain times of the years the climate were not welcoming to human life, so they had to migrate northbound. And it could explain how Aborigene Australian got there or in Brazil. And they walked far far away from South Pole. I can indicate a page on Internet for you make up a better conclusion. It is: Is about the work of professor Niede Guidon in Brazil. It explain what evidences are that man inhabits South America before 36,000 years ago. Maybe 50,000 as professor Guidon believe.
     May does exist other possibilities how to explain the presence of human beings in South America in times so prior than we are used to believe. If you look at the map you wont see exactly what was 50,000 thousands years ago because the small islands were bigger and the space between continents was smaller. Even so, the distance between it would be enormous to travel by primitive boats. Although the distance between Brazilian Northeneast and West Africa is the least, I think that, the travel via Southern Atlantic was more likely to happen because ice would help as reference to where to go.
     Let’s though be back to our main issue in this chapter. Around 40,000 years ago Spain and Portugal was the better places in Europe to people live the entire year despite the cold. The same group of people found their way across Gibraltar and dwell in North Africa. At that time, they were living in the rushest stage of Ice Age.
     So much of water were transformed in ice that, at the edge of the glaciation in the line of New York City we got an wall of ice one mile thick. The line which comes through New York also pass on Portugal, Spain, Italy and over Greece. Since were much less liquid water around, the ocean’s level was much lower than today. So around about today’s shores had no water. To see the shore line in some cases you would need to walk more than 100 miles into the today’s seas and in dry feet.
     Even the Black Sea didn’t exist at the time. It was because the Mediterranean Sea was so lower that the communication between it was cut. What we had on its place was a much smaller body of sweet water. It was fed by the rivers around it. As the atmosphere preasure is higher in lower places and it turns to an higher temperature, in that time it could be a good place to live. But a good part of dry land in that Europe is now the botton of its seas. So is possible that, some evidences of existing at the time prehistorical primitive civilizations can be found if we dig in at seas bed sediments.
     So, from 40,000 to 13,000 years ago, Europeans were living on only at its southern parts. Around the year 13,000 ago something happen and the ice starts to meltdown. Some scientist theorized that, some iced deposit of gas at the ocean’s botton must have been ignated by a smaller volcanic eruption and it boiled at the botton of the North Atlantic. It produces to much CO2 and it have the ability on to absorb heat from sunlight to warm out the atmosphere. Then the glaciation start to move back to North Pole direction. 10,000 years ago, the big fat European family start to migrate again. Now their movement was northbound.
     Now use your imagination and make the links. As human beings are able of multiply themselves like I wrote before, I mean, just a couple having 2 children, who get 2 others each and so on untill the 33th generation, then it could become 8.5 billions in just 1 thousand years, you must understand that in Iberian Peninsula the European were sheltered for 30,000 years. What you expect from it is that, The first group that went there were at least close relatives. But Spain and Portugal together, plus some area under the sea, are not so big and not too small. That group must were organized like a tribe.
     After a while they probably were some thousands of people and still cousins. But as their numbers were added they must subdiveded themselves in others tribes. Although they stood close relatives and cousins it is inherent to alive beings have what is called variability. One practical example of it is that, my parents had nine children. Then each one of us, even having much of similitude also, have our differences. I am taller than everyone else. Some are short. My skin is an European like color and one of our brothers have darker skin. Some have curled hair and others waved. Some have dark and others brown hair, although as children the last ones were clear blonded hair. If we look at each item from our bodies we can see multiple combinations.
     Lets though imagine that. Our parents were kings and decided to divide the nation in 9 kingdons and each one of us would become new kings and queens. More, if in the division of that kingdom the king stablishs that, the people from the old kingdom would be divided by its looks and the most look alike to the new queens and kings should follow them by their own similitudes with each new sovereign. In this case, the tallest, more European looking, waved hair etcetera had to follow me. And so on to the others.
     Imagine though if we stood separated not by a generation but for thousands of years. The descendants of each one of us are expected to be more like ourselves but what should be most visible should be our differences. It should be a shocking meeting again in a reunion of our descendants. Some could never seen another people so taller in their whole lives. Others should never seen people in a such kind of dark skin. And as I said before, the differences could immediately sound the alarm to many. Remember, we are conditioned by nature to identify first the differences and to link it as warning of danger.
     A part of it was just what happen to European people. The History didn’t flow like that because about 10.000 years ago the people sheltered in Iberian Peninsula start to move to places more northbound but they kept a cultural link between them. Their religion were alike, they had meetings in some geographical points at their annual festivals, they didn’t have overpopulation and had more wild land to conquest. Also, aroud 7,000 years ago the Atlantic cost worked like an free way to trade from North Africa to Scandinavia. But at some time they totally forgot about be offsprings from one same group of people.
     Before I forget, the scientific community is yet to find out if had or not genetical crossing between Caucasians and another kind of human that florished from Middle East to the end of Europe. They are the Neanthertal people. As the Caucasian advanced in the European landscape that people appear to disappear. But have not enough evidence to say that, they made war and Neanthertal became extinct. What evidence show is that, in some cases they lived nearby each other. And does exist a skeleton of a child, from 25-28,000 thousands years ago found in Portugal that appear to be an hibrid between the two human families. Then European can have a little from Neeanthertal but not enough for anybody say it yet.
     Even if that possibility is true what I wrote above still valid because about 30,000 year ago neeanthertal man had vanished from the records. So at that time the European population was last gathering in Spain and Portugal. Then the families must have exchanged genetical material between themselves and everybody got the same inheritance. Some could have a little more than others but not enough to make any difference.
     What happen after is the big deal. Human beings start to develop all around the world what we call civilizations. Around the Mediterranean Sea we have the Foenicians or people of the sea. Greece came later and named the rest of Europeans as Keltai. Romans came after and inherit the same prejudice adapted to their languase, Celtae. In our language it is translated as Barbarian.
     Why the name? Was just because Barbarian were a people more rural than urban. They didn’t learn yet how to write their History. They use to bring their food to their mouth with their nives not spoons or forks. The civilized people would never do something like that! Instead, civilized people started to hunt and make war against them. Just because civilized people wanted their lands, whatsoever they were able to produce and to make slaves out of them. And with such intention Rome became the superpower on its time.
     Rome conquered the whole land around the Mediterranean Sea making from it its own lake. It even conquered England. England, France, Italy, Portugal, Spain, Greece are among the land conquered by Rome. Mostly the European from the Northern parts were saved by have nothing but slaves valiable to the Roman interest. Then Rome didn’t conquer North Europe but made incursions there to hunt slaves.
     And Rome implanted its Pax Romana. It meant that you are under Roman authority and had to follow its lead or otherwise you could be swept from existence. Under Roman lead you had to pay taxes but get nothing in return. Rome put its troops in your land as an excuse to protect you against alien invasion but mainly the troops were used against yourself interests. You had not right to have a different opinion.
     Although was like that, in one issue Roman administration was more open to democracy. You could follow your religion since it didn’t represented any obstacle to its interests. Even Jews could practice their religion despite they couldn’t worship the emperor. At first Romans were against Christianity, having or not reason for that, but later the Emperor Constantius made Christanity the official religion to the whole Empire. And it was not for good. What he wanted was that, everybody were subdued to himself and his followers.
     From there on the Empire start to disarray. Christianity were divided in various creeds. Constantius wanted a Church behind himself and wanted settle down the differences. For that he ordered the bishops to do a council at the city of Nicaea. After the Council of Nicaea they published the Creed of Nicaea that instituted everybody in the Empire had to be Christian and follow the dogma of the Trinity as statuted by the Creed of Nicaea. The opositors to these dogma as it was imposed were the Arian.
     The Arians gain this name around the time of the Council of Nicaea because the main defender of these Theology was called by the name Arius. The Arian Theology was  older than Arius and by obvious reasons knew that, have a Superior Entity which were not created. And the first Christian obvious knew that, Jesus was a creature begotten by that Entity. It is cristal clear through the words attributed to Jesus himself at John, 14:28, “for my Father is greater than I.” If it is so, then we can’t deceive ourselves saying Jesus and God are the same because not even God is Greater than Himself.
     The Arian Theology were considered as heretic by the first Council of Nicaea at 325 and later were reaccepted but it may have contributed to the fall of Rome. Even Jesus had warned his followers about the divided kingdom. What I am saying here is that, is important to allow different opinions among us, if in a respectfull way, because you can be alerted of your mistakes by somebody else. If everybody thought everything in the same way you would never know when you is wrong, mistaken or deceived.
     When you try to impose to another something which is not essential you will make enemies by an action that is not worthfull. In every dictatorship must have one group of people that believe in their supremacy into decide what are the best solutions in name of others. It is just a kind of selfishness, to attribute to oneself the destiny of others without even hear and be open to do what the others also want.
     So, untill the year 381 Arianism were tolerated and Rome were administrated by Arian Emperors. Even they sent some clergymen to teach Arian Christianism to Barbarian peoples outside the Empire’s borders. Then, at that time, in the first Council of Constatinople, Arianism were again considered heretic and the followers were persecuted. Much for a mere coincidence, the Barbarian lead by the Goths invaded and conquered the Empire at 411.
     Roman Empire was divided into two parts. Goths took Rome itself for them but the east part of the Empire with the capital in Constantinople or Bizantium stood stand. Later on it was renamed as Byzantine Empire.
     The Goths divided their conquest into two parts. On West Europe which includes Central and South France and Spain plus Portugal were taken by the Visigoths. And Italy and nearby lands were taken by Ostrogoths. Since the beginning of Ostrogoths administration the things didn’t worked well. They tried to conciliate things like be a stranger power governing another people in these people own land. The people had ties with the Roman Constantinople which was aways trying to conspire against Goths. Goths was Arian and the population was Nicaean oriented religion. They was open to tolerate different opinion about it but the others not.
     Historians classify this period as Middle Ages, sometimes it is remembered as Dark Ages. Ostrogoths were not long in power although their offspring stood in charge. Visigoths stood for longer. The splendor of ancient Rome was gone. Europe became a place for yearly wars. Each separated people trying to subdue its neighbors or trying to freed themselves from their despotism.
     Franks were another people from the same background as the Goths in Germany but were long ago allowded to live in Northern France by Roman Empire. Then they opposed to the Goths invasion and were defeated by them. Later on this people became the solely superpower in Europe. But something else happen before it.
     Muhammad started his Messianic preaching in the Middle East and 100 years later the Muslins Empire was the biggest ever. It elongated from India to North Africa. In 711 the Visigoths were in warfare against each other because succession disputes. Muslins seized the moment, crossed Gibraltar and invaded Europe from Spain to France. Immediately after came the reaction against it.
     One of the Frank’s leaders was Charles Martel or Charles the Hammer. He organized the counter attack and were in part successfull. He stop the advance of the enemy forces and made them retreat to Spain. From there they were unable to remove the invasor.
     Later on, the grandson of Charles the Hammer, Charlemagne, was in charge and conquered whole Central Europe. From Italy to Germany. Only some small kingdons were left out. At his time, the Pope in Rome was just a puppet in the hands of the Lombardians. Charlesmagne became not a regular Catholic but an extreme kind of it. Then he defeated the Lombardians and put himself under the blessing of the Roman Catholic Church. At 800 he was crowned as Sacred Roman Emperor. It was an attempt to restore the Roman Empire in the helm of Catholic Church.
     It didn’t went far. The Barbarians had the tradition on partnership. All sons of a king was also kings. And each one had the right of to take one part of the kingdom for themselves. Just after was common they make war against themselves to unify the kingdom again under one ruller. The best thing which could happening from it was when they agreed on just create new kingdons and leave the others alone. So, along the time, Europe was again more and more divided. But the real power ended in the Pope’s hands. So the Catholic Church became the real superpower in Europe.
     Charlemagne was a king that some wanted santify after his death. But alive he was capable of ordered the death of 10,000 Saxons because they refused let go their beliefs on Paganism. He is considered the father of France and Germany’s monarchies. Catholic he was but also had many wives. He was a schooling non educated person but created the regular system of schooling and ordered his children, even daughters, to be educated. He is more than one controversy.
     One information about his reign or his son, Charles, the Pious, that is useful is that, he was unable to reconquest Spain and Portugal and had his only defeat in life when was retreating from Spain and the rear of his army were surprised by the Basques. Later on Charles, the Pious, was able to reconquest Barcelona and the around about became a Frankish Kingdom of Aragon.
     What I have to mention about Europeans is that, they forgot about their primary origins. They divided themselves in little families. They named their families as Saxons, Bretons, Gauls, Goths, Lombards, Basques, Luzitans, Franks, Vikings and many many others. They created many opressions against each other and exported it through the America’s invasion and the colonial exploitation in every corner of the globe. They recreated slavery and worsened it. Europeans were able of create also the Inquisition. They exported wars like the Napolean’s wars, I and II World Wars.
     The present charpter was designed to point out some bad dids of Europeans. I don’t ignore their good did’s. But I think is necessary to look at the dark side of Europeans because much of the today’s prejudice in the world come from them or their offsprings. So if the prejudice that they feel against others is born from any feeling of superiority, the prejudicial people must be remembered about this dark side. Because if you don’t recognize your weakness and don’t fight against it, it always will turn against yourself.
     Not long ago I start to take a look at myself genealogy. It is a tradition in my family back in Brazil and my father was kind of inspiration to whole family on it. My studies begun just at his and my mother 50 anniversary of marriage. My wife and I just got the notice that we got our green cards in november, 2001. We went Brazil for the first time after 8 years not been allowed to go there. I mean, we could go but had not guarantee to come back. In January 10, 2002 was the 50 anniversary.
     The commemorations took place on December because at January 7, 2002, we had another aniversary of marriage. Was the 60th aniversary of my aunt Odila and uncle Eurico. That day was also my father’s birthday. So we had not little to commemorate.
     Aunt Odila was my father’s sister until he died in 2003. And her daughter, Ivania, had authorship a book, Family’s Coelho Genealogic Tree. We had grown up with the book at home but never taked a close look in it. Sometimes it felt not necessary because much of the content in the book we already knew by knowing much of the people recorded in there. If we didn’t knew some personally, because they passed away long before we were born, they was still in our memories through our family’s around the fire meetings. I think a can name it like that but mostly of that meetings was at my mother’s father house or many others relative’s kitchen. In this case the fire was present in the stove, where the wood was light.
     Kitchen in our big family is a symbol and a way of life. Does not matter if the others use or not appropriated roons to do their meetings. Sometimes our birth place get a little cold, something under 60 Fahrenheit, even around 32. But our meetings around the fire would easily make us forget about the cold. The human heat ignited by the continous laughter was what driven our talking. And always the issue had something to do with our ancestors and their relatives.
     Then, at my aunt Odila’s house, my father had the idea of buy more samples of the book. My aunt gave him some and he gave me one. I brough it with me and start to study some details that I never took notice before. Specially how runs our kinship with almost 90% of the population in our town and others town around. But the book was lack on many of our family’s branchs genealogical tree. We call it Coelho’s Family but these name is not but a mention to one of our ancestors who was born in the middle of 1,700s.
     This ancestor himself was from Portugal and marriaged to a Brazilian woman. They had five children and two of them were marriaged. At that time, our birth state in Brazil was less than one hundred years old in terms of a bigger European colonization. The Minas Gerais State (General Mines) is what the name says. A big place, just about something less than Texas, with a cord of mountains lined up in what is called Serra do Espinhaco (Spine’s Mountain Hanger) from south to north. There was the place where gold, silver, iron, diamonds and much more stood together untill Europeans came.
      So, at the fist half of 1,700s, Brazil had its Gold Rush and Minas Gerais was the place. As a Colony, Portugal was in charge and tried to block migration to there. It wanted to control everything but it was not any easy. The rain forest dominated everything. The rivers, except for some, were difficult to navegate. It flowed to all four and intermediary directions. Sometimes the state is even called by the name, Brazil’s Water Tank. It is where most high altitude in Brazil take its place and its waters feed the rivers which make contact with many others states in South and Brazilian Northeast. Among the problems, some more hot places in the state was full of unknown tropical diseases.
     Then Europeans, specially Portuguese people, and Brazilians from others colonies disorderly invaded the place. And they started to bring African slaves. The native Brazilian was there long before anyone else and became subject to prey for slavery, forced conversion and the women was used to marriage after that.
     Our genealogy in that book starts on a little later, when the gold became rare and when the Mineiros (miners, the inhabitants of Minas Gerais) started to be more farmers than miners. The Portuguese ancestor who brought our family name, which many of us still using, had the name of Jose Coelho de Magalhaes. Coelho means rabbit. And I will talk later about the reason that name start to be used. Maybe, at the end of his life, he became known by the nickname, Jose Coelho da Rocha.
     Later on I learned that his wife, Eugenia Rodrigues Rocha, also called Eugenia Maria da Cruz, was a daughter of Giuseppe Nicatsi da Rocha and Maria Rodrigues. He was an half/half Italian and Portuguese. But untill now we don’t know nothing about his ancestors. Maria Rodrigues was Brazilian and some say she got others surnames which was, de Magalhaes Barbalho. Just like in my name but I am not sure about that. We have reasons to doubt it and one reason to admit that, at least the surname Barbalho was present in the area she probably was born in. But I am keeping looking for evidences to prove how was composed her real name.
     What I am interested now is to go back to the issue that entitled the present chapter. We had a tradition on that, our ancestor Jose Coelho de Magalhaes came from another Portuguese named Manoel Rodrigues Coelho. These Portuguese person was a rich man, who got his fortune from gold mining and went Minas Gerais State on the earlier days of the Gold Rush there. Then the tradition is lack on timing because we know that, both of them was born in Portugal. Jose was born around 1,750. Manoel became a public servant at Ouro Preto City, in 1,719. That time he had to be around his 25 or more years old because he took a good position.
     It is a little bit too complicated for a man at that time be around his 60s years old, rich and take a risk on to travel through the ocean, be remarriaged, have a son and get back one more time. On that time the expectation on to be successfull on any travel through the ocean was not more than 50/50. The things had to be like that because we have evidences that he was in Brazil later on. Manoel made big contributions to the construction of the Bom Jesus do Matosinhos Sanctuary, in Congonhas City. It is the most recognizable monument from that era in Minas Gerais State, and still been a mark in the marketing of the state. It beginning to be constructed in 1,757 and it ended around 30 years later.
     Then I start looking elsewhere for our ancestor origins. And I found someone with the same name, probably the same age, in a internet site. The site is named – Portugal, and gathers genealogical information from the whole Europe and elsewhere. It is about ten years old but got records from old documents, maybe, since the activity of genealogy started on Earth. They don’t have everything but just enough data to amaze any lay person.
     From the Middle Ages or before what they got is something about the called noble families. But what is a noble family? Is nothing more than a regular family with titles. Then I say why it’s that so. It comes from since our tribal origins. A tribe is necessarily a group of people with many kinship ties. Scientists calculated ancient Egyptians that constructed the Great Pyramids in a number around 100,000 persons. But ancient Egyptian was a nation, not only a tribe.
     And, as far as I know yet, I have more than 100,000 relatives and counting. No. I am not talking about people that I know being my relative but I can’t point out any of their ancestors. I am talking just about the direct descendants of the pioneers that populated the cities around my birth place. So, in ancient times my family would be called a nation, not a family.
     Among us have some that have good positions as public servants. Others got their positions because their diplomas at colleges. Some got rich as business people. We have those as clergypeople and whatsoever you can say it, they are successful people. But, most of us are just common people. As they say in Brazil, “I have rich people as my relative but they don’t know me, and I also have poor people as relative but I don’t know them.”
     Nowadays if somebody say he or she works as weld nobody pay attention on them. 1,000 years ago they would be from the most noble family. That is what made the called nobility then and it came through the ages by genealogy. And nobility is not a exclusivity to Europeans. All around the world we had this kind of differenciation that separated some from the others. Although for too many of us looks like in Africa or ancient Americas you had not nobility it comes from ourselves ignorance about History. The Europeans crushed all existent cultures on those continents and monopolized the right on be noble. It was made easier because mostly of those crushed cultures didn’t use writings.
     Nobility doesn’t necessarily mean a noble character. Sometimes it is better applied to an adventurer, soldier of fortune or one who unscrupulously seeks wealth and social position, as defined in the dictionary.
     The justification for the existence of genealogy in ancient times had everything to do with succession. You need to think about it. If someone was king and had many children and just one of them had the immediate right to be the successor, the others was put aside but not away. They had to see if the new king was able or not to also have children and if his children would be able to be king. If so, everyone would still be in the line as eventual successor. We need to remember that, wasn’t uncommon that an epidemic situation or an disastrous war wipe out most of the noble people. Then, the next on the line would be choose by the proximity of his kinship with the dead king.
     But sometimes the line of successor was never broken for generations. And the brothers and sisters of the first king had themselves their offspringhood. At first, they was usually named for the best positions around the throne. Then their children was downgraded in favor of the children of the king. The grandchildren was dawngraded some more unless they marriaged to someone else equally graduated. Keeping the downgrade, five or ten generations later, most of the offsprings of the first king would be not more than simple peasant. And as a peasant they had to marriage to another from the same kind. It happens to most of us.
     In some cases it was why some families were more used to marriage to their kin. In Brazil the lack of information about it let the people start make fun on these in that saying, Is for not spread the fortune. But the intention was not to loose link with the royal blood. By the ignorance those families was putting their offspring at risk get degenarative deseases.
     Well, let be back to the issue again! Some of the offsprings of my ancestors, Jose Coelho de Magalhaes and Eugenia Rodrigues Rocha are already recorded in the site Based on some data that I gave, the first generation after them are also posted as descendents of the Jose Coelho de Magalhaes, the nobleman. Before it he was without family. But in reallity I can’t yet say they are the same person. But it does not matter so much. Why?
     If the nobleman is not our ancestor he must be our relative. If not him must be another person linked to the royal families that passed on to us the many surnames we have in our genealogy. As I demonstrated before any person born 1,000 years before us could easily be ancestors to everyone alive in Earth today. But because there was borders and prejudice since before 1,000 years ago, just a small number of ancestors must have generated the whole population of each country today. This little number can be thousands or even couple millions. It does not matter.
     Let take it as example. One thousand years ago Portugal must had less than a million persons. And there must had at least hundreds or couple thousands called noblepeople. Despite of some immigration occurred along History to there, it didn’t changed anything because the newcomers easily were marriaged to the initial families. So, our ancestor Jose Coelho de Magalhaes, born 750 years latter, would be a totally anomaly if he had not familial ties with them. And his surnames are the most significant evidence of those ties.
     Must be easy we be simultaneously descendants of every and each person who lived and made offspring in Portugal a thousand years ago. Since we know that, is possible we have more than 8.5 billions ancestors living in that time, we have more than enough space for be offspring of every and each one Portuguese 33 greats (grandparents) from that time plus a great quantity of Africans and native South Americans. I just wont include here the Asians from India to Japan and Islands around Pacific and Indian Oceans because we have not data that link us to them as our ancestors. Based on my calculations we have enough room to be offsprings of every and each noble and poor person from Iberian Peninsula repeatedly many many times, from 1,000 years ago.
     Now I need to do a briefing on the main events that made the Iberian and Portuguese genetics. As I said before the people living in, now and then, Iberian Peninsula was descendants from the group of Caucasians that stablished themselves in that area since around 40,000 years ago. Around 10,000 years ago some moved toward north and populated Europe. At the time before Chist the genetics kept unchanged.
     The people which lived in Portugal was called Luzitani. And their cousins lived around. They first had the cultural influence from Celtic culture. Later on they stood as Celtic but had a little influence of Greek and Cartaginean cultures. But those was cultural influences nothing that could make any changing in the genetics. After Romans conquered Cartago they were resistants to Roman influence.
     From 219 to 19 B.C. the Luzitani were the most ferocious battle frontier to Rome. Romans born wouldn’t be happy to be deployed in around Luzitani territory. But in 19 B.C., Julius Caesar with help of treason conquered that territory. So it became the Roman Province of Hispania Luzitania. But the name was short lived because the differences between the inhabitants of both territories. It were divided in two, Hispania and Luzitania.
     Curious fact occurred around 70 A.D. After the fierce repression on the first Jewish revolt in Israel, Romans sent part of the israeli people to live in Iberian Peninsula. They called themselves by the name of Saphardins with mean that they now was living far way from home. Now imagine that, if 1,000 is enough time for a couple have so much offsprings the Jews first comers there had almost 1,000 years for be ancestors of ours ancestors from 1,000 years ago. And they were not just a couple but, at least, a couple thousands.
     But their number was small compared to the whole population living in Iberian Peninsula that could be around 300,000. And the Jews multiply themselves in both ways by marriaging to each others and converting the Celtic Pagans Iberian inhabitants. Like that, the Jewish community became important part of Iberian life. Although their presence didn’t change much the genetics of the population as a whole.
     Another significant influence came around 400 years later. With the Goth invasion of Roman Empire, Iberian Peninsula was taken too. With the Goths came a people named Suevi. They installed themselves at the North Atlantic Cost of Spain and Portugal. They found the first considered true Medieval reign in there which was called Gaelecia. They must had been blonded hair because later on the word galego in Portuguese became synonym to blond.
     I don’t know exactly the genetical impact they had on Iberian genetics. But some had said that, the Goths and their allies were around 10% of the local population. If so, their impact was not so big and not too small. The Iberian people was long ago cuturally Roman and Catholic Christian since and after Constantius reign. And the Suevi people was absorbed by their cultural background. The Suevi reign endured for almost 200 years until be conquered by the Visigoths around the year 700.
     Two more interesting information. Must be before that time it had a migration from the Gaelecia area and populated Ireland and some parts near in England and Scothland. This migration must have occurred before the conversion to Catholicism because Ireland and others parts populated by that stood culturally Celtic. Even the modern studies of DNA had indicated that, the Ireland and English peoples are the most close relatives of Portuguese and Spanish in whole Europe. Genetically those people are just like cousins. And the blonded hair people from the old Gaelecia moved also in great numbers to Brazil at it’s Gold Rush times, in Minas Gerais, on 1,700s.
     On 711 the Muslins came and conquered almost the whole Iberian Peninsula. Later on I had to be back to these issue because what they didn’t conquered was only a small part called by the names of Cantabria and Asturias. It is a mountaineous terrain which stretchs from the Pyrinees in North Spain. In there, Pelagio from Asturias and Pedro from Cantabria was able to managed a resistence which at the end, in 1,496, Muslins were thrown out back to Africa.
     The Muslins invasion also didn’t made any difference in genetical terms for the genetics in Iberian Peninsula. Arabs were small in numbers and their Empire was too extensive. So what they did was conquer a territory and offered conversion to the conquered population. Then, after that they train the people in religion and arms. Formed the new army which was lead by a small number of Arabs they departed to a new conquest. What they brought to Iberian Peninsula was the Moors. The Moors were the ancient inhabitants of North Africa in connection with Gibraltar. They were just the Caucasian people that crossed Gibraltar at the last Ice Age and was close relatives to Europeans.
     But a small number of Arabs were present in that. And they left not only some words in Spanish and Portuguese languages. They also transmited some cultural and genetical components. Not much for say that we are Arab in constitution but enough to say, we are like distant cousins.
     The last genetical contribution to the Iberian Peninsula came from others people from Europe Itself. During the period called Reconquista (Retaken) which last for around 500 year for Portugal and almost 800 years for Spain, after the Christians retaken some parts of the territory they invited others Europeans to live in there, which it was called by the name of repopulation. So, some Neederlandians and Bourgandians also became part of our genetical mixture.
     Statistically some part of the today’s European population have smaller contribution from Subsahara Africans and Asians from the diverses parts of the Globe.
     After said that I may come back to my ancestors. Then I dived dip in the genealogy of the Jose Coelho de Magalhaes first present in the site more than sure that, if he is not our ancestor his ancestors are. And from these I learned something that I would like to pass a few details to whosoever be interested in what I am writing. I will post here a sequence of ancestors he has. I will start from the older couple who will be parents for the next person under. And so on untill we goes to, Pedro (Peter), the duke of Cantabria.
Graciano, the Old – unknown wife
Valens I, Emperor of Occident – Justina
Gala – Theodosius I, Emperor of Rome
Gala Placida – Athahulf, King
Theodoric, King – Flavia Gala Placida
Theodoric I, King – unknown wife
Euric I Balthes, King – Ragnahild
Alaric II Balthes, King – Theodegota of Ostrogoths
Amalric I Balthes, King – Clothilde de France
Leovigild of Septimania Balthes – Theodosia from Cartagene
Hermenegild II Balthes – Ingunda d’Austrasie
Antanagildo Balthes – unknown wife
Adrebasto Balthes – unknown wife
Ervigio Balthes – Liubigotona Balthes
Peter, duke of Cantabria – unknown wife
     In that lineage we can see others interesting crossings. For example, Clothilde de France was daughter of Clovis, the Frankish king. Her mother was Saint Clotilda from Bourgandy. So, the powerfull in the end of Roman Empire and beginning of Middle Ages became ancestors of most of royal families throughout the whole Medieval Period in Europe.
     We have many crossing lineages around but I am limiting it to not become something confusing. Peter, as his title say, was the duke of Cantabria. And from that territory he lead the resistance.
     The other leader were Pelagio. We don’t have his ancestry but he supposed came from noble family because he was taken as hostage by Muslins forces. Then managed to escape and gathered another group of resistence with his fellowmen in Asturias. Pelagio fathered a son but he was killed by a bear in his test to adulthood. It was an ancient tradition that all leader had to be proved. For that his daughter Ermesinda of Asturias became in the line as heir.
     Peter of Cantabria had a male heir called by the name Alfonso. Alfonso marriaged to Ermesinda and became Alfonso I, King of Asturias. Since then the name Cantabria disappear from the records and the kingdom was united. They had a heir who became king under the name of Alfonso II. Alfonso II became the most celebrated king to Christians in Iberian Peninsula from that time. He was called, the Chaste because was unmarriaged and entirely dedicated to the Christian cause of reconquest.
     His reign endured for 52 years. Some say that he transformed a vaste area between Asturias in the north and Muslins territory in the South in a desert of alive people. But others say it was done by the plague. Important was the results from that. Asturias was a kingdom to small to survive for long against the superior power of Muslins. Then the desert gave time for the kingdom became more populated.
     And one event was the key for the salvation of the kingdom. A grave was founded and identified as of Saint’s James, the Minor. Saint James, also called by the latim name Tiago or others languages as Lago and Iago was the disciple of Jesus. The legend says that, he was the first Christian to enter Spain to preach Christianity. Then later he went back to Jerusalem and were decapitated by King Herod Antipas. And his followers brought his body back to Spain for his final rest place.
     After the identification of the grave in Compostela (it mean a place by the name Star’s Field) it became famous as pilgrimage center. Christians from all corners of Europe start to go there and experience something magical. Os Caminhos de Santiago (Saint’s James Paths) have an extension of about 500 miles. And the pilgrim had to go there by foot. After the experience they took vows to defend the land and pledged for donations which helped the Reconquest. The legend even say that, Saint James in person came from the sky in a resplendent horse and costume for do battle among Christians.
     The Paths of Saint James of Compostela were roamed about by the most famous Brazilian writer from nowadays, Paulo Coelho. He attributed his carrer as books writer to a beginning linked to this starting. But I have not idea if the Coelho in his name come from some known figure to me.
     But Alfonso II had not heir by himself. Then the lineage produced by his brother Froila were enthroned in his place. And it followed as the sequence I am posting now,
725 Froila I – Munia Froilaz
743 Froila of Asturias – unknown wife
760 Bermudo, prince of Asturias – Ursina Muniadona from Coimbra
780 Ramiro I, King of Asturias – Paterna from Castilla
800 Ordonho I, King of Asturias – Munadona de Vierzo
838 Alfonso III, King of Asturias – Ximena Garcez, from Pamplona
860 Ordonho II, King of Asturias – Elvira Mendes of Portugal
900 Ramiro II, King of Leon – Onega?…
     As you can see, the lineage that I am presenting is only paternal. And usually from the king’s first born. But if anyone is more interest on genealogy can go through the site – Portugal and take a look at the ancestry of each mother who appear. They are from noble families and most of them come from Iberian Peninsula. Since that time existed some prejudice against Iberians. They were said to be kind of Barbarians what their only civilized activity was make steel and tools from it.
     Alfonso III have an important link on the retaken of Portugal. He were the king that commisioned Vimara Peres to retaken the North of Portugal. Vimara is the Portuguese hero from that time. He dominated the land between the River Minho at the North and the River Douro at the South. He constructed a fortification which became a village named Vimaranes after his name. He was stablished as Count (English earl) and his title became hereditary. Some say that in others monarchies in Europe his title would be duke. The name Vimaranes was also modified to Guimaraes. It became family name and, probably, everyone who have it as name is an offspring of Vimara Peres.
     Later on the descendant of Vimara, Nuno Vimaranes tried to freed Portugal from the domain of the Kingdom of Galiza but he was killed in the battle.
     Ramiro II were a fierce warrior against Muslins. They called him “El Diablo” (The Demon). His reign coincides to a famous leader in Muslins side. His name, Adb al Rahman III ibn Muhammed, the Great. You can see interesting details from this period in video produced and distributed by PBS HOME VIDEO. At it’s site you can call for ISLAM, EMPIRE OF FAITH. What is remarkable about that is the comparison between North Europe, represented by Christian faith then, and Islamic Iberian Peninsula. Is said that, after a nun know the beauty and hygiene in Islamic Spain she had not doubt in say that, Is like to compare darkness and light.
     Adb al Rahman III were able to conciliate the three differents faiths under his power. Jewish, Christians and Muslins would serve him in all aspects as equals. But he confronted the opposition from his own counterparts on it. Some felt neglected and his reign became although a great progress in enlightenment but also a constant battlefield.
     Despite of the rivalry between the faiths, Ramiro II and Adb al Rahman III agreed on to marriage one of the Ramiro’s sons to a Adb’s cousin. Then the marriage of Lovesendo Ramires to Zayra ibn Zayda was designed to bring peace between the both people. And I will post some more from their genealogy. About Zayra and Adb al Rahman III you can follow their ancestry on the mentioned site. They are direct descendant of the Prophet Muhammad himself. Then, what follow is some of their descendance.
  940 Lovesendo Ramires – Zayra ibn Zayda
  960 Aboazar Lovesendes – Unisco Godinhes
  980 Ermigio Aboazar – Vivili Turtezendes
1,000 Toda Ermiges – Egas Moniz de Ribadouro, Lord of Ribadouro
1,020 Ermigio Viegas, Lord of Ribadouro – Unisco Pais
1,050 Monio Ermiges, Lord of Ribadouro – Ouroana
1,080 Egas Moniz, o Aio – Dordia Pais Azevedo
         Lourenco Viegas – Maria Gomes de Pombeiro
1,135 Egas Lourenco (Coelho) – Unknown wife from Pombeiro
1,160 Soeiro Viegas Coelho – Mor Mendes de Gandarei
     Here we have an interesting sequence. Through an woman, Toda Ermiges, the royal blood was pass to entered in a family that dominated the region called Ribadouro. What the name mean is, Over the Douro River. It is the region in the north of the Douro River. By that she became a greatgrandmother of Egas Moniz, o Aio. In Portuguese language aia means baby sitter. Aio would be baby sit by a male. The nickname given to Egas Moniz is because he accepted be mentor to Afonso Henriques who later became to be the first king of Portugal.
     At the sequence he became also grandfather of Egas Lourenco Coelho. Some authors say that, Egas Lourenco was the first one to use the last name Coelho. It would be happen because he own a farm with the name of She Rabbit Farm. Coelho means rabbit. But it is not proven because he didn’t gave such name to his offsprings.
     But his son did. And the reason for his son Soeiro make use of such name have origins in the fight for the Reconquest. Others said to the king that, he was able to penetrate the enemies line without be noticed, as it was done through rabbit’s burrows. Then he adopted Coelho as his last name and passed it on to his children.
     Another lineage of historical importance, born from the kings of Asturias is that,
   900 Ramiro II, King of Asturias – Ausenda Guterres, from Coimbra
   925 Ordono III, King of Leon – Elvira Pais Daza
   956 Bermudo II, King of Leon – Elvira Garcez, from Castilla
   994 Alfonso V, King of Leon – Elvira Mendes, Sovereign Countess of Portugal
1,015 Sancha, heir of Leon – Fernando Magno, King of Leon and Castilla
1,039 Alfonso VI, King of Castilla – Ximena Moniz
         Teresa, from Leon, Countess of Portugal – Henri, from Bourgandy
     Teresa, Countess of Portugal, like Egas Moniz, o Aio, was a descendant of King Ramiro who was offspring of Peter and Pelagio. And her father, Alfonso VI, sent a message to whole noble families in Europe promessing riches and even his daughters to those who was willing to help him in the fight against the Moors. Henri, who was son of Henri, Duke of Bourgandy and others accepted the challenge. Alfonso VI kept his word and marriaged Teresa to Henri. They had many sons and daughters.
     One of the children was baptized with the name of Afonso, son of Henri or Afonso Henriques as it is the History of Portugal. And was these one child that Egas Moniz promised to his father to take care of him. After Henri of Bourgandy died his wife Teresa had another man and maybe it was the reason for Afonso Henriques start a rebellion to try separate Portugal from the Kingdom of Leon.
     At first the he failled on to do it. As his mentor, Egas Moniz gave his word to king Alfonso VII, giving him guarantee that Afonso Henriques would never try it again. But he did and were successful. And is said that, his mentor went from Portugal to the Leon City with an wood attached to his neck in company of all his offsprings to offer their lives because of a broken word. Seen such gesture of nobility, the king gave him pardon and more riches. Nobody knows exactly what happened but some think that, in the first place he gave his word for give more time to Afonso Henriques reorganize his troops and get the second chance to defeat his own mother’s army. But is hard to believe that, Egas Moniz was a such crazy person and able to play with his own and all of his children lives like that. He was probably sincere in everything.
     The next sequence of genealogy starts with the King Afonso Henriques.
1,109 Afonso Henriques, first King of Portugal – Mahaut of Savoie
1,154 D. Sancho I, King of Portugal – Dulce, from Barcelona
1,185 D. Afonso II, King of Portugal – Urraca, princess of Castilla
1,210 D. Afonso III, King of Portugal – Maria Peres de Enxara
1,260 D. Afonso Dinis – Maria Pais Ribeiro
1,305 D. Diogo Afonso de Sousa – Violante Lopes Pacheco
1,330 D. Alvaro Dias de Sousa – Maria Teles de Menezes
1,350 D. Lopo Dias de Sousa – Maria Ribeiro
1,370 Violante de Sousa – Rui Vasques Ribeiro
1,410 Pedro (or Rodrigo) Ribeiro de Vasconcelos – unknown wife
1,440 Francisco Queiroz Ribeiro de Vasconcelos – Maria Goncalves
1,470 Isabel Francisca de Queiroz – Diogo Anes Ribeiro de Vasconcelos
1,495 Manuel Dias Ribeiro de Vasconcelos – Joana Ferreira
1,525 Violante de Freitas, the Liar – Lancarote Pinto
1,550 Simeao Pinto Machado – Ana da Mesquita
         Antonio Pinto de Mesquita – Maria de Lemos
         Simao Pinto de Mesquita – Maria Barbosa
         Antonio Pinto de Mesquita – Angela Vieira de Seixas
         Bernardo Antonio Pinto de Mesquita – Ana Josefa de Magalhaes Pinto
1,750 Jose Coelho de Magalhaes – (?) Eugenia Rodrigues Rocha
     Again, I can’t say with not doubt that this Jose Coelho de Magalhaes is really one of number 5 grandparent of mine and my family. But, if not, someone else will be and his lineage will have a link to some of those presented here. Sure would be a mathematical improbability if it be not like that. Then I am not dying for to be part in that specific lineage. Nobody need to be. Unfortunately most of us does not know from which lineages we came but any and everyone is supposed to have some links with royals lineages. It is a club which does not demands exclusivity.
     One important historical figure in that lineage that I want to mention is D. Afonso III, King of Portugal. During his administration portuguese people reconquered the last stand lands in Muslins power in Portugal. He was not to be king because had an older brother who became King Sancho II. But Sancho II was not willing to be submissive to the powerful Catholic Church and it demanded his removal from power. Afonso III was surprised by the decision where he became unespectedly the number one in Portugal.
     D. Afonso III was the one to complete the reconquest when he took Algarves and the City of Faro which are at the south of Portugal and next to Gibraltar. His administration to Portugal represents a downturn to what was happening before. Take this excerpt from the Wikipedia as example, “Afonso III paid special attention to what the middle class, composed of merchants and small land owners, had to say. In 1254, in the city of Leiria, he held the first session of the Cortes, a general assembly comprising the nobility, the middle class and representatives of all municipalities. He also made laws intended to restrain the upper classes from abusing the least favoured part of the population. Remembered as a notable administrator, Afonso III founded several towns, granted the title of city to many others and reorganized public administration.” He was the true creator of Parliamentarism long before it became known as government system.
     Like others king around his time, Afonso III had wives and concubines. One of his concubines was Madragana, later she was rebaptized as Mor Afonso. About her have some interesting informations. First of all she was daughter of the mayor of Faro. And they were Jew. I think that is interesting because we know every person with genealogical links with Iberian Peninsula is probably a Jewish descendant because Jews were brought by Romans to there since around 70 AD. But is almost impossible to have records of that through this way. Otherwise is not so difficult to track such inheritance by the ascendency on her and others. Through her, personalities of today such as Queen Elizabeth II, of England, are prove to be Jewish descendant as much as Arabian descendant through Zayra ibn Zayda, the daughter-in-law of Ramiro II, King of Asturias.
     I am in debt with you because I started to show the lineage Coelho from which my family got one of its most important last names. Well, the lineage above which ends on my supposed ancestor Jose Coelho de Magalhaes have lot of links to the first person, Soeiro Viegas Coelho, to use it as last name. But his most close ancestor with Coelho in his name was his maternal grandaddy. So I will show another sequence of genealogy in opposite way this time. I will start with my ancestor and the couple under his name will be his parents, the next line will get his grandparents and so on.
1,750 Jose Coelho de Magalhaes – Eugenia Rodrigues Rocha
         Ana Josefa de Magalhaes Pinto – Bernardo Antonio Pinto da Mesquita
         Joao de Magalhaes Coelho – Isabel Maria Pinto
         Jeronimo Ribeiro – Maria Teixeira de Seixas
         Domingos Coelho de Magalhaes – Antonia Ribeiro
         Isabel Pinto de Magalhaes – Belchior Dias
         Ana Coelho – Gregorio Magalhaes de Azevedo
         Fernando Coelho – Violante Pinto
1,450 Diogo Coelho de Sampaio – Isabel Sampaio
         Rodrigo de Sao Paio Coelho – unknown wife
1,370 Fernao Coelho – Catarina de Freitas
1,340 Goncalo Pires Coelho – Maria Silva
1,320 Pero Esteves Coelho – D Aldonca Vasques Pereira
1,290 Estevao Coelho – Maria Mendes Petite
1,260 Pero Anes Coelho – D Margarida Esteves
1,200 Joao Soares Coelho – Maria Fernandes
1,160 Soeiro Viegas Coelho – Mor Mendes Gandarei
     From these point we can just link Soeiro Viegas Coelho to himself at the second lineage presented in this chapter. What we can see in the site – Portugal is that, many of the people present in those lineage had familiar links to each other. The site provide us with a facilitator resource to identify it. When somebody is descendant of some kings he or she gets a small ball under the name. Each king is linked to one collor. If you point your computer arrow to the ball will appear the name of the king. This way it become easier to track some lineages, although, often you get both parents identified by the same ball so you need to choose what one to follow first. Good thing is you write in a paper the lineage that you are following. If you needed go back will be easier not to get lost.
     Now I need to justify the title on these charpter. Its name mention European Genealogy and not only Iberian. The reason I am talking specifically about Portugal is only because I am more familiarized to its History and genealogy. If I had took any other country in Europe as example, even the smallest of them, the results could be mostly similar because all royal families in there got their main ancestors from the same lineage. They are just an extended same family and because all the time they was exchanging brides and bridegrooms was not so different of a poultry bunch.
     In the second genealogical sequence above I post just some of the kings of Portugal because didn’t identify others than D. Dinis, son of Afonso III and also King of Portugal, as my ancestor. Don’t be mistaken by the name Afonso Dinis, also son of Afonso III, but not king. We don’t need an extense list of ancestors kings to be relative of everyone else. We can take the mother of Afonso III, Urraca, princess of Castilla, as example to start show the linkage. Lets take some genealogical sequence from her,
Urraca, princes of Castilla – Afonso II, King of Portugal
Eleanor Plantagenet, princess of England – Alfonso VIII, King of Castilla
Henry II, King of England – Eleonor d’Aquitaine
Matilda, Queen of England – Godefroy V Plantagenet, Count d’Anjou
Henry I, King of England – Saint Mathilda, Princess of Scotland
William I the Conqueror, King of England – Mathilde de Flandre
Robert I, Duke of Normandy – Herleva of Falaise
Richard II, Duke of Normandy – Judith of Bretagne
Richard I, Count of Normandy – Gunnor, Princess of Denmark
     Looking at such genealogical sequence we can make many links in the European map. Just for you know, the mother of Urraca, Eleanor Plantagenet was sister of Richard the Lionheart. Anybody who knows something about History must see much more than a genealogical sequence in that list. It is more. It History itself on each name and title. The next sequence I will present starts on Judith of Bretagne. See then,
Judith of Bretagne – Richard II, Duke of Normandy
Ermengarde d’Anjou – Conon I, Duke of Bretagne
Adelaide de Vermandois, dame de Donzy – Geoffroi I Grisegonelle, Count d’Anjou
Robert I, Count of Vermandois and Troyes – Adelaide Werra de Bourgandy
Herbert II, Count of Vermandois – Luitegarde or Adele de France
Herbert I, Count of Vermandois – Berthe de Morvois
Pepin II, Count of Vermandois – Rothaeide de Bobbio
Bernardo, King of Italy – Cunegonde de Gellome de Toulouse
Pepin I, King of Italy – Ingeltude d’Autun
Karl der Gross (Charlemagne) – Hildegarde von Vintschgau
     Just remember, Normandy is a name that mean, men from north. It was colonized by a group of Vikings that wanted to settle down after the time their cause so much terror to European population. As you can see, Judith and Richard II was granparents of William the Conqueror who took England from the hands of its old lords, the kings of Wessex. The Kings of Wessex are also ancestors of the Iberian royal families. But I will not show any sequence showing that because is yet enough. I want list just one more genealogical sequence in this chapter.
     Luitegarde or Adele de France, wife of Herbert II, Count of Vermandois was daughter of Robert I, King of France and Adele de Perthois. But King Robert I, as usual to royal men, had another wife whos name was Beatrice of Vermandois. So, I will post this one more sequence to reveal something that looks like coincidende but is not. Lets see it though,
Robert I, King of France – Beatrice of Vermandois
Hugues the Great, Duke of France – Heduvige von Sachsen
Hugues I Capet, Kinf of France – Adelaide of Poitou
Robert II the Pious, King of France – Constance d’Arles
Robert I the Old, Duke of Bourgandy – Helie de Semur
Henri, Duke of Bourgandy – Beatriz (?) of Barcelona
Henry of Bourgandy – Teresa of Leon
Afonso Henriques, 1st King of Portugal – Mahaut of Savoie
     So, we start these tour from the mother of Afonso III, King of Portugal, Urraca, Princess of Castilla, and ended it now with his greatgradparents. I will not post any genealogical sequence for demonstrate it but just mention. Mahaut of Savoie, as the name say it, come from the House of Savoia, the later on royal family of Italy. The House of Savoia is heir of Umberto I Biancamano, Count of Savoia. On the level of greatgrandparents he was descendant of Louis III l’Aveugle, Emperor of Occident and Anna from Bizantium. I think I don’t need to mention that Louis III was also descendent of Charlemagne. But is Anna from Bizantium that bring to us more History.
     As her title explains, her ancestry starts on the Empire of Bizantium, passing through Saint Theodora, Empress of Bizantium; Saint Isaac and Saint Narso, kings of Armenia and it goes on diving in times long before Christ. Around the year 500 BC two of her ancestors are Xerxes I, King of Persia and his wife Esther, the woman who had her name naming one of the books of the Bible. After that, her ancestry dives again and ended on a sequence of Egyptian Pharaohs, even Ramses II the Great. But it is too long for post here. Through the House of Savoia, all the royal families in Europe are multiple times descendants of those historical figures.
     Many others Europeans royal families appear as our ancestors but I don’t want to loose more time showing it. I can mention some like: Aragon, Navarra, Pamplona, Leon, Galiza, Holland, Hungary, Constantinople, Germany, Kiev, Polland, Osterreich, Danmark, Luxembourg. Even from the Kingdom of Jerusalem, which didn’t stood for long and was just a branch from the French royal family we got some ancestors.
     I also can give examples of brides and bridegrooms from the Portuguese Royal Family that marriaged to higher nobility of the rest of Europe. And I verified before if their marriage resulted in offspring because we have many cases where it wasn’t happen, probably in consequence of excessive consanguinity. In this case we have Berengaria, daughter of D. Sancho I and Dulce of Barcelona, who marriaged to Valdemar II, Count of Danmark; D. Afonso, son of D. Afonso II and Beatriz of Castilla, who marriaged to his cousin, Violante Manoel, princess of Castilla. We also have D. Constanca, daughter of D. Dinis and Saint Isabel of Aragon, who marriaged to King Fernando IV, King of Castilla.
     To be short and to stay only at the earlier kings of Portugal we have the example of D. Maria, daughter of D. Afonso IV and Beatriz of Castilla, who marriaged to Alfonso IX, King of Castilla. D. Maria and King Alfonso IX were the parents of King Pedro I of Castilla. These one got two daughters with one of his partners, Maria Padilha. The first one, Constanza was marriaged to John of Gand, Duke of Lancaster. The second one, Isabel, was marriaged to Edmund of Langley, Duke of York. And in a quick looking in the genealogy present at the site – Portugal I learn that, the Duke of Manchester of today is a direct descendant from these lineage.
     Now I will break the sequence that was given to my writings. It is because I want show something practical from my studies.
     It come from the observation that, practically every and each person with a long genealogical History in the Occident is descendant of the most historical figures from 800 or more years ago. Not only from them but from most of the population that lived in their time. How it is possible? Well, what the available genealogy can show us is not more than a glimpse of what is true.
     Was a common practice the kings have their wives and concubines, even when it was not a bigamous relationship because they marriaged more than one time after a previous wife had died. Sometimes they had concubines paralell to their official marriages or in between it. What they wanted was make sure to have heir to their throne. But what is useful to us now is to know that, their paralell offsprings usually was taken as lower rank nobility. And as the generations pass on their offsprings was mingled amongst the common people. And as common people their data were not always took with care. The lower ranking nobility themselves thought had things more important to do than to make sure their ancestry was remebered.
     But if we take the descendance of Charlemagne as example we can assure that, from the richest to the poorest, mostly of the people in western countries are his offspring. Some eastern also are. And mathematically it is not a bit of surprise because he lived until his death in 814. So, about 1,200 years ago. And he had many wives and concubines securing him a vaste inheritage.
     Based on my calculations, anybody who got two or more children could easy be ancestor of the whole population of today’s Earth just by being born around 1,000 years ago. Remembering, if somebody have two kids, four grandchildren, eight greatgrandchildren and so on, at the end of 1,000 years, he or she could have more than 8.5 billions offsprings. The most important is that, our population of today could be descendant of every and each person alive 1,000 years ago simultaneously, since they had children.
     It is because the mathematical possibility works in both ways. In 1,000 years long you have the power of produce much more than 8.5 billions offsprings as much you can also be descendant of something more than 8.5 billions ancestors. And I am talking only about the 33th generation after yours and the 33th generation before yours. In 1,000 year you don’t need have more than two children for be ancestor of as much as 15 billions people alive. It is because you can make the addition of the 31, 32 and 33th generations because they will be the grandparents, parents and children.
     I know. The mathematical model doesn’t work so well in our practical life. It is because for that be true the marriage between your descendants must be avoided. In practical termes it were almost impossible because some families pass on too much time living in a small territorial area. Then, the descendance of the first people kept marriaging to each other repeatedly. It make from them something like the poultry bunch that I mentioned before. But even only one who person gets out from that vicious circle, let me say 300 years ago, is enough to be responsible for enormously multiply the family number. In these case I am thinking about that person didn’t obey any limitation on have children.
     Anyways, even when the descendance of someone keep marriaging to each other for 1,000 years, based on what was our History during such period, what we can expect from it is that, the people who had kids around 1,000 years ago and their children were enough health to keep their lineage until our times, are probably ancestors of millions of people.
     It is another consideration you must take from the mathematical model. Not until recently nobody limited their children to a small number like two. If my paternal granddaddy had been born 1,000 years ago and had had so many children and grandchildren as he got, today the Earth population would be many many times his descendant. He got 14 children. 13 of them was marriaged and produced him 101 grandchildren. Only from his side we are around 500 people counting dead and alive. And he was born in 1,890. So, who knows what will be our big number in 880 years from now!
     What is the most important question nowadays? I think is that, What will be happen to our children? Most of us want and say that, I wanna construct a better future to my children and children of my children. And I think is something wrong with the construction of that phrase. Firstly we need to construct a better world for them have any future. Secondly, we need better people in our world and it includes ourselves kids.
     What I mean by that is that, probably, Charlemagne fought his whole life thinking in give a better future for his children. But he probably also thought only about the children that he knew and, maybe, expected it would keep going for some generations after his departure. I am sure he never thought about his children of today. And it is the biggest mistake everyone can make.
     If he knew what I am talking about now maybe would try something different of what he did. It is happen to me in our days. I am different because to me were granted to know something better. Charlemagne thought about a better world to those he already knew or expect to come after him. I think about everybody known or unknown to me. Why? Because is just happen I know that, for I have some millions maybe billions of children in the 33th generation after me is urgent that I take care of everybody who lives in my time because my children will marriage to their children. So to love them and care for them is the same as do the same to my own children.
     I know. Once it was thought to you in your church, for those who believe in religion, by your priests. The religious thinking is based on, If we have a Creator responsible for the birth of us then you should honor Him loving all of his creature. But it were never taken well by all human minds. Now what I am saying is that, we have another reason for do the same thing. And this another reason don’t demand you believe in God or have an especific religion. If you plan to have or already have kids, then you must start thinking what will be happen to your children 1,000 years from now because if you don’t prepare them for it, maybe they don’t will make to there and all your time dedicated to them will be wasted.
     It could even appear magical but is not. Almost 1,000 years ago the worsest enimies in the world was the Muslins and the Crusaders. Today we are the children of both. So, what good their wars did to us? I can answear only to myself, nothing. Each one reading these text shall respond these question to themselves.
     The same thing will happening again. Does not matter the motivations for todays Crusades or Holy War. What the involved in it are doing is wrong. And 1,000 or less years from now the children of Osama Bin Laden will marriage to the children of George W. Bush and Barack H. Obama. No. I am not putting a course on nobody. And I am not divinizing any future. I am just saying what is proved by my calculations.
     I can be terrible wrong in my calculations because I am talking about 1,000 years from now without knowing even what will happen tomorrow. My conscience is clean though. I am not saying it will be happen without any condition. As a believer I know that, for it happens God need allow us those 1,000 years from now and the multiplication of everyone need to be smoothly as possible. In these case, we need everybody getting your part on our multiplication.
     I am making those calculations presuming that the population in Earth should not excede much more than our todays population in 1,000 years from now. I think it is a good precaution if we don’t have more than two children from now on because our planet is already almost overpopulated by human beings. Some skeptics are saying that these warning had been among us for long time and the population keep growing and nothing happen. They say that, human being is always resourceful and when the problem come somebody will get the answear to solve it.
     Our biggest problem is that, the resources in our planet are limited. And it is already sending signs of exhaustion. The planet itself is limited. So, I don’t think have any intelligence on not be cautious about it. If we go all the way untill the point of no return what will happening is nothing more than terrible wars for whatsoever be the last resource of life on Earth. And we should always remember that, today we have enough resource for maybe take care of 50 billions of people on Earth but even if we keep the number stabilized on it, the generations will keep coming.
     So 1,000 years from that point we will have 33 generations of 50 billions people living on Earth. It is the same as 1.65 trillion living on Earth at the same time. And we don’t have the least idea how many thousands of years we will have only these one mother Earth to give as food and shelter. Be precautious is not a matter of not be bold is a matter of know the facts.
     If you want another practical example of what genealogy and genetics can give you take the couple Bill and Melinda Gates. I think they are the most richest couple in the world. Now lets imagine that, their children will have children and so on multiplying as I said before. Even though the initial generations they will have no problem for lack of money when they become as numerous as 5,000 people they will be not rich as their ancestors and some probably will live a poor life.
     If they keep growing in number as I said, they will end marriaging to the children of all of us, from the richest to the poorest of each one of us. And if we don’t take care of each other since now, every criminal, all the politician, each sufferer will be our collective offspring as much as the most successful and intermediary people in their times.
     Iberian Peninsula Genealogy, on its beginning, is not so complicated. What is not so easy from its studying is just when you start getting back to the same ancestors over and over again. That is for sure, the same thing is happening to all other genealogies in the world. Even if we had the complete data from the Middle Ages until today it wouldn’t be different. The only thing that I would expect to be different from what we already have is that, although we would find some lineages that we never suspect that we had we also, certainly, would be back to the same ancestors more times than we yet do.
     It is not any surprise that we have more data only from the known historical personalities and, when the most, from people who was around about their historical records. Often we encounter some data of someone who just appear in the records because he or she were marriaged to some personalities or to one of their children. This person that appear to be brought to life out of nowhere brings within only the father or also the mother. It is like this newcomer not even had a beginning back to thousands years before just like everyone else.
     This newcomer is a person usually known as common or peasant. Sometimes also known as poor. But what I am sure is that, forgot in the lack of data and in the spoken tradition, in some point of the time in the History of each people, all of us had the same ancestors, not too far as a lay person can suppose. Our History of privileges of some and exclusion of others is the responsible for such differenciation. And the common people is not more common than anyone else in this planet. We all came from both, common and privileged. And what separates us from others today is more linked to have or not have money.
     As I said before, Iberian Peninsula was invaded by the Muslins in 711. The only space that was kept by christian was the two small parts of the territory called by the names of Cantabria and Asturias. From there, christians start to fight and try to reconquest their lands. But the wars prolonged from generation after generation after generation. Some generations even forgot what the fight was about.
     As I also mentioned before, only one christian reign in Iberian Peninsula were implanted by other power than Iberians themselves. During the History it became known as Aragon. And the responsible for it was Louis I the Pious, Emperor of the Occident. He was son of Charlemagne and who inherited his crown.
     The kingdom of Leon came about only in 910. At that time it was dispopulated and were reconquered by King Alfonso III of Asturias, and his son Garcia I transferred and adopted it as the capital of the kingdom. Since then it became the most important Christian kingdom in the Iberian Peninsula.
     Another people present were the Basques. Their domain was the South Atlantic Cost of France and the Central North of Spain. Firstly they had a kingdom named Pamplona and it became known as Navarre.
     At the reign of Alfonso III, King of Asturias, the North of Portugal were seized and became a County in the hands of Vimara Peres.
     Later on or at the same time Fernan Gonzalez reunified the Kingdom of Castilla. It gainned such name because have a line of castles for the defense of the Kingdom of Leon. In the Wikipedia we can read it, “In 931 the County was reunified by Count Fernan Gonzalez, who rose in rebellion against the Kingdom of Leon, successor state to Asturias, and achieved an autonomous status, allowing the county to be inherited by his family instead of being subject to appointment by the Leonese king.”
     One more kingdom were added to this mixture. It was the Kingdom of Galicia which inherited the County of Portugal as its territory. But in 1,128 Portugal also became a separated kingdom. Then those all Christians Kingdoms in the twelve century had taken back around half of the Iberian Peninsula from Muslins conquerors. And they sometimes were more involved in wars against each other than against the Muslins Kingdoms located at the south parts. The shape and sizes of those kingdoms was in constant movement until Portugal was reconquered by Afonso III of Portugal and Fernando, the Catholic, King of Aragon, and Isabel, the Catholic, Queen of Castilla, marriaged to each other and united the whole Spain.
     All those kingdoms produced its nobility. And they exchanged brides and bridegrooms within each other and all the others royal families in Europe. And then, as I said before, their blood that came from common people went back to the ordinary people. How?
     Basecally when the dominations were exchanged like from the old local power to Romans, from Romans to Suevis and Visigoths, from Goths to Muslins, from Muslins back to Christians, each nobility stood there but lowered to a small ranking. Also, as the wars was going on many considered common people fought side by side their lords. The ones who detached themselves from the others by bravery were granted riches, possess and even brides from the new dominant power. We can observe it when men apparently coming from nowhere beeing marriaged to noble women. As well women without noble background being marriaged to noble men.
     But more often we see a new name coming to light and when we start digging for answers we find that, at the ancestors level we find a king or relative in its begining. Later all give examples of it. But let start on how the surnames were adopted.
     Around 1,000 years ago we hadn’t had exactly family’s name. Let put here one more genealogical sequence for make easier to explain.
Moninho Viegas, the Gasco – Valida Trocozendes
Egas Moniz de Ribadouro – Toda Ermiges
Ermigio Viegas – Unisco Pais
Monio Ermiges – Ouroana
Egas Moniz, o Aio – Dordia Pais Azevedo
Lourenco Viegas – Maria Gomes de Pombeiro
Egas Lourenco – unknown wife from Penagate
Soeiro Viegas Coelho – Mor Mendes de Gandarei
     This is the paternal lineage of the known first user of the surname Coelho (Rabitt). If you look by their second names probably will see not pattern. But it is a clear pattern in that. At that time we was supposed use ourselves names plus a mention to our fathers. The names was given and add one expression that meant, son of. The first one in the list probably had the name Monio and not Moninho. Usually the suffix inho in Portuguese language means little. So, Egas Moniz his son is Egas, son of Monio. Sometimes the expression, son of, comes as prefix as in Viegas. So Viegas means, son of Egas.
     From that time we have many names used today. Along History the last names were adopted. Then some names of paternal origins were kept although it are not correspondent to the father’s name. In this case we still having family’s names as Viegas and Moniz but now it mean that, some time in the past its users had ancestors named Egas or Monio.
     And also it is why we have names such as, Rodrigues, which mean, son of Rodrigo. Nunes meaning son of Nuno. Peres/Pero. Fernandes/Fernando. Esteves/Estevao. Soares/Soeiro. Martins/Martim. Mendes/Mendo. Vasques/Vasco. Another exception is the surname Anes. It comes from Joao. The difference come from the old writing of the name which was Johanes. So Anes mean son of Johanes or Joao, the modern equivalent for Johanes in Portuguese language. In Spain the tradition is the same only changing the letter s by z. In there the names are Rodriguez, Nunez, Perez and so on. A little difference for Martins whch could become Martinez.
     But usually Iberians use two last names or more. It came from old tradition too. At the twelve century this system of naming people was kind of exausted. The population begun to grows and was too many people with the same name. Then the Catholic Church incited the people to use one more surname. Some already was identified by the second name in that time. It was preceded of the words da, de and do. All the three means from the place where the person were born. Da is used when the place have a female name which is the opposite of do. The de doesn’t mean sex.
     The American system wrongly identifies the three words as surname. So is common my name come write as De Magalhaes but it shouldn’t be this way. De means from and should always be written by small letters. Along the History some people also suppressed the three words in their names not knowing its importance. It is the case of some members in my family who inherit just the Magalhaes without de.
     Examples of names and their mean are, 1. Geraldo Rodrigues da Costa, which should mean, Gerald, son of Rodrigo, born on the coast. 2. Antonio Alvares do Couto. Anthony, son of Alvaro, from a little place. 3. Jose Anes de Guimaraes, Joseph, son of Joao (Johanes), from the Guimaraes City.
     As the time past many others names were added to the list. Some were the remembrance of a physical characteristic from the first user. Examples of it are, 1. Alvim, is the same as whitish, 2. Rouco, grating voice. 3. Barbalho, beard like garlic’s roots (Barba is beard and alho is garlic in Portuguese language). Not long ago I heard another explaination for my last name. Someone said that, it came from the Eastern side of the planet and the original name was something like Barb Al, which became Barbalho in Portugal. But we have not evidence about it.
     Also profession of ancestors became surnames for some. One example is Cavaleiro which mean horseman. Another is Sapateiro or Zapatero which is the same as Shoemaker. There are those who have the name Navegante that means Navigator.
     In some literature I found that, in Portugal were five noble families. And their names were Baiao, Braganca, Maia, Ribadouro and Sousa. But it is not an exact information. What probably could be happen is something like in my family back in Brazil. It is called by the name of Coelho’s Family. But why should I call my family by such name if I don’t use it as surname?
     What is happening is that, when the European begun to colonize the area where we came from my ancestors were in charge and were the first Europeans to live in there. Although others was together or came later, most of them ended marriaging to some of Coelho’s relative. Then the family assigns in many names but is commonly called by the name Coelho. And everybody really is at least one time Coelho. And was more than one branch with this same name around. I have in the list of my ancestors who signed Coelho, Coelho de Magalhaes, Nunes Coelho, Coelho de Andrade and Coelho de Almeida. And I am not talking about the others combinations that came later but just the original branches that we don’t know any link to each other.
     My doubt about the number five as equals the number of noble families comes from the many different names we have among the nobles and its origins. Like we can see the surname Coelho came later. But it was part of the family called by the name Ribadouro. Then I can show another genealogical sequence to demonstrate it. If we come to the chapter 5 can take a brief looking at the second and third lineages posted there. The second ends with the King Ramiro II of Asturias. And the third starts with his son, Lovesendo Ramires. Then I will start again with them.
  900 Ramiro II, King of Asturias – Onega (?)
  940 Lovesendo Ramires – Zayra ibn Zayda
  960 Aboazar Lovesendes – Unisco Godinhes
  980 Trastamiro Aboazar, 1st lord of the Maia – Dordia Soares
1,000 Goncalo Trastamires, 2nd lord of the Maia – Unisco Sisnandes
1.020 Mendo Goncalves, 3rd lord of the Maia – Ledegundia Soares Tainha
1,060 Goncalo Mendes, the Striver – Urraca Teles
1,080 Moninha Goncalves da Maia – Rodrigo Forjas de Trastamarra
1,100 Forjaz Vermuis de Trastamarra – Elvira Goncalves de Vilalobos
1,130 D. Rodrigo Froias de Trastamarra – D. Urraca Rodrigues de Castro
1,150 D. Goncalo Rodrigues da Palmeira – D. Froille Afonso de Celanova
1,170 D. Rui Goncalves Pereira – Sancha Henriques de Portocarreiro
1,220 D. Pedro Rodrigues Pereira – Estevainha Rodrigues Teixeira
1,250 D. Goncalo Pereira – D. Urraca Vasques Pimentel
1,280 D. Vasco Pereira, Count of Trastamarra – Ines Lourenco da Cunha
1,320 D. Aldonca Vasques Pereira – Pero Esteves Coelho
     If you go back to the chapter 5 and take a look at the genealogical sequence number 6 posted there, you will find the last couple as Pero Esteves Coelho – D. Aldonca Vasques Pereira. So, what I want show here is how new names was created. At the generation of D. Rodrigo Froias de Trastamarra, the Palmeira (Palm tree) starts without a better explaination. His children adopted Palmeira as surname and his son, D. Goncalo Rodrigues da Palmeira, named all his children after such name except for one, D. Rui Goncalves Pereira. And from there on the name Pereira (Pear tree) also became one of the most common surname in Iberian Peninsula.
     Taking a look at the surnames of the wives you can see many others important families names. And it come from noble families too. Estevainha Rodrigues Teixeira, wife of D. Pedro Rodrigues Pereira is descendant of Charlemagne and Fernando Magno, King of Leon and Castilla. The same who appear as greatgrandfather of King Afonso Henriques of Portugal at the 5th genealogical sequence in the chapter 5.
     I want show some genealogical sequences that is in the core of Portugal’s History. I will start with Estevao Coelho who was father of Pero Esteves Coelho.
1,290 Estevao Coelho – Maria Mendes Petite
1,330 Branca Pires Coelho – Joao Pires Alvim
1,360 Leonor Alvim – D. Nuno Alvares Pereira, 2nd Condestavel of Portugal
1,380 D. Beatriz Pereira Alvim – D. Afonso, 1st Duke of Braganca
     In it we can see that, my ancestor Pero Esteves Coelho was brother of Branca Pires Coelho, who was mother of Leonor Alvim and grandmother of D. Beatriz Pereira Alvim who was wife of D. Afonso, 1st Duke of Braganca. At that time the Braganca family already was established in Portugal and only later the Dukes of Braganca adopted it as their surname but they were also descendants of ancestors from Braganca. I want show the paternal ancestry of D. Afonso.
1,377 D. Afonso, 1st Duke of Braganca – D. Beatriz Pereira Alvim
1,357 D. Joao I, King of Portugal – Ines Pires
1,320 D. Pedro I, King of Portugal – Teresa Lourenco
1,291 D. Afonso IV, King of Portugal – Beatriz, princess of Castilla
1,261 D. Dinis, King of Portugal – Saint Isabel of Aragon
     Here we came back to the first kings of Portugal and D. Dinis was son of Afonso III. But D. Joao I was not fit for be king. His brother, D. Fernando I was the righteous heir and he became king. The problem came later because his heir was D. Beatriz and she was marriaged to King Juan I of Castilla. Juan I demanded his right of to be King of Portugal after king Fernando I died. It starts what is called by the name of Crisis of 1,383 to 1,385. For that Castilla and Portugal were involved in a fierce war. And the hero who save the day was D. Nuno Alvares Pereira, who was the father-in-law of D. Afonso, 1st Duque of Braganca. And lets post one more genealogical sequence to show one more thing.
1,360 D. Nuno Alvares Pereira – Leonor Alvim
1,310 D. Alvaro Goncalves Pereira – Iria Goncalves do Carvalhal
1,280 D. Goncalo Pereira, archbishop of Braga – Teresa Peres Vilarinho
1,250 D. Goncalo Pereira – D. Urraca Vasques Pimentel
     As you can see above, the greatgrandparents of D. Nuno Alvares Pereira was grandparents of D. Aldonca Vasques Pereira. And her husband, Pero Esteves Coelho, was uncle of Leonor Alvim, the wife of D. Nuno. I will post one more sequence.
1,377 D. Afonso, 1st Duke of Braganca – D. Beatriz Pereira Alvim
1,402 D. Isabel of Braganaca – D. Joao, prince of Portugal
1,428 D. Isabel, princess of Portugal – Juan II, King of Castilla
1,451 Isabel the Catholic, Queen of Castilla – Fernando II the Catholic, King of Aragon
1,485 Catalina of Aragon, princess of Aragon – Henry VIII, King of England
1,506 Mary I, Queen of England – Felipe II, King of Spain
     In this last sequence we can see something larger than life. Queen Mary I had not have children. Her nickname was Blood Mary because her father separated the Anglican Church from Catholic Church and she wanted restore it. But as part of the people didn’t wanted it came the clashs and in just one time around 300 people were killed. Also, Felipe II demanded his right to use the English Crown and it ended with his supposed unbeatable army sank in the battle. At the time it was really the most powerful army in the world. But it is another History.
     I just want talk a little bit about D. Nuno Alvares Pereira and how he saved the day for Portugal at the Crisis of 1,383/85. He was a young nobleman who had 25 siblings. At least two of his sisters became ancestors of the noble Jose Coelho de Magalhaes who could be my ancestor too. Otherwise some of my other ancestors got the surname Pereira. But we don’t have yet the ways to find the links between my ancestors Pereira from the 1,700 to beyond that. See though this one more sequence,
1,280 D. Goncalo Pereira – Teresa Peres de Vilarinho
1,310 D. Goncalo Pereira – Unknown wife
1,360 D. Brites Pereira – Lourenco Mendes de Vasconcelos
1,400 Rui Mendes de Vasconcelos – Ana Rodrigues Carvalho
1,440 Brites Mendes Carvalho – Fernao da Mesquita, the Old
1,475 Lopo da Mesquita – Violante Machado
1,500 Joao Lopes da Mesquita – Ana Roiz Sobrinho da Mesquita
1,530 Miguel Sobrinho da Mesquita – Catarina Vaz
1,560 Ana da Mesquita – Semiao Pinto Machado
     The last couple is already in the 5th sequence from the chapter 5 above. They are ancestor of Jose Coelho de Magalhaes. Many of his ancestors got the surname Vasconcelos. It come from the Vasconcelos Tower where D. Joao Peres de Vasconcelos was the Lord around 1,220. He was marriaged to Maria Soares Coelho, daughter of Soeiro Viegas Coelho. Until now I had shown his descendance through his son, Joao Soares Coelho. In the third line is D. Brites Pereira who was half sister of D. Nuno Alvares Pereira.
     The position that D. Nuno had was like a Prime Minister and Secretary of Defense together, as well as Commander in Chief of the Army. As Portuguese people was not willing to become subject to the Castillian king the war came about. Portuguese forces was way beyond that of his enemies. And it was transformed in great confidence to the enemy forces. Castillians was assisted by Frensh forces too. D. Nuno Alvares then armed a trap and lead his army to wait the advance from them. And they used a narrowed and mud terrain as battle field. As the heavy anemies forces couldn’t move well in the field, they became like seating ducks to Portuguese forces.
     D. Nuno made sure that was not escape and even the common people came with workers tools to kill the soldiers. Historians think that thousands of noblemen were killed. It broke the moral of the enemy. And, probably, most of them was from the same family of the Portugueses. After that battle which became known as Aljubarrota (also called Padeira – she breadmaker) he organized many raids in the enemy territory to secure that nobody would react. And sure he won the war. The recognition of the Portuguese Independence only was signed in 1,411 in the Treaty of Ayllon. But D. Joao I, who was not fit to be king, ended with the throne and the crown.
     Coincidently, D. Nuno Alvares Pereira died of natural causes in the same day Joanna d’ Arch was executed.
     In that battle was 200 warrior from England. They brought their archbalests and made some difference for the Portuguese side. Since then, Portugal and England got a Treaty to help each other on its struggles. It is probably the oldest on its genre in the world.
     D. Joao I, marriaged to Philippa of Lancaster, princess of England. Later on her surname was adopted in Portugal as Lancastre. The family Lancastre in Portugal is direct descendant from the Lancasters from England. But these second dynasty in Portugal were short live. Portugal kept sending brides and bridegrooms to Spain’s kingdoms and in 1,560 they got a similar situation. Only that time the king in Spain was the powerful Felipe II, who had marriaged to Mary I, Queen of England.
     After others broken lineages in the successory process in Portugal Manuel I came to the throne. He was called by the nickname of the Lucky One. It was because he inherited the throne without be the first in line. Later in his administration the Great Discoveries took place. Vasco da Gama turned the Cape of Good Hope in South Africa openning the way to India for the Portuguese commercial interests and Pedro Alvares Cabral discovered Brazil.
     But it was too good. He fathered the next King of Portugal, Joao III, who fathered Maria, princess of Portugal, who had been the first wife of Felipe II, King of Spain. Joao III, King of Portugal had also a righteous son to be king with the name of Joao. And he fathered only one son, Sebastiao. Sebastiao became king but was kind of lunatic who wanted reedict the Cruzades and assembled his armies intended to conquest the Moors territory in North Africa. In there he disappeared from sight without leaving any heir. Felipe II saw in it his opportunity to conquer Portugal, unifying the two crowns. He got almost no resistance.
     Only 60 years later, from 1,580 to 1,640, the sovereign Reign of Portugal were restored. Who became the king was D. Joao IV. These fourth Joao, King of Portugal, was algo the VIII Duque of Braganca. Going back in the lineage he was 5greatgrandson of D. Afonso, 1st Duke of Braganca and D. Beatriz Pereira Alvim, the daughter of D. Nuno Alvares Pereira.
     Byond the name Coelho be involved in the ancestry of the kings of Portugal the women who was marriaged to the Duques of Braganca had many ancestors that also was ancestors of the lineages that fathered Jose Coelho de Magalhaes. Around the years 1,820s the Portuguese royal family was divided in two branches. One kept the reign in Portugal and another was established in Brazil. Later the Republic were proclaimed in Brazil in 1,889, what in Portugal came to happen only in 1,910.
     In Spain we have the same families names as Portugal’s. Sometimes is said that, some just translated from one language to another. Even the Coelho is said to be signed as Conejo, which is the same Rabitt on both sides. But Portuguese people also use the names imported from Spain. Examples of it are, Menezes, Gurgel, Giron, Ponce de Leon, Lima, Bezerra, Lara, Maldonado and many more. One that I never saw in Brazil is Bivar. It appear in the name of D. Rodrigo Diaz de Bivar. He was called by the nickname of El Cid. Also Matamouro. Matamouro means Moors killer. A something that don’t add to ours ancestry but he is Jose Coelho de Magalhaes ancestor too. He is mentioned in the video “Islam, Empire of Faith” produced by
     I want to add one more event from Portuguese History in these chapter, intended more to show some curiosity than genealogy. A name often remembered from the Iberian Peninsula History is of Ines de Castro. Castro also is a noble name from Spain backyard, more precisely from Galicia, and is in our ancestry. But usually nobody knows who she was.
     To start, lets read a little excerpt from the Wikipedia: “Ines came to Portugal in 1340 as a maid of Infanta Constance of Castile, recently married to Prince Pedro, the heir to the Portuguese throne. The prince fell in love with her and started to neglect his lawful wife, endangering the already feeble relations with Castile. Moreover, Pedro’s love for Ines brought the exiled Castilian nobility very close to power, with Ines’s brothers becoming the prince’s friends and trusted advisors. King Afonso IV of Portugal, Pedro’s father, disliked Ines’s influence on his son and waited for their mutual infatuation to wear off, but it did not.”
     Afonso IV did everything on his power to separate the couple and didn’t reached his will. Then he ordered three of his most trustfull advisors to kill Ines. One of them was Pero Esteves Coelho, who is in our ancestry. Pedro gave his word to his father that he wouldn’t seek vengeance for the assassination. But after he succeeded his father it was just what he did. He captured two of the executioners and killed them by openning their chests and taking their hearts by hands, in a public exibition. It was for symbolize his own heartbroken.
     Those passages where celebrated by the poet Luis Vaz de Camoes in his memorable epic, Os Lusiadas. The elements are all in there and I think that, Shakspeare did use it as inspiration for his novel, Romeo and Juliet. He though had the genius to soften the facts and displace the stage. I am not saying that, he copied Camoes. But, as usual, every artist is inspired by others works. And the best thing he did was just soften the facts because the truth was too much cruel. If he had his writings too close to the facts he would buy trouble for himself because the close relationship between England and Portugal.
     The History is better than the novel in some way. Anybody who get the curiosity for it, the Internet is plenty on others informations.
     In no moment is my goal show that I am descendant of Europeans royals and nobles families. I don’t think will get any benefit from it. What I want is show that, I don’t have any exclusivity on it. Since the Americas were colonized by Europeans I believe in that, the absolute majority of people born in all the Americas, with links to the Europeans families, is unquestionable descendant of royals and nobles Europeans families. It doesn’t guarantee to us no other privilege than we all be, in some way, cousins.
     Commonly the History of United States is presented as an extension from the English History. But it is more a consequence of what had been occurred in Europe as a whole and it have close links to Brazilian History, although Brazil as an autonomous country didn’t exist yet.
     Every major historic event in Europe, from the last centuries of Middle Ages left some fingerprint in our common History. Firstly, at the end of Middle Ages we have a powerful Catholic Church dominating everything of the day-by-day life in Europe. At the XIII century we have some discontentement with the deviation of the churchpeople behavior from what it should be. The Church Office is the superior power and allowed the aristocracy to exercise it on its behalf. The Church became an incestuous field where it as mother generates the aristocracy and together they generated the next generation of aristocratic people.
     The people under their power was nothing more than slaves. Many new ideas, included religious ones, are discharged as simple heresies. The Church didn’t paid any attention to what was the craving from poor souls and fleshs. The Church put itself in a defense mode instead of allow any different form of thinking. It instituted the Saint Office Tribunal, commonly known as Inquisition. It meant that, not matter what you did, you would be accused of heresy if it involved any questioning about religious issues or authority issues. Everything became God’s mandate.
     Another interesting chapter is about Renaissance. Some historians classifies it as an intellectual movement from the XIV to XVII centuries. And it started and came to us from Italy, bringing a changing in “literature, philosophy, art, politics, science, religion, and other aspects of intellectual inquiry” as it is described by the Wikipedia. Although this one is important one, we had a prior Renaissance within the Muslim Empire.
     The Muslins already had translated many ancient texts from Latim and Greek origins. And they were the ones that applied it in they arts and lives. By bringing some reborn knowledge to Iberian Peninsula they caused the comparison to they Empire as light in contrast to the rest of Europe as totally darkness at earlier centuries of Middle Ages. Is because of that the Middle Ages are also called Dark Ages.
     And I think that, was for the reason Europe was culturally behind Muslim world that the Reconquest in Iberian Peninsula took so long. After their establishment in there and demonstration of be a more tolerant power and more just at the time toward poor people, the people had not reason to revolt against them knowing that, it could meant a downgrade to their lives.
     To push the people against the Muslins lords the Christians strategists came up with a series of demonizations, even accusing Abd al Rahman III ibn Muhammed, the Great of be an homossexual. They took advantage of the fact that, the Muslim leader had sent an young Christian, Pelagio, to death because he refused to convert to Islam. Although it is also horrible, Christians never felt ashamed of do the same to those who had other faiths. We known what were done to Pagans, Jews and even Muslins at that time. So, to accuse Abd al Rahman of homossexualism were more appealingly to the ignorant mobs from the Middle Ages. It still do, although it is not anymore the seven-heads-beast to most of us today.
     Another chapter linked to it was the Crusades. The Crusades were a diversion tactic used by the Catholic Church for take from itself the attention for many missleadings commited by its administrators. It is an old practice used by bad leaders. Crusades are not exactly what is usually said to be. We had around a dozen Cruzades against Muslins power over Jerusalem and around others three dozens against them in Iberian Peninsula and against Europeans who had different beliefs from the Catholic dogmas. Even the Catholics from Iberian Peninsula was dismissed from fight against Muslins in Jerusalem because they were already engaged on it at their own lands.
     But the Church tactics fired back. During the Crusades the European soldiers learned a better way of life and brought it to home. In their luggage came also new knowledge and the taste for goods that Europe didn’t offered. Even after the end of the Crusades for Jerusalem in the last years of the XII century the established trade didn’t stop. Muslims had the control of commerce from Asia and Africa but Italians were the ones who distributed it to the rest of Europe.
     And is in these context that Europeans also start to look for humanistic knowledge which lead to break the Church’s monopoly. The clergy and aristocracy were no more the only ones able to produce and consume knowledge and expensive products. The population start growing in number and riches. The urbanization of the population once living most in the countryside is responsible for the emerging of a new class, the burgesses. The therm reffer to urban dweller.
     The use and production of paper which Muslins had intensively trade from China and the invention of the press by Gutenberg were the preconditional tools to make knowledge available to the increasing number of schooling educated people. More knowledge also brought more available universities.
     Portuguese people was long trying to make oceanic navivation and on that the great name is prince Henry the Navigator, son of king Joao I and Philippa de Lancaster, princess of England. He dedicated his entire life to the cause of navigation and it paid off. Firstly they started navigating around the African Coast where in 1,415 they conquered Ceuta from Moors forces. At that time they also asked permission to the pope for practice enslavery out of conquered Muslins and the authorization was granted. Later on this permission was reinterpreted for justify the enslavery of subsaharian Africans.
     Along the XV century Portugueses also discovered the Archipelagos of Madeira and Azores. It is the begining of the Great Discoveries and the new colonization out of Iberian Peninsula. In 1,498 Vasco da Gama achieved the most of the Iberian ambitions finding the way to India through oceanic navigation. In april 21, 1,500, the capitain Pedro Alvares Cabral find what his tripulation thought to be an island but they had arrived in Brazil. Later the mistake were corrected but the Portuguese crown dedicated itself almost entirely to the easier way to make riches through commerce with the East. Brazil stood as minor interest for 50 years.
     At the Spain’s side the monarchs Fernando II, the Catholic, King of Aragon and his wife, Isabel, the Catholic, Queen of Castilla ended the Reconquista of Spain, taken the last Muslim Reign, Granada, at 1,492. In 1,494 they stroke great luck as Christopher Columbus arrived in Americas sayling westbound ways instead of India as he was looking for. At the same year Spain and Portugal signed the Treaty of Tordesilhas that guarantee a sharing of whole Americas for both. The part granted to Portugal was no more than what is today almost all of Brazilian Northeast and half of Southeast regions. It is around a quarter of today Brazil’s lands but dozens of times bigger than Portugal itself.
     Now we have to use our brains to understand the situation. Just after those facts the long time hardwork in Portugal was paying back. And Spain was struggling with the incompetence of its administrators. They had conquered Granada and soon after what they did was to kill or enslave one fifth of Muslims population. Two fitths were expelled back to Moors dominion in North Africa. The two fifth left were persecuted in such ways that they also left later. They did the same to Jews. And these ones migrated to a more tolerant places where today is Netherland, Belgium, Luxembourg, Germany, Polony and another countries around. Later on their offsprings will regret such decision although not one knew what was to come.
     As I said before, Portugal had not more than 1.7 million inhabitants at that time. Spain expelled around one million which was a considerable part of its population. Among the expelled, killed or enslaved was most of its craftsmanship and entrepreneurs. They used the religion as excuse to do that. But what they was really looking for was to make a quick money to finance the exploitation of the promessing new colonies.
     It is what we always see in History. Bad governors don’t look further to do their acts. If their administration is in needy of a major amount of money they first thinking is from whom they will take it. The Muslins and Jews were the first victims of the Spainish discoveries. The Amerindians and Africans were affected just after. But as we will see later, the people from Spain became also victim by the foolishness of their kings.
     I didn’t mention before but was another major fact that help design our History from the XV century on. It started with Eramus of Rotterdam’s critics on Churchmen behavior. His intent was that, to change the behavior within the Church. But the extreme pride among clergypeople wouldn’t allow such thing. After him came others like Martin Luther and John Calvin (Jean Cauvin) who were more explicit in their criticism of the old ways used by the Catholic Church. Their attitude lead to the movement called Reformation. And even Luther regretted the upheaval he had unintentionally provoked.
     Along the centuries the Catholic Church had acting as deaf in front of the demanded changings by the people. It monopolized the knowledge and interpretation of the Christian Scriptures. The written books were only in latim language which was a dead language out the priesthood corners. Even second class priests didn’t knew some aspects of the language. Then, when Luther translated it to common language many people could see the difference between what was written and what was being thought.
     After that the Reformation was in place. We had many conflicts around Europe and some princes and kings seized the opportunity to get rid with the Vatican. Basically the Reformation gave them the opportunity of have a national religion with could be used on themselves interests. Later on it brought to the Enlightened Despotism or Enlightened Absolutism which was administrations of kings that thought that, they don’t had to render account to nobody but God Himself. Examples of countries that were freed from the Vatican’s influence, Sweeden, Finland, many parts of Germany, England and many more. Examples of those that opposed Reformation was Portugal, Spain and Italy.
     And the kings from those nations linked the upheaval just after the begining of Reformation to the literacy. So the illiteracy became a tool in their hands for the domination of themselves peoples. They kept the biblical text in latim and the people without letters. These was one of the reason that fired back against the people and those countries and their colonies. The upheaval was not a direct consequence of the Reformation but of the Papacy and kings hardheaded.
     For I make the chapter a little more interesting, I need to post here two more sequences of genealogy. The first one is one example of how the king Fernando II, was descendant of the kings of Portugal.
1,261 D. Dinis, king of Portugal – Saint Isabel of Aragon
1,290 D. Constanca, princess of Portugal – Fernando IV, King of Castilla
1,311 Alfonso XI, king of Castilla – Leonor Nunez de Guzman
1,335 Fradique Alfonso de Castilla – unknown wife
1,354 Alfonso Enriquez de Castilla – Juana Mendoza de Ayala
1,390 Fradique Enriquez de Castilla – Mariana Ayala de Cordoba
1,425 Juana Enriquez – Juan II, king of Aragon
1,452 Fernando II, the Catholic, King of Aragon – Isabel, the Catholic, Queen of Castilla
     The second is from the ancestry of king Felipe II. It will help us to explain some links between the Histories of United States, Iberian Peninsula and Brazil.
1,357 D. Joao I, king of Portugal – Philippa of Lancaster, princess of England
1,391 D. Duarte, king of Portugal – Leonor, princess of Aragon
1,434 D. Leonor, princess of Portugal – Friedrich III, kaiser des Heiligen Romischen Reiches
1,459 Maximilian I von Osterreich – Marie, duchesse of Bourgogne
1,478 Philipp I der Schone, Erzherzog von Osterreich and king of Castilla – Juana, la Loca, Queen of Castilla
1,500 Karl V, Kaiser des Heiligen Romischen Reiches, king of Spain – D. Isabel, princess of Portugal
1,527 Felipe II, king of Spain – D. Maria/Mary I/Elisabeth of Valois/Anna von Osterreich
     Now what we have here?! Felipe II had four strategical marriages that put him in the way of successory process of other countries. His first wife, Maria, was daughter of D. Joao III, king of Portugal. Mary I, was queen of England. Elisabeth was princess of France, daughter of Henry II, king of France. And Anna was daughter of the Kaiser Maximilian II. His mother, D. Isabel, was daughter of D. Manuel I, king of Portugal. And his grandmother, Juana, the Crazy, was daughter of Fernando II, the Catholic and Isabel, the Catholic. Waw! It is something to be counted for!
     His father, Charles V, kaiser of the German Sacro Empire was in the front line of opposition against the Reformation. And he just followed his steps.
     After the Reformation in its way the Catholic Church and the kings that was against it called for the Counter-Reformation. And the Catholic Church were also reformed but although it became a better Church than what was before, was not enough to regain the lost power. The countries that adopted new faiths didn’t returned to Catholicism, except for Polony, Bohemia, Hungary, and were partially effective in Netherlands, France and South of Germany. Among the changes approved by the Counter-Reformation was the creation of the Order of Jesuits by Ignacio de Loyola.
     As the Old World was no more a monopoly of Catholic Church and faith the Jesuits were used as spear points in the catechism of the New World. And as the domain of Spain and Portugal were set up worldwide the Catholicism was also brought with them.
     I have to turn back to an important issue. The Spanish Inquisition. Inquisition was long used by Catholic Church at Middle Ages times. And it was disarmed for good. But the Catholics kings, Fernando II of Aragon and his wife Isabel the Castilla blackmailled the pope to authorize them to have its tools at hand for use against their enemies. They said to the pope that, if they don’t got what they wanted they would call back the army that was in use to protect the Vatican’s interests.
     As the pope was in a inferior position he accepted but later regreted because the Spanish Inquisition was used against good Christians also. The permitission was intent to give power to the kings to prosecute forceful converted Jews or Muslins that returned to their old faiths. Those kings had decided to forcefully convert the followers of others faith in a decree which statuted that, the conversion was an obligation and the option was, move out of their helm of power. Many people had been baptized as Christians but secretly kept practicing their faith.
     But the Spanish Inquisition in the hands of Tomas de Torquemada, the old confessor of Queen Isabel, became a tool for terrorize any opposition. And it sent part of the Spanish people to others corners of the planet just because they had Jewish or Muslim faiths.
     Later I must get back to these issue. In our days we have a part of American population trying to send back 12,000,000 of undocumented immigrants as it was the right way of solve our economics problems. They are been mislead by false prophets and false prophecies. Even the President of the United States Mr. Barack H. Obama and his staff, after around just 2.5 years in power, had been complying with their distorted ways of see things, and already deported around 1,000,000 of our valuable undocumented citizens. It is already firing back unto us.
     Recently Mr. Obama suspended the massive deportation in an attempt to review it case alleging his administration want send back just those that are involved in crimes. The suspicion is that he is using just a strategy for not lose the immigrants votes in the election next year. Without it he probably will lose his reelection. The truth if that, by his words appear the president understand the risks of United States loses such population but by the past posture of his administration he looks just like a fool.
     The proof that D. Manuel I, the Lucky One, was not so lucky came with his marriages. He had three wives. The first was Isabel de Aragon y Castilla; the second was Maria de Aragon y Castilla. Both was sisters and daughters of Fernando II and Isabel. The third one was Leonor de Austria, princess of Spain. She was daughter of Charles V, the Kaiser, and king of Spain, who was also father of Felipe II, king of Spain. So he was not only strained by the borders with Spain but also by the marriages.
     And one condition on his marriages was that, he had to do the same in Portugal as the kings in Spain. D. Manuel I was not willing to apply it on the Portuguese people. But he had to do something. And the Portuguese were more liberals in these issue and allowed Jews migrated to its colonies, even Brazil. Probably at that time the Muslim population in Portugal was already small because Portugal had long reconquered its territory and who hadn’t converted on that another time, around 1,250, thought better move to Muslim’s territories in Spain.
     Portugal had being the responsible for the begining of the Great Navigations and as the Brazilian saying teachs us, Killed two rabitts in an only one stick swing. Slowly but surely, the worldwide commerce was dislocated from Italian Cities and Muslins around the Mediterranean Cities to Lisbon. The cities state in Italy had the monopoly before to make commerce with the Muslins.
     But Spain had some share on it because Granada was part of the Muslim Empire. When Fernado II and Isabel conquered Granada and start to persecute Muslims because their faith it fired back on its economy. Lisbon became the attractive port for merchants once residents in Italy and the Muslim world. It is the first migration in History where the rich people migrated to a new place searching for new opportunities. Usually, migration is related to poor and persecuted.
     The enviroment that they encountered in Portugal was different from what they had in Italy. In Portugal and Spain the kings was looking for businesses that pay taxes and wanted the monopoly for the State. But in Italy they had begun the first notions of capitalism. They had banks and already worked with papers. The only one other place that they could find a similar economic enviroment was in the cities where today is Netherland. The cities there were like the long gone Cities States of ancient Greecy.
     Netherland was before just a County, territory of Burgandy. But it were inherited by Charles V, the kaiser of the Sacro German Empire, and king of Spain. Charles V had fighted against the Reformation but were not able to impose his will. Part of his old possessions became more liberal in relationship to religion. Then, Protestants, Jews and Catholics was freed to make their businesses in the cities like Amsterdan and Rotterdan as well as practice their religions. But that part of the Empire were gave to Felipe II, as present from his father, Charles V.
     One sign about the Italian importance in the commerce and transcontinental navigation is the names of some of the explorers on the Great Discoveries. As we know, Christopher Columbus is credited as the first capitain to drive a fleet to the New World. Amerigo Vespucci was in the fleet capitained by Pedro Alvares Cabral that first went to Brazil. And Giovanni da Verrazzano was the first to navigate the North American Atlantic Coast, under the service of France, in 1,524, where he entered the New York Harbor and Narragansett Bay.  Martin Waldssemuller named the new continent America on his world map of 1,507 in Lorraine, after the latinized name Amerigo, in honor to Vespucci.
     The general public learned about the discovery of the New World only in 1,503, through the publication of a letter attributed to Amerigo Vespucci. We must never forget that, at the time of the Great Navigations the sailors was like the astronauts of today. What they encountered could be comparable to discover a new planet with life, plenty of alien plants, plenty of alien animals and plenty of alien civilizations. And the secrecy looked out for the monopoly of exploration.
     I will post here two more genealogical sequences. The first one pertain to Nicolau Coelho. He was pilot of ship and navigated in the expedition of D. Vasco da Gama. Whem they went back he was so excited about the discovery that departed in the expedition of Pedro Alvares Cabral who arrived in Brazil. Later he died, in 1,504, returning from India, probably at the Mozambique Coast.
1,450 Nicolau Coelho – Brites Rodrigues de Ataide
1,420 Pedro Coelho – Luisa de Gois
1,400 Catarina de Freitas – Fernao Coelho, I lord of Felgueiras and Vieira
1,380 Mecia Vaz Sampaio – Martim Fernandes de Freitas
1,360 D. Maria Pereira – Vasco Pires de Sampaio
1,370 D. Maria de Menezes – Alvaro Pereira
1,330 D. Afonso Telo de Menezes – unknown wife
1,310 D. Guiomar Lopes Pacheco – D. Joao Afonso Telo de Menezes
1,290 D. Maria Rodrigues de Vilalobos – D. Lopo Fernandes Pacheco
1,260 Rui Gil de Vilalobos – Teresa Sanchez
1,240 Maria Diaz de Haro – D. Rui Gil de Vilalobos
1,220 Lope Lopez de Haro, el Chico – Berengaria Gozalez Giron
1,190 Urraca Alfonso de Leon – Lope III Diaz de Haro
1,171 Alfonso IX, king of Leon and Castilla – Inez Iniguez de Mendonza
1,151 D. Urraca, princess of Portugal – Fernando II, king of Leon
1,109 D. Afonso Henriques, 1st king of Portugal – Mahaut de Savoie
     Well, I don’t think we need to repeat what comes next. At the third line from these genealogical sequence we can see the names Catarina de Freitas and Fernao Coelho. Back at the chapter 5 they are there as ancestors of my supposed ancestor, Jose Coelho de Magalhaes. Some time ago I looked at the site – Portugal to verify if Nicolau Coelho had our blood in his veins and the site was silent about it. Now looks like an actualization were done. So, it is new even for me. In the present lineage we can point out many others common ancestors like the name Pereira from Nicolau’s greatgrandmother come from the same ancestors of D. Nuno Alvares Pereira.
     Only one observation about that sequence. If we look at the dates prior the names we will see some incoherence in the sequence because appear that, D. Maria de Menezes were born after her daughter, D. Maria Pereira. But it comes because the dates come from differents documents and not always from the birth certificates. Some of the dates come from estimations because not everyone of our ancestors had a birth certificate or baptism certification. Usually, the dates come from the registrations of marriages.
     Lets post also the genealogical sequence for Pedro Alvares Cabral.
1,468 Pedro Alvares Cabral – D. Isabel de Castro
1,433 Isabel Gouveia de Queiroz – Fernao Cabral
1,405 Joao Gouveia de Queiroz – Leonor Fernandes Coutinho
1,380 Leonor Alvares de Queiroz – Vasco Fernandes Gouveia
1,350 D. Elvira de Castro – Fernao Goncalves de Queiroz
1,310 D. Alvaro Pires de Castro – Maria Ponce de Leon
1,290 Pedro Fernandes de Castro – Aldonca Lourenco de Valadares
1,270 Violante Sanchez – Fernando Rodrigues de Castro
1,250 D. Maria Afonso Teles de Menezes – Sancho IV, king of Castilla
1,225 D. Afonso Teles de Menezes – Maior Gonzalez de Giron
1,205 D. Teresa Sanchez – Alfonso Tellez
1,154 D. Sancho I, king of Portugal – D. Maria Pais Ribeiro
1,109 D. Afonso Henriques, 1st king of Portugal – Mahaut de Savoie
    To simplify our data here I didn’t mention the many titles those personalities used. But as I extensively searched the ancestors of Jose Coelho de Magalhaes I noticed many others links between his ancestry and these bunch of historical figures. One example of another common ancestor that those navigator shared is D. Alfonso IX present in the lineage of Nicolau Coelho. He was ancestor of Sancho IV, king of Castilla, present as ancestor for Pedro Alvares Cabral.
     Another important personality in our History books is Fernao de Magalhaes (Magellan), the navigator. He was the capitain of the fleet that circumnavigated Earth the first time in History. He died during the voyage, in 1,521, but his name stood as the one who did it. He also is descendant of many of those ancestors above. And was direct descendant of D. Afonso III, king of Portugal, and Maria Peres de Enxara.
     About Vasco da Gama the most wolrdly known navigator from that time we don’t have data saying he had familiar links with the royal or noble families. But his wife, Catarina de Ataide had. She was descendant of Egas Moniz, o Aio and so of Charlesmagne; Hugues I Capet, king of France and Fernando I Magno, king of Leon and Castilla. From the side of Egas Moniz, she was in the lineage that created the family name Fonseca (dry fountain). D. Vasco da Gama became the second vice-roy in India. And although it don’t come from him I found in the Internet a family from there with the signature Fonseka and they claim be descendants from the Portuguese Fonseca.
     The fact of all major Portuguese explorers were from nobles families indicates to us that, the secrecy of the exploration was in course. And it was used to avoid the competition with other countries. Since the begining, Portugal and Spain did everything in their power to keep the monopoly of the colonization of the New World. But, as Brazilians say, they just wanted to hug the world with their legs. The world was to big to such small population that lived in Iberian Peninsula. And the kings of Spain, with their pride and prejudice just let go a better rule for themselves in our History.
     Before I take the issue we have to recall some of the common History of Americas. Prior to 1,600 the Americas were pratically a monopoly of Spain and Portugal. And just after the modern discovery it was not paying back the expenses for its discovery. What drove most of the expeditions on the earlier days was to find a new way to Oriental Indias, as Portuguese and Spanishs called Asia. Portugal was already profiting for his discovery around Africa. And except for the luxurious biological diversity they thought Americas had nothing more to offer. The mention of “Em se plantando, tudo da.” (If you plant anything, will harvest), by the scriber of the Cabral’s expedition, Pero Vaz de Caminha, wasn’t taken seriously at first.
     So, as the difficulties of initial exploration was amountening the use of imagination also exploded. Three legendary accountings populated the heads of the adventurers at the time. One was the Fountain of Youth. It came from Greek mythology as if was possible to have a spring of waters that give us eternal life in our bodies. The second was the “El Dourado” or a city casted in gold. And the third was the “Emerald Mountain”.
     In the earlier days of exploration, Juan Ponce de Leon came to Americas in the second voyage lead by Christopher Columbus. He was a veteran of the War of Reconquista and helped in the fight for Granada in Spain. Following directions gathered with caribbeans natives he conquered Puerto Rico. After he be established as governor of the island he was overthowed by his adversaries. But he kept his dreams and went to Bimini Island, Bahamas, following a native legend of an Youth Fountain there. At these voyage he experienced the Gulf Stream which is a strong current from the Gulf of Mexico to Europe, later on used to boost the sail boats returning to there.
     From Bimini he kept looking for the Fountain of Youngh and ended at the Florida Coast. The name Florida come from the time he discovered Florida which was Easter (Pascua Florida in Spanish). The name also is linked to the lush vegetation. Florida in English means Blossom and should not be pronounced with ascent on its first syllable since the name is not translated. Flores and flowers are the synonyms for Spanish and English. Juan Ponce the Leon never found what he was looking for and died from a wound of an indian arrow, in 1,521, after be retrieved from Florida to Cuba.
     More than twenty years after the discovery, Vasco Nunez de Balboa were the first one to find a passage from the Atlantic Boundaries to the Pacific. He crossed the Isthmus of Panama in 1,513 opening the way to Spanish people to conquer the West Coast of Americas.
     Only in 1,519 Hernan Cortez with cleverness and help of the enemies of Mayans conquered the City of Mexico and its Empire. Immediately after begun the flow of riches that Spanish kings was long looking for. The Mayan Civilization had long the knowledge to work with precious metals and gems. Then, instead of have to work for it they just took from the others treasury.
     Since the passage through the Isthmus of Panama was open it made easier to Spanishs make contact with the Incas living in the high Andes in 1,532. And Francisco Pizarro conquered the people and brought more riches to Spain.
     But what excited the European Imagination were a desastrous voyage made by Francisco de Orellana and his companions. He tried something different for the time. From Peru they travel into the Amazon Forest. First they disassembled their boats, carried it through the mountains and forest until found navigable rivers at Amazon Basin. Then they start a difficult voyage looking for the way to the Atlantic again.
     His voyage were recorded by Friar Gaspar de Carvajal and were done at the years 1,541 and 1,542. Just some of the initial group survived but was enough to Friar Carvajal describe a civilization that lived on the Amazon Basin that was so large that they could see their houses shining white during the day and their fires during the night for hundreds of miles. Constantly they had to navigate in the middle rivers to avoid native’s arrows.
     But they also were invited by some to eat their surprising abundant table. The Spaniards never had seen such variety of hunt, fish, fruits and vegetables. And the descriptions of Friar Carvajal was taken as legend because later on that civilizations were never found, until now. But it created the legend of “El Dourado”. For centuries Europeans were looking for cities casted in rock and covered in gold as they was used to see in many ancient civilizations around the world. But in the Amazon Basin rock is scarce.
     Only recently the account of Friar Carvajal is been proven. The Amazon loam is a poor soil. And if wasn’t for the rain forest it would be like a desert. Archaelogists then found numerous sites of habitations on the margins of the rivers. More than that, they also found miles and miles of man made loam. Those sites are called “Terra Preta” or “Terra Preta de Indio” (Black loam” or “Indian’s Black Loam”). They discovered also that, it begun to be built in around 500 years BC and extended to after 900 AD. It is the common loam added by charcoal, animal bones and manure and broken pottery.
     The length is variable between 3 to 6 foots from the superficie. And thousands of years later the soils still working fine even suggesting that are some microbiological components because are accounts of regenerations after part of the soil be removed. What is amazing is that, there are the equivalent of France and Germany size together of man made “Terra Preta” in the Amazon Basin. Scientists are trying to reproduce such formidable agricultural advance but didn’t realized yet how it was made. The “Terra Preta” production of food may be better than our most advanced technology of today. If so, can be used for save billions of lives in the future.
     Yet, in the stage of civilization the European people was at XVI century they may wouldn’t conquer the Americas from native population if had not help from Hell. What I mean is that, inadivertently they brought with them their common diseases like measles, smallpox, tuberculosis and even cold or influenza. Since millennia the peoples from Africa, Asia and Europe were in contact to each other and also in contact to big domestic animals. It gave them certain amount of immunity against many germs that was deadly to Americans natives peoples. In a rough calculation some say that around 90% of the population were dead after encounter the Europeans. In some cases, they were infected before even knew any European and it was cause of the extermination of entire civilizations.
     Now, scientists are taking the conclusion that it was just what was happen to Amazon Basin Civilizations. And the European who was looking for cities made out of rock were totally mislead by their ignorance. The civilizations that lived in the Amazon Basin constructed from what was most available to them, wood, soil and others parts of plants.
     At that voyage made by Francisco Orellana the name of the river was changed to Amazon. The legend says that, the navigators saw what appeared to them be horsewomen riding their ponies at the river banks. Then the name of the river was a remembrance of the Amazons from the Greek History. Still in Portuguese language the word amazonas means horsewomen or cowgirls.
     All the Spanish explorers are from noble families. I took a look at the – Portugal but the site is not showing it yet. Some of them like Juan Ponce de Leon have some ancestors there without the links to the royal families. But I know that, the name Ponce de Leon is a result from the marriage between Aldonca Alonso de Leon and Pedro Ponce de Cabrera. D. Aldonca was daughter of Alfonso IX, king of Castilla and Leon with D. Aldonca Martins da Silva. And she was born around 1,215. Otherwise the last names of the female ancestors of Juan are commonly used in noble families such as Guzman, Baeza, Ayala, Figueroa y Manuel.
     Another interesting observation is about Francisco Pizarro, the Conqueror of the Inca Empire. The site doesn’t indicates he come from the royal families but, as a conqueror, the first treasure he took from the Incas were two of the daughters of Atahualpa, the last Inca Emperor, who was killed by the Spanish to pave their way to keep the Empire. Angelina and Ines Youpanqui were part of a pattern of behavior of Portuguese and Spanish conquerors. At the XVI century most of them didn’t brought their Caucasian women. Instead, they marriaged to or simple pass to live with some new converted native.
     Lets go to the Portuguese side of the History. Although Pedro Alvares Cabral is said to be the first Portuguese to went Brazil, have some controversy about it. We know that, the Spanish explorer Francisco Yanez Pinzon were at the Brazilian Coast before. And he went the Amazon River. His expedition even gave the name “Mar Dulce” (Sweet Sea) to it, maybe not realizing it was a river, three months before Cabral. But there was not Brazil yet because by the Treaty of Tordesilhas it belonged to Spain.
     Others Portuguese explorers are also said to be in Americas, even before Chrstopher Columbus. Is said that, Afonso Sanches was the one who indicated where was the Antilhes Islands because he had been there before, when the famous explorer arrived in Madeira Island. And at least two other Portugueses, Joao Coelho and Duarte Pacheco, had been in Brazil before the year 1,500. But officially the one who got the orders from D. Manuel I, the Lucky One, to take posse of the land were Cabral.
     For thirty years the only economic activity Portugal had in Brazil was the exploitation of brazilwood which offerred a prized red dye to Europeans. Brazil also had many others wood along its lush green carpet at the whole coastal area. The exploitation were so intense that today Brazil’s Coasts have just a remote remembrance of what was before. Mostly of Brazilians don’t even know the brasilwood tree that gave name to the country.
     About the thirty initial years is said that, Brazil became the place for expatriated criminals. And is current a mockery about it. “An Angel asked God, My Lord, all the others countries in the world have serious problems such as vulcanoes, earthquakes, tornadoes, Hurracanes, enormous mountains, snow, cold winters, deserts and more, why should You grant to Brazilians a so Eden like place? And God responded to the Angel, My friend, you need to take a better look. Did you noticed the quality of people is destined to live there?
     The mockery is repeated by the ignorant people not realizing that, the initial expatriated that was sent to Brazil was probably not criminals like assassins and thieves. They were exiled because their different beliefs or because were in a political opposition party. The joke was also used by prejudicial people every time Brazilian economy went one of its downs. And it was more often than highs. And those prejudicial people, usually the rich or descendants of noble origins, referred as “Joe little people” the descendance of native Brazilians, Africans and the exileds, linking them to the mockery.
     As we will see later, most of Brazilian, at least those who have roots from the Brazilian colonial times, are descendants of all of them. And more, the “Joe little people” was never in fall. They never were in charge of nothing and their hardwork was allways used for the riches of a small elite. The mockery was always a trick from the cowards and the evil-minded who wanted to blame the victims for their own crimes.
     In the thirty first years the Portuguese colonization in Brasil isn’t resumed only to trade valuable wood for trifles between indigenous peoples and the colonizers as it is mentioned by some historians. The most important event from that time was just the initiation of the genetics of Brazilian people. We must remember that the English colonization begun more than one century after the one of Spanish and Portuguese. The begining of each one have a different motivation. And, most of all, Spanish and Portuguese didn’t sent women with the colonists since their culture was malecentric and the oceanic travelling yet was in an experimental stage.
     Then the Portuguese men couldn’t help themselves against their maleish instincts. And they felt in love with the “indias” at the first sight. They had too much time for gather the brazilwood with the help of the indians and pile it up along the shore lines, in some improvised warehouses, waiting the next shipment that could be in six months or next year. They never was sure. Meanwhile they occupied their time making the next generation, literally.
     Martim Afonso de Sousa was sent to Brazil to organize the first attempt of colonization there. Portugal was aware about the incursions of English, French and Dutch expoiling the brazilwood in the absence of Portuguese defenders. Sousa went Brazil to establish colonies and organize the defense of the territory. With the help of Jesuits he found Sao Vicente, the first Brazilian City and Sao Paulo de Piratininga, where today is Sao Paulo, the biggest city there and Also Santos City, the busiest port in South America, and Santo Andre, which became a industrial city, near Sao Paulo City.
     In 1,533 he went back to Portugal and was sent to India where he also was needed to defend the Portuguese possessions there. In 1,542 he was named Vice-Roy of India. He end his days back in Portugal, where he died at 1,571.
     The next chapter of Brazilian History is known as Hereditary Captancies. Just after Martim Afonso de Sousa been in Brazil, the king D. Joao III start taking others measures to defend Portuguese colonies from alien invasions. What was decided was to divide the Brazilian territory in colonies given to noblepeople to start the European Colonization effectively. To Martim Afonso de Sousa was given two of the colonies, Sao Vicente and Rio de Janeiro. But he never went back there. Only his descendants inherit it.
     Martim Afonso de Sousa established a pattern of organization that prevailled in Brazilian adminstration for centuries. His son Pero Lopes de Sousa inherited the Capitancy of Sao Vicente. And, probably, his son-in-law, Estevao Gomes da Costa inherited the Capitancy of Rio de Janeiro. I am saying probably because I am not so sure but my doubt is based in facts. Is my intention to show one more genealogical sequence to give a better idea of what was going on in Brazil at that time.
1,210 D. Afonso III, king of Portugal – Madragana or Mor Afonso
1,250 Martim Afonso Chichorro – Ines Lourenco de Valadares
1,280 Martim Afonso Chichorro II – D. Aldonca Anes de Briteiros
1,320 Vasco Martins de Sousa Chichorro – Ines Dias Manoel
1,341 Martim Afonso de Sousa – Aldonca Rodrigues de Sa
1,385 Martim Afonso de Sousa – Violante Lopes de Tavora
1,425 Pedro de Sousa – Maria Pinheiro
1,460 Lopo de Sousa – Brites de Albuquerque
1,490 Martim Afonso de Sousa – unknown wife
         Isabel Lopes de Sousa – Estevao Gomes da Costa
         Felipa Gomes da Costa – Vasco Pires da Mota
         Atanasio da Mota – Luzia Machado
         Eufemia da Costa Mota – Joao de Godoy Moreira
         Gaspar de Godoy Colaco – Sebastiana Ribeiro de Morais
         Maria Pedroso de Morais – Joao Correia da Silva
         Escolastica de Morais – Joao da Cunha Ataide
         Maria Candida da Cunha Ataide – Francisco Joaquim de Andrade
1,798 Francisco de Paula Andrade – Joana Rosa de Andrade Lage
1,835 Elias de Paula Andrade – Rosa Amelia Silveira Drummond
1,860 Carlos de Paula Andrade – Julieta Augusta Drummond
1,902 Carlos Drummond de Andrade – Julieta Augusta Drummond
     From what was going on in Brazil I decided to elongate the genealogical sequence were Martim Afonso is almost in the middle. First of all I wanted to show the first couple which is formed by our known ancestor, king Afonso III of Portugal and his lover, Madragana. I already mentioned her because she was daughter of the mayor of Faro when the Reconquista of Portugal was done by that king. She came from a Jewish family and is ancestor of many important others, like queen Victoria of England.
     But I also wanted to remember the Brazilian poet Carlos Drummond de Andrade who was just one of the descendants of Martim Afonso de Sousa. His family Andrade were established in Itabira City, Minas Gerais, since his greatgrandfather. One of my greatgrandmothers, Ercila Coelho de Andrade, was born there and passed to us that, she was the poet’s cousin but nobody paid attention on what degree or how it come. Through other lineage I discovered that, the poet is also descendant of D. Dinis, king of Portugal and also is cousin of the most famous Portuguese poet, Luis Vaz de Camoes.
     Today we have tried to find the link but untill now we are empthanded. At the time all registers was made by the Catholic Church and the ink of some pages of the books from Itabira evaporated. To see what is written on it today we need special tools that we can’t afford. So we need patience and luck because in Brazil some people can take the books and just throw it away imagining that, it have not any interest.
     Since now I will indicate the following video in these address: Don’t worry, is in English language and was produced by the American International Affair Department. It does a little idea about the links of partnership between Brazil and United States back in 1,948. Is interesting to you see it because it shows Itabira, Belo Horizonte, Ouro Preto City and Minas Gerais. Pay special attention on what is said about the strategic position of the State to the American defense at that time. I will remind later the video.
     But I also intend to show something interesting about Brazilian History. In United State we have the Legend of Pokahontas based in real facts. Brazil also have many stories that looks similar to one of Pocahontas. One of this is about Joao Ramalho. The legend about him say that, he was about to be killed by a indian chief when the daughter’s Chief put herself between the two and asked for his life because she planned marriage him. And it is only in the legend.
     In fact, what we know is that, when Martim Afonso de Sousa arrived in Sao Vicente his staff were surrounded by members of the local tribe. When they thought they had to fight for their lives someone came to just announce that, everything was ok. Was Joao Ramalho, a Portuguese adventurer who had long been friend with the indians. Ramalho had left his wife in Portugal. And the father Manoel da Nobrega, who was a Jesuit among the Sousa’s staff, marriaged him to a old companion named Bartira. Bartira was also Christianized with the name fo Isabel Dias. She was daughter of Tibirica, the great cacique (chief) of the trbe.
     But it is not the entire truth. The indians hadn’t rules against man have more than one woman. As they regarded Ramalho with great respect many other chiefs also brought him their daughters. And he was a many times bigamous. But nobody was concerning about it in such enviroment. Ramalho and his many sons lived around where is Sao Vicente, Santos, Sao Paulo and the Ribeira Valle. They furnished to the coming ships goods from the land, made repairs on ships, and hunted indians from others tribes to sale them to slavery. Also is said that, the sons of Joao Ramalho was particularly cruels to their own kins.
     Like that it is how the Brazilian genetics starts. And I will put one more genealogical sequence showing one way how, probably, millions of Brazilian are direct descendants of native Brazilians. I want show one example how the descendants of Martim Afonso de Sousa and Joao Ramalho are the same. He was with Sousa in the foundation of Sao Vicente, Sao Paulo and Santo Andre and if was not for him, maybe we would have a different History in Brazil. Another observation about Joao Ramalho is that, some historians suspect he were a New Converted (Jew converted to Christianity). His parents names was Joao Velho Maldonado and Catarina Afonso.
         Tibirica – unknown wife
1,500 Isabel Dias (Bartira) – 1,493 Joao Ramalho
         Catarina Ramalho – Bartolomeu Camacho
         Unknow Camacho – Jeronimo Dias Cortes
         Ana Camacho – Domingos Luis, the charcoal maker
         Bernarda Luis Camacho – 1,575 Amador Bueno da Ribeira, the acclaimed
         Isabel da Ribeira – Domingos da Silva Guimaraes
         Isabel da Silva Bueno – 1,670 Domingos de Castro Correia
         Joao Correia da Silva – Maria Pedroso de Morais.
     From that point we came back to the ancestors of the poet Carlos Drummond. The couple above is one of his 3greatgrandparents shown in the previous genealogical sequence.
     Our next topic will be the Hereditaries Captaincies. As I said before, the king Joao III of Portugal must had been advised by Martim Afonso de Sousa about the raids that pirates from others Europeans nations was doing to take goods from Brazilian Coast and he decided to create the Hereditaries Captaincies. It was based on an previous experience done in Madeira Island. The Brazilian territory colonised by Portugal were divided in 15 parts. Each one given to a nobleman to administrate. All the risks and financial obligations was assumed by the Captain-Mor, the private entrepreneur. The entrepreneur got the power to do decisions there.
     But only two of the captaincies brought good results. Both of them had prioritized the exploration on sugar cane fields. One was the Pernambuco Captaincy which was owned by Duarte Coelho. Today, in the same place we have the Pernambuco State replacing that Captaincy. Begining in that time the Brazilian History Books classifies the next 150 years as Sugarcane Cycle. Lets post one more genealogical sequence.
1,370 Fernao Coelho, 1st lord of Felgueiras and Vieira – Catarina de Freitas
1,420 Martim Coelho – Joana de Azevedo
1,435 Goncalo Coelho – (Violante Magalhaes)
1,480 Duarte Coelho, lord of Pernambuco – Beatriz de Albuquerque
1,539 Jorge de Albuquerque Coelho – D. Catarina da Silva
1,591 Duarte de Albuquerque Coelho, count of Pernambudo – D. Joana de Castro
     I started from Fernao Coelho and Catarina de Freitas now because they are already present at the chapter 5 as ancestors of Jose Coelho de Magalhaes and at the chapter 7 as grandparents of Nicolau Coelho, the pilot of ship from the voyages of D. Vasco da Gama and Pedro Alvares Cabral. So Duarte Coelho was a close kin of Nicolau. We have to take some precaution here into interpret that Violante Magalhaes was the mother of Duarte Coelho. Probably not. He was son of Goncalo Coelho, 3rd lord of Felgueiras and Vieira, but none is sure about the name of his mother.
     Duarte Coelho was called by king Sebastiao of Portugal to his desastrous adventure in the North of Africa and where he disappeared. The death of D. Sebastiao ended been taken to Felipe II as opportunity for united the two crows. The period between 1,580 to 1,640 Portugal and Spain formed the Iberic Union under the crown of Spain. This period is classified as Philipine Dynasty because Portugal were administrated by three kings named Philip, from Spain.
     In Pernambuco, Duarte Coelho founded his capital, Olinda. (Oh Beauty). The legend says that, at the first sight Coelho said the words and the name were stamped. He probably also brought with him a family of colonists that signed Barbalho. The Barbalho family is present in the next chapter of Brazil’s History but is largely ignored by historians outside the State of Bahia. The family also have an important link in the History of New York, although it is indirect.
     Just to illustrate the undermeaning of what of the facts that helped construct our common History I will put here something happen to me in United States. I saw a advertisement on tv from the Historical Research Corp saying that, we could contact them  and they would send us something about our family name origins. And more, we could ask about a second name, charge free. So I asked about my two names, Magalhaes and Barbalho. The Magalhaes name they got right. But about the Barbalho they sent me the answer that I will copy here.
     “The Historical Research Center has been researching names for nearly 20 years. Our database is the most extensive of its kind in the world covering over 1,000,000 names from 135 different countries and cultures. Each name is researched individually and specific information is provided relating to the name.
     Unfortunately, one of the names you ordered for the free Origin and Meaning scroll is not currently on our database. We are sending out the rest of your order. Our database is constantly being updated with new names and information about the names that we have already researched. As a valued customer, we are offering a 25% discount if you wish to place an order for a Celebration Scroll for this name that is not currently on our database. By ordering a Celebration Scroll for this name, our researchers will compose a document that will contain fascinating information about the name including the earliest recorded date and the circumstances surrounding that event, the meaning and origin, specific historical references to bearers of the name, immigration details, variant spellings and notable bearers. We also provide a written description of the Coat of Arms and a full color rendering of that Coat of Arms. By placing an order for a Celebration Scroll for this name we will add it to our database and other members of your family will be able to get the same information about this name.”
     I know. This is just a commercial correspondence. But I would expect something more from anyone who alleged have more than 1,000,000 names in his database. The Coat of Arms I found later at the blog of some of my friends back in Brazil. His name is Ormuz Barbalho Simonetti. In the Brazilian internet is plenty of informations about the name and, unfortunately, most of all about a politician who recently was processed and impeached for bad doings. I will continue my description to show the link between my family name and the History of New York.
     Unfortunately, what looks like success to Brazilians brought not good results to Africa. The cultivation of sugarcane at the time, as any other agricultural activity, demanded too much hardworkers and the Europeans made the option for import slaves from Africa because was much more difficult to enslave the natives in their own land. Since then the Africans were exchanged by a product from the sugarcane itself, the cachaca (an alcaholic beverage), or bought for money.
     The commerce of people were not only disgasting for the reduction of an human being to such kind of disregard. It provoked the disrupture of African Society. Brought wars to the continent and adventurers with only one thing in mind, make easy money. Africa became hostage for at least four and half centuries to the madness of our ancestors.
     After the negative results of most of the Hereditaries Captaincies in Brazil the Portuguese Crown decided to change its tactics for colonise Brazil. Now was named a General Governor who had the power of a Vice-Roy. The chosen one for the position was Tome de Sousa. Someone who had the same genetical background of Martim Afonso de Sousa. He went Brazil in 1,549 with 1,000 people. They were at the militar service, priests (the first Jesuits in Brazil) colonists and 400 exiled for minor crimes in Portugal.
     Tome de Sousa founded Sao Salvador City which still Bahia State capital. It was an strategic point, equidistant from Sao Vicente in the south and Olinda in the norte. It was to be the first Brazilian capital and stood until the next fase of Brazilian History where the capital were transferred to Rio de Janeiro. Sousa stood in Brazil only four years, since 1,549. After he went back to Portugal he became the king adviser in Brazilians issues. And he advised the creation of many villages along the coast to attract more colonists.
     At that time, Portugal was having some problems with the competition for the Oriental commerce, the Spanish was been more successful by the mineral riches they were already taking from Americas and Brazil was been under siege from others Europeans, who wanted to settle down in Americas too. The English, French and Dutchs didn’t recognized the Treaty of Tordesilhas alleging they never heard about any Will of Adam giving the monopoly to Spain and Portugal. It is a sign of our common History. The law is always imposingly high, until the interests become higher.
      One problem that Tome de Sousa encountered in Brazil was the absence of respect for the law. One of his companions, Pero Borges, who went there as a guardian for the law expressed something like these in a letter, “Have in this land many marriaged men back in the reign whom live here for many days, doing nothing for live but to live in concubinage with at least a pair of gentile women, been worse than the gentile people…”
     Pero Borges asked punishment to everybody and the king Joao III, wisely, gave an amnesty to everything that was done before the presence of Tome de Sousa in the land except for,” cinco casos de heresia, sodomia, traicao, moeda falsa e morte de homem cristao”. (five cases of heresy, sodomy, treason, false coin and killing of a Christian man). He was well informed how hard life appeared to those so far away from home and was more judicious to have such courageous people as allies than enemies. And it paid off later.
     Since the begining of Brazil’s colonization, as I mentioned before, also the Brazilian genetics start to form. And also the Portuguese language start gaining new words to define new situations. So the kids of a Portuguese with the native women had to be defined. And they started to call them caboclo (female, cabocla). Since Africans was brought to Brazil in a condition of slaves, soon made more sense to take there women together because was cheaper produce slaves kids in Brazil than import the original.
     But a much higher number of European men was in Brazil than Caucasian women. Portuguese men was not shy on have sex with any kind of women. From these relationship was formed the mulato (female, mulata). Even along the centuries to come, rich people who had many slaves, kept having concubines from their “senzalas”. (the place where the slaves was kept when was not working). To Brazilians, the interracial marriages or relationships wasn’t taken as amazement. It became prejuditially watched later on, when more Europeans went to Brazil and was formed an whiter elite.
     Even so, the prejudice in Brazil was softened by the presence of a bigger part of the population that was already product of interratial marriages. Even I can say from my time of young age. Brazilian music was plenty of three words. Mulata, cabocla and saudade. Back then, no man had a dream of Cinderela, Snow White or Aurora. Those was just stories for children. Our princesses was called not by their names but their genetic contents. Was said that, is almost impossible to man resist the charming of the mulata or cabocla.
     And I think Americans experienced the magical power from the result of an interracial marriage in the presidential elections of 2008. President Obama make a mistake identifying himself as black person. He is mulato which is not a bad or a super happening. He is just proof that, when love does exists all the borders will be gone. Love doesn’t recognizes barriers. I will be back to these issue later.
     Saudade is a word that Brazilians believed not other language was able to reproduce. Is a feeling of missing someone or something so much that it become close to a desease. It was the feeling from the Africans and Portuguese about their ancestors lands and relatives. Is a feeling from the bottom of indians hearts who recorded the lost freedom. Now is the feeling of all who are result of the interracial ancestry.
     Then with its riches in the loams and beauty in its sceneries, Brazil instigated the avarice of others European peoples. We have a chapter dedicated to the attempt of invasion of Brazilian lands. We have two chapters in the Brazilian History called, Frensh Invasions and Dutch Invasions (Invasoes Holandesas).
     The French Invasions have some influences in Brazilian History. Since Martim Afonso de Sousa went Brazil he had recomended the construction of a city at Guanabara Bay. But the indians around was not friendly to Portuguese then the project was not but it. At the time of the second general governor, Duarte da Costa, a Frenchman, Nicolas Durand de Villegagnon, who new the place convinced some to establish a Frensh colony there. The name given to the project was Antartic France.
     And they started by constructing a fort, making contact to the hostile tribes to Portuguese, making trade with the indians to valuable goods from the land and sending it to France. The commerce was going well until the third General Governador of Brazil don’t came. His name was Mem de Sa, and a small part of his ancestry is shown in the next genealogical sequence.
1,500 Mem de Sa – Guiomar de Faria
1,460 Goncalves Mendes de Sa – unknown wife
1,410 Joao Goncalves de Miranda Sotomaior – Filipa de Sa
1,380 Fernao Anes Sotomaior – Constanza de Zuniga
1,340 Pedro Alvares de Sotomaior – 1,360 Elvira Mendes de Benevides
1,310 Fernan Anes de Sotomaior – Maria Anes da Novoa
         Alvaro Pires de Sotomaior – Ines Anes de Castro
1,290 Elvira Anes Marinho – Pedro Alvares de Sotomaior
1,270 Joao Pires Marinho – Teresa Pais Marinho
1,250 Sancha Vasques Sarraza – D. Pedro Anes Marinho
1,230 Vasco Peres Sarraza – unknown Anes da Novoa
1,210 Pedro Soares Sarraza – Elvira Nunes Maldonado
1,190 Maria Afonso de Leon – Soeiro Aires de Valadares
1,171 Alfonso IX, king of Leon and Castilla – D. Teresa Gil de Soverosa
1,151 D. Urraca, princess of Portugal – Fernando II, king of Leon
1,109 D. Afonso Henriques, 1st king of Portugal – Mahaut of Sovoie
     Usually, the noble people is not linked through just one lineage to royal families. In the case of Mem de Sa it is not different. One of the alternatives that link him to royal families can be shown by the genealogical sequence. Starting from D. Sancho I, second king of Portugal and also son of D. Afonso and Mahaut of Savoie.
1,154 D. Sancho I, king of Portugal – D. Maria Pais Ribeira, a Ribeirinha
1,205 D. Teresa Sanches – Alfonso Tellez
1,225 D. Joao Telo de Menezes – Elvira Goncalves Giron
1,250 D. Goncalo Anes Raposo – D. Urraca Fernandes de Lima
1,280 D. Beatriz Goncalves Raposo – Joao Pires da Novoa
1,310 Maria Anes da Novoa – Fernan Anes de Sotomaior
     The last couple is already at the genealogical sequence above as 3greatgrandparents of Mem de Sa. And paying a little more attention to the names we also can see links to the genealogical sequences presented for the navigators. As I said before, everybody is relative in some way.
     Mem de Sa had to secure the rest of the Brazilian Coast and pacify revolts of tribes around the capital, Salvador, Bahia State. He sent his nephew, Estacio de Sa, to deal with the Frensh problem. He made an alliance with indians from the now Espirito Santo State and asked for help from Sao Vicente. They were successful onto destroy the Fort Coligny, constructed by Villegagnon. And also founded a new city named after the name of the infant king, D. Sebastiao. Like that, the City of Sao Sebastiao do Rio de Janeiro was born. Later on the name were reduced to Rio de Janeiro.
     But the war was just on its begining. The Frensh settlers went to the interior among their allies indians where they kept trading and attacking Portuguese settlements. Estacio de Sa reorganized the defense and continued the fight untill the Frensh were totally subdued. At the time he had the help of two Jesuits. Manoel da Nobrega and Jose de Anchieta. The two of them are like legend in Brazil. They were the ones that catechized the indians, organized them in settlements like Europeans and introduced them to the European culture.
     Although the job done by the Jesuits reduced the Indians to a less level in the Brazilian society they also tried to prevent them to be enslaved. They were never successful in that case and the descendants of Indians and Portugueses were the responsibles for conquered the Brazilian interior in ways not friendly to others indians there. Another name from the time was of the chief Arariboia. For his help to Estacio de Sa he was presented with lands next to Rio de Janeiro. He founded a settlement which is today Niteroi, ex-capital of Rio de Janeiro State.
     At the end of the conquest, Estacio de Sa died in consequence of wounds in battle. But the Frensh was expelled. Later on they tried another settlement at the Brazilian Northeast and were more successful. They founded the City of Sao Luiz, now Maranhao State capital. In there they planned to establish a colony name Equinoctial France. Around 1,616 they also were expelled by the Portuguese settlers. At the end they were successful onto find a place in South America where became to be the Frensh Guiane. Brazilians and Frenshs had others difficulties in their relationship but nothing so serious as those two.
      Now we are back in business. The promise in the title of these chapter is talk something about the beginning of New York and United States. But it start in Europe with the mess created around the question of religion and the question of economic power. When Charles I, the kaiser and king of Spain left the power, Philip II, king of Spain inherit Spain and what later became known as Low Countries. And over there had some freedom of religion and economy. But Philip II didn’t take it for granted. Then the northern part of the possession declared its independence.
     They held eight years of war, after 1,581, against Philip II forces. And the war was spreaded throughout the world. Is said that, the war against Spain created the nationalistic feeling that created a new nation. But the key component of these new nation was the creation of the first world’ big corporation. The Dutch West India Company. The company begun to look for a new way to India but found a good field to fur trade in today’s New York State, around the Hudson River. The company were the responsible for initiate the colonization, bringing colonists and giving lands to their work. They are responsible for the foundation of New Amsterdan which became to be called New York after the colony be taken by the English king, and for the foundation of New Orange, which is known today as Albany.
     We need to remember that, that big corporation was an imense investiment. From the middle of the XVI century until England took the power, the Dutchs were the biggest naval force in the world. Maybe Philip II had assembled the most powerful navy at the time but the Dutchs controlled a merchant navy and an armed navy together. And since the Invencible Armada of Philip II were dismantled by the English Navy, the Dutchs dominated the trade around the Globe.
     The Dutchs that in Brazil are called Hollandians are also responsible for three attempt of invasions there. They had invested in the production of sugarcane in Brazil and since they was at war with Spain, and Brazil became colony of the United Iberia, they thought to have the right of retaliate the decision of king Philip II in prohibit the commerce between Dutchs and the possessions under his helm.
     Their first attempt were against the capital, Salvador, at the State of Bahia. It occurred during the years of 1,624 and 1,625 but the people repelled the attackers. The adventure was proven too costly for the company but in 1,630 they seized the intire shipment of one year of silver from the Spanish Colonies. And used it to finance the Invasion of the Captaincy of Pernambuco. During 24 years the colony were held by the Dutchs.
     At first the resistence were done only by the population. Basically leadered by the “Senhores de Engenho” (Lords of Mills). The resistence had not an unified command. Each leader had his group and attacked in an Indian’s fashion or guerrilla. It made the Dutchs don’t go too far in the interior. But the long war made some Lords of Mills adhere the cause of the Dutchs.
     Between 1,637 to 1,644, the Brazilians even celebrates it, were the time of the presence of the Count Maurice of Nassau who had a good administration to the people. He remodelled the City of Olinda and its port, Recife. Later on Recife became the State’s Capital. He also was tolerant in question of religion and open the colony to immigration of Protestants and Jews alike. Even is in Pernambuco the oldest Synagogue in Americas.
     The Monarchy of Portugal was restored in 1,640 ending the 60 years under the Spanish Crown. Brazilians adhered to the party of the Duke of Braganca who became king under the name of Joao IV. But the Dutchs conquered more lands taken the whole Coastal area from Pernambuco to Maranhao State, even the capital, Sao Luis. And then they start the invasion of the interior. It brought the people to insurrection. Many of the leaders moved to Salvador, Bahia.
     The count Maurice of Nassau visualized a more powerful colony if he also taked Salvador. And prepared a new expedition to the city with his main force, many times superior than that of Portuguese and Brazilian. At the Brazilian side although was a specialist who’s name was Luis Barbalho Bezerra. Luis organized the defense and gave to Nassau a Pyrrhic Victory. The victory didn’t have a prize because the Dutchs were unable to take Salvador and the costs were that high that Maurice of Nassau was called back to Netherland.
     The situation then deteriorated when the new administrators of the company requested more taxs and liquidations of loans given to the Lords of Mills. The Brazilian people came together this time and the Brazilian nationality start to be constructed. The History books always mention three liders of the revolt, the Lord of Mill Andre Vidal de Negreiros; the native Felipe Camarao and the African descendent, Henrique Dias. They represented all the people who fought to liberate Brazil from Dutch colonization with all of its genetics.
     The end of the war is accepted as 1,654 but only in 1,664 was signed the final Treaty and Portugal agreed to pay 63 tons of gold for the constructions they had done in Brazil. It was paid in 40 years with the production of sugar. With the end of Dutch domination many Jews and Protestants moved to New Amsterdam. The Dutchs who learned how to process sugar transferred the production to their Caribean Islands. When it was practically a Brazilian monopoly the product was valuable almost as gold, costing around US$ 50,00/pound in today’s money. Since then the production soared and the price got down. It was the end of the first Cycle of Sugarcane in Brazil.
     Luis Barbalho Bezerra, the hero, lost his health and fortune in the war. Long before it ended he moved to Rio de Janeiro where he became governor in 1,643 to 1,644 when he died. He left two young sons, Agostinho and Jeronimo Barbalho Bezerra who enherited the prestige of their father. Agostinho later was also governor of Rio de Janeiro and died of an unknow fever while was looking for precious metals and gems at the Sweet River (Rio Doce).
     Jeronimo was leader of an important revolt called “A Revolta da Cachaca” in Rio de Janeiro. That revolt was caused by the corruption in the administration. He was hanged in a counter-revolt leadered by the old corrupt governor, while they was waiting for a decision from the Portuguese Crown. But the reason was given to the revolted people of Rio de Janeiro who removed the corrupt governor from power. Later on we will see that a great number of mineiros (citizens born in Minas Gerais State) are descendants of those Barbalho Bezerra.
     At the American side, before the country be United and even States, the king Charles II of England was the responsible for unify the Colonies, taking control of it. From the 13 initial colonies, four were created from the New England Territory. As we know, this part of the country was colonized by a population eagering for religious freedom. But what we can say also is that, they wanted their own freedom of religion but the pilgrims are known by be religious intolerant with others. From New England came the colonies of New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island and Connecticut.
     The other eight, south and west of New York, was more diversified but had not an eagerly desire to make from this country a Democratic State where everyone would live as equally created by God. Names of those are, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia. So, New York, the last of the 13 initial colonies to adhere the Union of all, had fundamental intellectual, religious and economic influences in the constitution of the liberties in United States. Without the principles of freedom established by our Forefathers in the Constitution, probably, United States would never be the great country of today.
     And, in some way, United States is a product of the whole historical chapters preceding its creation. Even in a least degree of importance the chapter of Brazilian History called by the name “Invasoes Holandesas” (Dutchs or Hollandians Invasions) and “Insurreicao Pernambucana” (Pernambuco’s Insurrection) which was lead by whites, Indians and Blacks against economics impositions. Ironically, the opressor in Brazil brought Brazilians to United States who’s descendants later on helped to create these noble nation. And, inadvertently, the Barbalho Family was involved in the whole History of United States.
     Only after 1,664 king Charles II of England took from the Dutchs the Colony of New Netherland. It was renamed New York after the title of Duke of York and Albany. The Dutchs reconquested the province during the years of 1,673 and 1,674 when they exchanged it for what is today Suriname, in the north of South America. And to end these chapter I want to show one more genealogical sequence.
1,630 Charles II, king of England – D. Catarina de Braganca, princess of Portugal
1,600 Charles I, king of England – Henriett Marie de Bourbon – princess of France
1,566 James I, king of England, Scots and Ireland – Anna, princess of Danmark
1,545 Henry Stewart, Duke of Albany – Mary Setwart, queen of Scotland
1,516 Matthew Stewart, 4th earl of Lennox – Margaret Douglas
1,490 John Stewart, 3rd earl of Lennox – Anne (Elizabeth) Stewart
1,475 Elizabeth Hamilton – Matthew Stewart, 2nd earl of Lennox
1,450 Mary Stewart, princess of Scotland – James Hamilton, 1st Baron of Hamilton
1,430 James II Stewart, king of Scotland – Maria van Egmond
         Joan Beaufort – 1,394 James I Stewart, king of Scotland
1,373 John Beaufort, 1st earl of Somerset – Margaret Holland
1,340 John of Gand, Duke of Lancaster – Catherine Swinford Roelt
1,312 Edward III, king of England -Philippa de Hainaut
1,284 Edward II, king of England – Isabelle, princess of France
1,240 (?)Leonor, princess of Castilla – Edward I, king of England
1,200 Fernando III, the Saint, king of Castilla – Jeanne d’Aumale, countess of Ponthieu
1,171 Alfonso IX, king of Leon and Castilla – Berengaria, princess of Castilla
1,151 D. Urraca, princess of Portugal – 1,137 Fernando II, king of Leon
1,109 D. Afonso Henriques, 1st king of Portugal – Mahaut of Savoie
     The lineage above doesn’t show all the many times Charles II is descendant of the same kings of Portugal and Spain. Only if we follow each one of his maternal ancestry we can see it clearly. His wife, D. Catarina de Braganca was daughter of the first king of Portugal after the restoration in 1,640, king Joao IV and his wife Luisa de Guzman. Charles II had not children with D. Catarina de Braganca but took 8 concubines and fathered 15 children. And it was not an exception for the kings behavior at his time. And we can imagine, why shouldn’t every and each one of us be offsprings of such productiveness?!


Here in United States the English colonization starts from 1,607. And was a more culturally diversified colonization. Even people from others nationalities like Germans, Dutchs, Scots, Irish and also Portuguese came to the Atlantic Coast. About religion they were all sort of denominations that sparkled from the Protestant Reformation or else. Also a minor number of Catholics. After a hard begining the colonies became more successful as Europe expanding its population demanded more agricultural products.

Products like tabaco and cotton were examples of what represented the success of the Colonies. And just like the rest of Americas, the Colonies, specially those in the south, became dependent on hardwork hands. In the south sanitary conditions were not ideal to European labors so the importation of slaves from Africa became essential part of the business. In the north the economic activity was not so lucrative then the presence of African slaves was least.     The first Europeans to inhabit Americas after its Columbus rediscovery was the Spaniards. Florida yet was Spanish Colony and around the Gulf of Mexico they had been established. And the Frensh established themselves at the Lousiana Territory.

We must remember that, the European population begun its growth thanks to a more availability of foods such as corn, potatoes, tomatoes and many others from Americas. Probably, the spices from the Oriental Indias also helped on the prevention of infectious deseases too. And the wealth in many kind of forms brought from the Colonies from the whole world made possible the advancing in science, technology and knowledge as an whole.

Back in Brazil, at the XVII century, Portuguese colonists had established themselves in a strait shore line, from north to south. The number one product of exportation was the sugar. And while it was more valuable, the Portuguese Crown prohibit the creation of cattle in there. So, as it was needed for nourishment to people and for transportation of everything a timid interiorization begun at the Northeast of the country. It accounts for the conquest of the “Sertao”. Sertao is a Portuguese word to describe an wild west.

Since the establishment of the General-governors in Brazil they organized some expeditions to the interior in name of the Portuguese Crown. Those was called “Entradas” (Enterings) and had the objective of seek for something valuable, specially precious metals and gems. These ones was limited by the Treaty of Tordesilhas. Usually the point of departure was the capital, Salvador.

Another kind of expedition was called “Bandeiras” (Flags). It was of private initiative and most of all begun from the Sao Vicente Capitancy. Sao Vicente was the capital which was at the shore line and most of the expeditions begun from the villages of the uplands, usually Sao Paulo. It is why the men in the Bandeiras was called Bandeirantes, and today sometimes the people born at the State of Sao Paulo are also called by that name, like their ancestors was also called. But at that time they also was called Vicentinos (from Sao Vicente Capitancy). Today they are called Paulistas.

One of the motivations for those expeditions was the legend mentioned before, “The Emerald Mountain”. Native Brazilians passed on the story to Portuguese colonists that had a Sacred Mountain in the interior of the land made of green gems. Then because of the natural riches Spaniards had encountered on their side of Americas, Portuguese concluded that it would be emerald. So, they start looking for it.

They also collected an indian account for the legend of Sabarabussu (Resplandent Mountain). Was a legend like El Dourado. Later on Portuguese interpreted as it been the “Serra da Piedade” (Piety Mountain). It is a peak of around 5,200 feet high above sea level. Today it is part of the City of Caete, is one of the symbols of Minas Gerais and is a touristic point with a old Chapel (construction ended in 1,770) and astronomic observatory. But many other peaks made history in the State as it was used as referencial points for travelers and because its around abouts be rich in minerals and gems. Examples are the Itambe Peak (Acute Peak) and Caue Peak (Brothers Peak).

Agostinho Barbalho Bezerra, who was Governor of Rio de Janeiro (1,660-1,661) was sent by the king Afonso VI to look for the Emerald Mountain in December 17, 1,663. He did good services to the Portuguese Crown, and fought among his father Luis and brother Jeronimo at the war against Dutchs, and even were presented with the Santa Catarina Island. Today is where the state capital, Florianopolis, of Santa Catarina State stands. But in one of his expeditions he contracted an unknown fever and died in around 1,670, Rio de Janeiro.

So, the job to look for the Emerald Mountain was passed on to Fernao Dias Pais Leme. Fernao was a Bandeirante and he is the most inspiring researcher of his kind in that time. Usually, Bandeirantes entered in the future Brazilian Territory looking for indigenous people and taken them as slaves. Fernao Dias did the same. He lead Bandeiras that entered the Brazilian South and established a village, Parnaiba, Sao Paulo, with 5.000 enslavered indians. His main concern after be chosen, was to locate the Emerald Mountain. And with it in his mind established many farms along the ways where later became to be the Minas Gerais State. Those farms originated villages which became cities.

Is possible that, the legend of the Emerald Mountain made the Paulistas blinded for other riches in around Minas Gerais State. Despite of years researching, some green gems located by Fernao Dias expeditions revealled to be just turmalines, a less worthy gem. In 1,681 he also died by an unknown fever. His son Garcia went back to Sao Paulo and his son-in-law, Manoel de Borba Gato kept his work. And lets post one more genealogical sequence. This time for Fernao Dias.

1,609 Fernao Dias Paes Leme – Maria Garcia Betim
Pedro Dias Paes Leme – Maria Leite da Silva
Fernando Dias Paes Leme – Lucrecia Leme
Pedro Leme – Izabel Paes
Antao Leme – unknown wife
1,505 Antonio Leme – Catarina de Barros
1,480 Maria Adao Ferreira – Martim Leme
1,440 Adao Goncalves Ferreira – Brites Pires
1,407 Goncalo Aires Ferreira – Isabel Ferreira
1,380 Isabel Pereira Lacerda – Gomes Ferreira
1,360 Martim Goncalves Lacerda – D. Violante Pereira

1,345 unknown Lacerda – Diogo Anes Serpa
1,320 Carlos de la Cerda, count of Angouleme – unknown spouse
1,289 Alfonso de la Cerda, lord of Lunel – Isabelle d’Autoing
1,270 Alfonso de la Cerda, prince of Castilla – Mathilde de Brienne
1,255 Fernando de la Cerda, prince of Castilla – Blanche, princess of France
1,221 Alfonso X, the Wise, King of Castilla – Violante, princess of Aragon
1,200 Fernando III, the Saint, king of Castilla – Elisabeth von Schwaben
1,171 Alfonso IX, king of Leon and Castilla – Berengaria, princess of Castilla
1,151 Urraca, princess of Portugal – Fernando II, king of Leon
1,109 D. Afonso Henriques, 1st king of Portugal – Mahaut of Savoie
     Just to enrich our data I will post a little genealogical sequence. It starts from the the parents of Fernao Dias Paes Leme.
         Pedro Dias Paes Leme – Maria Leite da Silva
         Maria Dias – Domingos Rodrigues de Mesquita
         Maria Leite de Mesquita – 1,646 Pedro Vaz de Barros
1,705 Maria Leite Pedroso – Gaspar Correia Leite
         Isabel Leite de Barros – Antonio Galvao de Franca
1,739 Antonio de Sant’Ana Galvao
     Alternative sequence for ancestor of Antonio de Sant’Ana Galvao.
1,739 Antonio de Sant’Ana Galvao
         Isabel Leite de Barros – Antonio Galvao de Franca
         Gaspar Correia Leite – Maria Leite Pedroso
         Ana Ribeiro – Pascoal Leite de Miranda
         Ana Ribeiro – Sebastiao Fernandes Correia
         Maria Pedroso de Alvarenga – Sebastiao de Freitas
         Antonio Rodrigues de Alvarenga – Ana Ribeiro
         Mecia Monteiro – Baltazar de Alvarenga
         Lopo Monteiro – Catarina Dias
         Isabel Rodrigues de Vasconcelos – Goncalo Monteiro
         Rui Goncalves de Sequeira – Ines Anes de Vasconcelos
         Goncalo de Sousa de Sequeira – Beatriz de Sousa*
1,430 D. Guiomar de Sousa – Rui Vaz de Sequeira
1,380 D. Goncalo Rodrigues de Sousa – Catarina Casada
1,350 D. Rui de Sousa, mayor of Marvao – Isabel Ribeiro
1,330 D. Goncalo Rodrigues de Sousa – Maria de Monforral
1,305 D. Rodrigo Afonso de Sousa – Constanca Gil
1,260 D. Afonso Dinis – D. Maria Pais Ribeiro
1,210 D. Afonso III, king of Portugal – Maria Peres de Enxara
     Just for everybody know, Antonio de Sant’Ana Galvao is the Saint Friar Galvao, the first saint born in Brazil canonized by the Catholic Church. I don’t see it like amazement because at the time the Brazilian population as an whole was too small. Then the genealogical links between the most prominent personalities shoudn’t be difficult to find. As both came from Sao Paulo State’s ancestry they had to be relatives.
     Another important note here is the record of the begining of a new family name. Acording to researchers the son of king Alfonso X, Fernando, was born with hair which was called cerda in Spanish language. Later on was translated as Lacerda (the hair) to Portuguese. It is a common family name around the Portuguese descendents. In the State of Minas Gerais is an extensive family that migrated to the city of Itambe de Minas (around about the Itambe Peak) and from there to others places. In my family we have a branch called Coelho Lacerda that came from that city. Many of my cousins sign it on their names.
     At the date 1,360 in Fernao Dias Paes Leme’s genealogical sequence we have the name D. Violante Pereira. She was one of the half sisters of D. Nuno Alvares Pereira, the great general that helped Portugal from be dominated by Spanish Dominion at the Crisis of 1,383 to 1,385. She is ascendent from both Brazilian personalities. And from another lineage that I look at, from the Saint Friar Galvao, he got an ancestor, Isabel Rodrigues de Vasconcelos, who come from the Vasconcelos family which is descendant of D. Joao Peres de Vasconceloss, lord of the Vasconcelos Tower and husband of D. Maria Soares Coelho, the daughter of Soeiro Viegas Coelho, the first one to bear the family name Coelho.
     In remembrance of the service of Fernao Dias, the highway from Sao Paulo City to Belo Horizonte City got his name. He really opened the doors to the next chapter of Brazilian History.
     If we take the last years of Fernao Dias Paes Leme to measure his success or failure certainly many would say that, he was a totally failure. He not only didn’t find what he was looking for. His dictatorial decisions lead to an uprising against his leadership and condemned one of his own son to be hang for conspiracy. And his life was also cut short by the desease he contracted.
     Thirteen years after his death  his successors found some amount of gold that was sent to Rio de Janeiro for analysis and the blessing from Portugal. Imagine, in 1,694 how long any answear from Portugal could come. In our days nobody would stand for it. But the find must lead the people to have a second thought about what they was looking for. The gems until then was not there despite of so much searching. And they begun look for gold in places less harzardous to their health, with temperatures more agreeable to them who was adapted to European climate. It is along the Espinhaco (enormous spine) Mountain Range.
     Like magic, since 1,698 on, the gold mines were discovered in a extension of 1,000 kilometers line. The excitement was great. The word was spread to the rest of Brazil. Thousands of people abandoned what else they was doing to go there. The Portuguese Crown was in disbelief questioning if it was just an wave or the gold would sustain production for long time. Anyways it starts to acting to keep its monopoly making regulations and even censuring and recalling the book: “Cultura e Opulencia do Brasil por suas Drogas e Minas”. Culture and Opulence of Brazil by its Drugs and Mines. 1,711.
     The author was the Italian Jesuit Giovanni Antonio Andreoni or father Andre Joao Antonil (1,649 – 1,716). His work is the best documentation of what was going on in Brazil at that time. Although his opinions are distorted by his beliefs. But the Portuguese Crown censured his work because he pinch point the locations where the mines were and it was considered confidential. Nevertheless Portugueses was not up to open its crown jewel to the world.
     The Portuguese Crown did everything on its power to take control of was happening. The prohibition of communications between the colonies was a total failure. The construction of roads was dependent on the king’s decisions and it was not his interest since his policy was to keep the Colonies incommunicado. In earlier stages of colonization the Portuguese Crown did everything to make its Colonies weak and easier to dominate. It was afraid that, a free communication through roads would lead to a common interests and a coalition of Colonies would lead to a not easy to control sovereign nation.
     Anyways, the people from the other Colonies begun to flock in and also from Portugal many came along. Basically, Brazil was resumed to Capitancies such as Pernambuco, Bahia, Espirito Santo and Sao Vicente. The cities was small and the ones that would fit in a map was Sao Luis, Olinda, Salvador, Ilheus, Vitoria, Rio de Janeiro, Sao Vicente, Sao Paulo, Santo Andre. None of them with more than 15,000 inhabitants on its strets. Anyways, around 1,706 was a calculated 30,000 newcomers to the mines place. Possibly the number excluded the slaves and surely the native Brazilians.
     The founders of the mines was the Paulistas. At first, they saw the newcomers as a good source of income to them. The newcomers left their places on elsewhere and went the region in a poor condition. Walked hundreds of miles, through boats when the rivers offerred good conditions and feet when not. They had to protect their legs with garments from fabric or leather. And the Paulistas called them “Emboabas” which in native language meant “Chick in boots”. To start, the Paulistas gave warm welcoming, tools, shelter and loans. But Paulistas also started to monopolize the right of exploration of mines and the commerce of everything. And put the prices up way to the skies.
     Only later the people became concerned about it. The gold was so abundant that the price was worthy to pay. When more and more people came they perceived what was going on and the tensions begun. Paulistas and Emboabas begun to acquire guns and the situation deteriorated. In 1,707 occurred one assassination that sparkled the war. That war is called “War of the Emboabas”. The superior number of newcomers prevailled. They were lead by the Portuguese Manuel Nunes Viana. The Paulistas were lead by Manuel de Borba Gato, the son-in-law of Fernao Dias Paes Leme.
     The war ended and the army of Paulistas were expelled from the future State of Minas Gerais. Then they went the lands where today are the States of Goias, Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul and there they discovered new mines. One mark of these finds is the foundation of the City of Pirenopolis, one remembrance because the mountains around recorded the Perinees to the colonists.
     At the time, each Captaincy had a governor. So of the experient and brave of them one was called to pacify the conflict. His name, Antonio de Albuquerque Coelho de Carvalho. Like him, his father of same name had been governor of Maranhao Captaincy. He was born in Portugal, lived in Brazil at his father time and was brought back to Portugal. He returned to serve Portugal’s interests and even fought against French invasors in a different attempt to colonize the Brazilian North.
     As governor of the Sao Vicente Captaincy, which at the time united Sao Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Minas Gerais and most of South and West Brazil, he was able to negociate peace and organized the administration. He was governor from 1,710 to 1,720 and on his watch was thought better separate Rio de Janeiro and later create the Captaincies of Sao Paulo and Minas Gerais. Those moves were taken for settle down the disputes and better control the riches coming out of the land.
     Among of his first acts were the creation of the Villages of Mariana, Ouro Preto, Sabara, Pitangui, Sao Joao del Rei, Serro and many others. Those are today’s names of the places. At the time their names was a long phrase. The governador was able to name the old anemies as mayors of the new created villages so the tensions was set down. The first one created was Mariana which became the first capital of the State and it’s first bishopric. It was a privilege in a country dominated by the Catholicism.
     Next, Sabara City was also created and given to Manuel de Borba Gato as mayor. It was a recognition to the great services of that Bandeirante who, after the death of his father-in-law Fernao Dias, had lead the colonozation. Sabara was his headquarters even before the gold be discovered. And in the division of the Judicial Branch it became one of the first centers in the State. Its jurisdiction was so extense that most of West Brazil fitted in. Only after these phase of Brazilian History other Center was created and the power were transferred to Serro City. Probably, Sabara was the first settlement like town in the whole State of Minas Gerais.
     Borba Gato had interests in other places beyond Sabara. Even exists a little town not so far from Itabira City that got the name Borba Gato after him, which was where he lived for some time and got part of his gold.
     Minas Gerais State became to be the Crown Jewel of Portugal. But the mines was in the open field. And was clear that, part of it was going out without taxation. Even the penalty been death sentence the smugglers was way ahead of the small contingent of tax collectors. Only around 1,720 Portugal dicided take more drastic measurement and create the “Casas de Fundicao”, or Melting Houses. Portugal prohibit the circulation of the gold as it comes from nature and ordered all production be melted in bars. Among the decisions one fifth of all the production was taken as taxes.
     Soon the revolt broke out. The leader of the revolt, Felipe dos Santos, were imprisioned and executed in a most crude way. He was put to death pulled by horses from opposite sides. The other participants were pardoned and the institutions of the Casas de Fundicao were kept.
     The amount of gold that Minas Gerais produced is kept in debate until our days. Some authors calculated in around one thousand tons of the metal was kept as taxes by the Portuguese Government. Some say that, what was smuggled maybe were the biggest part. What we know for sure is that, Minas Gerais could be transformed in the Center of our Civilizations if wasn’t for the the Portuguese monopolization. During that period occurred one of the biggest migrations in the world until then but just a hand of people wasn’t Portuguese, Portuguese descendants or slaves.
     More than one hundred towns were established at that time. If we extend the period to an one century is calculated that, around 400,000 Portuguese immigrated to Brazil from 1,700 to 1,800. Portugal’s population at that time never exceeded two million people so an handful of young people transferred themselves to Brazil on each generation gaving the impression there that, some villages was aways empty.
     The gold production stood strong for five decades. From 1,750 on the administrators start financing new expeditions to look for new mines. Until then the European settlements was lined up around only one road that was officially established by Portuguese Crown. It was made to keep the control of the production. The road gave access to Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo Cities. And is more than one thousand miles of curves-up-and-down-like-coils-road. Royal Road still the name. And from that road as center new ones radiated to conquest new lands.
     Fortunately, after the Gold Cycle, in more modern times, others roads in different directions replaced the first one. Old and influential cities from the period were isolated by the new ways life got in that State. In consequence the Cultural and Material Patrimony was preserved. Today we can visit places like Ouro Preto, Mariana, Sabara, Sao Joao del Rei, Serro, Diamantina, Congonhas do Campo and others less known historic cities to see good examples of remnants preserved buildings and culture.
     The Gold Cycle in Brazil  made possible the surge of a cultural field. It is less expressed in writings. As I mentioned before, the Portuguese Crown wasn’t so happy on see its Colonies develop anything that could motivate independence. It monopolized the education. Colleges was not allowed to exist in Brazil. Anyone who wanted learn something more had to go to Portugal and study there. Most of the Brazilian population was kept illiterated. Untill 1,808 Brazilians hadn’t any newspaper.
     Then the cultural manifestation were present through the engineering of buildings, paintings and sculptures. See any of the preserved cities of the time is like look at a painting of the most famous artists of the Renaissance. The sculptures of Aleijadinho (little handicapped), who’s real name was Antonio Francisco Lisboa are the stamp of the arts from the State of Minas Gerais. He was able of transcribe some good humor through his characters, like putting facial likeness of Portugueses in the Roman soldiers that was crucifying Jesus. He was a mulatto, son of a Portuguese father, Manuel, and his slave, Isabel. The apex of painting was master Ataide.
     Most of the arts was linked to the Scriptures of the Bible. The little what was different is the poetry. Some of our master poets of the time was Portuguese born or Brazilian born who had studied in Portugal. The musical manifestation also come from inumerous pieces made in seminaries and convents. The profane production of music and literature was limited because the monopolist control and was used by abolitionists and sepatists.
     The great work that the gold did to Minas Gerais and Brazil were to attract population to there. And also the historical constructions. As a monopolist metropolis, Portugal didn’t allowed the Colonies have its own industry except for the day-by-day consumption. Everything else has to be imported from Portugal itself. And as Portugal itself was a rich mentally third world country have to import from others like France, England and Germany. But it didn’t allowed the direct commerce between Brazil and others coutries. So, its income was made in great part by been intermediary in those commercial operations.
     As Brazilians had not where to expend the gold in investments and industrialization they was driven to expent it with superfluous or not durable things. The gold didn’t brought not any university or industry to Brazil. But it brought riches to elsewhere. Even constructions like the Louvre Museum in Paris is a product from Minas Gerais gold. In 1,755 a monstruous earthquake leveled Lisbon putting Portugal on its knees. But the gold of Minas Gerais was used to pay all the reconstruction. And it may have contributed to create a stronger feeling of nationalism that soon was responsible for the Independence of Brazil.
     I will put some genealogical sequences here as an openning to mention the Revolution of American Independence. Maybe some will be surprised by the kinship between American personalities and our cousins from Iberian Peninsula, but as I previewed before we all are supposed to have ties with everyone else in western countries. And accordingly to my theory, it shall be much more close than a lay person would ever imagine. Lets try it though. I just learned how it come for three of the forefathers of United States of America.
1,732 George Washington – Martha Dandridge
1,693 Augustine Washington – Mary Ball*
1,659 Lawrence Washington – Mildred Warner*
1,627 John Washington – Anne Pope
1,602 Lawrence Washington – Amphyllis Twigden
1,568 Margareth Butler – Lawrence Washington
         William Butler – Margareth N.
1,487 Margareth Sutton – John Butler
1,461 John Sutton – Margareth Charroll
         Sir Edmund Sutton – Joyce Tiptoft*
1,400 John Sutton, 1st baron of Dudley – Elizabeth Berkeley
1,380 Sir John Sutton – Constance le Blount
1,361 John Sutton, master of Dudley – Alice Despencer
         Catherine of Stafford – 1,338 John of Sutton
1,318 Margareth of Audley, baroness of Audley – Ralph Stafford
1,290 Hugh of Audley, earl of Gloucester – Margareth of Clare*
          Isolda of Mortimer – Hugh Audley
1,268 Marguerite of Fiennes – Edmund, 7th baron of Wigmore
1,250 Blanche of Brienne – Guilhaume of Fiennes
1,230 Jean of Brienne – Jeanne de Chateaudun
1,198 Berengaria, princess of Castilla – Jean I of Brienne
1,171 Alfonso IX, king of Leon and Castilla – Berengaria, princess of Castilla
1,151 D. Urraca, princess of Portugal – Fernando II, king of Leon
1,109 D. Afonso Henriques, 1st king of Portugal – Mahaut of Savoie
     Here I used the sign * to indicate other ways that the forefathers are descendants of the Iberian kings. In many cases, their ancestors are more than one time descendants of those kings. So, our kinship become more close each time it happens. Lets take Thomas Jefferson as example now. He were the one who wrote the Declaration of Independence. At the Declaration of Independence, wrote in 1,776. Some of the main ideas how government should work was first in the Declaration and later became part of the American Constitution which was written in 1,787. In the Declaration of Independence is the main ideal to mankind, Life, Liberty and Pursuit of Happiness.
1,743 Thomas Jefferson – Martha Wayles Skelton
1,720 Jane Randolph – Peter Jefferson
1,685 Isham Randolph – Jane Rogers
1,650 William Randolph – Mary Isham*
1,621 Richard Randolph – Elisabeth Ryland
1,589 Dorothy Lane – William Randolph
         Elisabeth Vincent – Richard Lane
1,529 Anne Tanfield – Clement Vincent
1,510 Francis Tanfield – Bridget Cane
1,488 William Tanfield – Isabell Staveley
         Catherine Neville – 1,461 Robert Tanfield*
1,420 Edward Neville, lord of Abergavenny – Catherine Howard*
1,363 Ralph of Neville, 1st earl of Westmorchand – Joan Beaufort*
1,330 John of Neville, 3rd baron of Neville of Raby – Maud of Percy
1,300 Alice Audley – Ralph of Neville, 2nd baron of Neville of Raby
1,270 Hugh Audley – Isolda of Mortimer
     The last couple is already in the genealogical sequence of George Washington. Joan Beaufort, wife of their greatgrandson Ralph of Neville was daughter of John of Gand, duke of Lancaster and Catherine Swinford Roelt which ones are already in the genealogical sequence of Charles II, king of England posted at the chapter 9. And the last sequence for today.
1,735 John Adams – Abigail Smith
1,691 John Adams – Susanah Boylston
1,665 Hannah Bass – Joseph Adams
1,640 Ruth Alden – John Bass
1,602 Prisilla Mullins – John Alden
1,578 William Mullins – Alice Atwood
1,545 Frances Moulineux – John Mullins
1,510 John Molyneux – Johanna Montacute*
1,475 William Molyneux – Anna Rugge
1,445 Thomas Molyneux – Anna of Dutton*
1,425 Elisabeth Stanley – Richard Molyneux
1,409 Jean Goushill – Sir Thomas Stanley, 1st baron of Stanley
1,360 Elizabeth Fitzalan – Sir Robert Goushill
1,342 Elizabeth of Bohum – Richard Fitzalan, 10th earl of Arundel
1,311 William of Bohum, earl of Northampton – Elizabeth of Badlesmere
1,282 Elisabeth, princess of England – Humphrey of Bohum, 4th earl of Hereford and Essex
1,240 Leonor, princess of Castilla – Edward I, king of England
     From these point we can go back to the genealogical sequence of Charles II, king of England, at the chapter 9. D. Leonor, princess of Castilla is a greatgreatgrandaughter of D. Afonso Henriques, 1st king of Portugal and his wife Mahaut of Savoie. With those three examples we have also James Madison as cousin. He was one of the writers for the Federalist Papers that supported the passage of the United States Constitution.
     Before the Brazilian Independence, came the American Independence. The principal causes that move the American people toward the independence were the understanding of the British Crown that the costs of its army used to protect the Colonies should be paid, at least half, by the Colonies. In the conception of the king the army was serving more the Colonies than England. So he raised the taxes. But what really provoked more was the intransigence of the king who ignored the petition from the Colonies to remove out the exceeding taxes.
     Other causes of the Revolution of Independence was the lack of representation. The British army stayed in the colonists houses. And the government in Americas was done by Englishmen. After the successful War of Independence, the establishment of the American Constitution regarding the rights and freedoms was inspirational to the whole world under any other colonist power. Since then Brazilians also begun to think about the separation from Portugal.
     The first opportunity came in 1,789. Previously the gold production had a substantial decline. Portugal kept demanding some yearly amount of gold from Brazil even it was not more to find easily. As the gold production was reduced so the economic situation went down. Many people begun to accumulate debts with the Portuguese Treasury. And the Portugal Crown decided to execute all debts through the law called “derrama”. Derrama meant that, the government people could come to your house and take anything you would have to pay your debt and if was not enough you would be arrested and kept imprisioned until the debt be paid.
     It sparkled the revolt called “Inconfidencia Mineira” (Miners Revolt). Many people took part on the elaboration of a plan of separation of Brazil from Portugal. Most of them had their lives linked to Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro, the most important captaincies at the time. Rio de Janeiro was affected because during the Gold Cycle the Brazilian Capital were transferred from Salvador to there. The transference was an attempt to better control the Colonies since the main income of the land was coming from Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro was the nearest port to transport the gold to Portugal.
     The revolt were kept in secrecy and was to be unveilled in the same day that Portugal marked for begin the Derrama. But before it come, two or three betrayers denounced the plan to Portuguese officers. Portuguese authorities then arrested all the main leaders of the revolt and condemned them to be hang or exiled to Angola, which was another Portuguese Colony, in Africa. All the condemned to death but one had their penalties commuted to exile.
     The only one executed, cut into pieces and his parts exposed in a cruelly way at the streets of Ouro Preto, the Minas Gerais Capital then, to drive terror to any others revolted, was the Inconfidente, Lieutenant, Joaquim Jose da Silva Xavier, also called by the nickname, Tiradentes (teeth taker). He was chosen because was the most enthusiastic and assumed his entire guilty in the conspiracy. In his last words he said that, if he had ten lives he would give all to the cause.
     Some historians believe that, Joaquim Jose had secretly travelled to United States to meet with George Washington. Although it is not proved, the possibility isn’t without reasons. The Brazilian movement of independence was mirrored in the American Revolution. Both had been influenced by the Frensh philosophers. Both movement had straight link to the Freemasons. And so on.
     But the success of the American Independence is accountable for the delay of Brazilian Independence. Certainly, the Portuguese monarchs and advisors was watching everything that happen in the world. And seen the mistakes others Monarchs had done they would do the opposite. As the king of England had denied the petition to lower taxes and drove unger to the American colonists, the Portuguese sovereign granted the total pardon of debts Brazilians owned. Together with the exile of the leaders of the revolt the common people became accomodated for now. But the ideal of independence just entered in a deep sleep but wasn’t entirely forgot.
     What is interesting in our days is that, some of the most known facts of the time are been questioned. Some is saying that, Joaquim Jose da Silva Xavier was never hanged. The “Inconficencia Mineira” never were intent to give independence to whole Brazil. The “Inconfidentes” didn’t want to freed slaves. They were just a group of high classes people. About those controversies I would call our cousin, Rogerio Alvarenga, to make his points. He is an historian with a long career and identified those suppositions as desconstructions of what we really know about our past. He wrote a series of books called “Virtual Enterview with …..”. His site is:
     The arguments raised by those who want dismiss the importance of the “Mineiros” personalities to Brazilian History are comparable to say that, the American Revolution of Independence have not democratic effect because part of the leaders were slaves owners. Also, the Independence have not validity because the Revolutionaries was betrayers accordingly to the English law, which legally owned the Colonies.
     The accusation that the “Inconfidencia Mineira” wasn’t a popular movement can be easily dismissed by the fact in the life of the “Inconfidente”, Father Rolim. He had the commitment to convoke 400 people to join the rebel force. Would be impossible to assembly such army at that time, in the City of Serro where he lived, if the common people wasn’t invited.
     And we need to pay attention to the facts. The conspiracy was against Portugal’s Dominion which had thousands of men in Brazil. Without an equal or superior number nobody would talk about Independence. And for have such size of army of Brazilians, certainly, even slaves would join in.
     But, cleverly, Portuguese government persecuted only the leadership which in many cases was its own citizens, saving its imagery from be depicted as oppressor before the common people.
     The classification of the “Inconfidencia Mineira” as an elitist movement have the intention of invalidate its good meaning through the bad meaning attributed to the word elite in Brazilian History. Brazilians tend to link the word elite only to the rich and powerful politicians which did bad administrations. The “Inconfidencia Mineira” is clear a movement of middle and lower classes against the powerful. And the command of the movement was formed by the intellectual elite. Not necessarily the economic elite.
     Anyways the political interpretation of now-a-days get the interests of today’s interests. Maybe, later on I will explain it better.
     Others polemics points of view that Rogerio have good answers through his works is the saying that, Alberto de Santos Dummond didn’t invented the airplane and Antonio Francisco Lisboa, the Aleijadinho, is more like a myth than the author of all the works attributed to him. I would also indicate the title: “Wings of Madness” to anyone who want know something about Santos Dummond. Knowledge without research is just oneself opinion. If you want be wise about anything look for every and each opinion before any judgment.
     In other hand some people in Brazil love so much the English culture that was spread a misinformation about some particularity of the “Mineiros” accent. “Mineiros” pronounce the word UAI in most of their conversations. The Portuguese sound to that word is the same for the English why. Then was created explaination for the “Mineiros” UAI attributing its use as influence of the English people that was present in Minas Gerais at the Cycle of Gold. But it is not true.
     UAI was a Freemasons pass word which means, “Uniao, Amor e Independencia” (Union, Love and Independence). It was used to open the door of secret meetings reallized in the basements at the houses of the “Inconfidentes”. The meaning of the word was long forgotten but “Mineiros” kept using it forever.
     Another interesting thing about the “Inconfidencia Mineira” is that, many of the ‘Inconfidentes” have a known ancestry linked to the same ancestors that I exposed before. If anybody talk with “Mineiros” about the names, Jose Alvares Maciel, Ignacio Jose de Alvarenga Peixoto, Jose da Silva e Oliveira Rolim (Father Rolim) or Tomas Antonio Gonzaga, they will soon remember something about their first grades in school because of those names are involved in the “Inconfidencia Mineira” or because some of them are famous poets. But their ancestry present at the portugal is falter in something or total lack in there yet.
     But some of the “Inconfidentes” have their links with the royal families just like the other Brazilians historical personalities. Let post some more genealogical sequences.
1,746 Joaquim Jose da Silva Xavier, Tiradentes.
1,721 Antonia da Encarnacao Xavier – Domingos da Silva Santos
1,700 Maria de Oliveira Colaco – Domingos Xavier Fernandes
         Isabel de Oliveira Colaco – Antonia de Oliveira Setubal
1,660 Antonio de Oliveira Gago – Anna da Cunha
1,630 Martinho de Oliveira – Catarina Pereira Sardinha
1,610 Genebra Leitao de Vasconcelos – Antonio de Oliveira
1,585 Isabel Leitao – Diogo Rodrigues
1,560 Goncalo Vaz Leitao – Helena de Carvalhal
1,535 Vasco Martins Leitao – Beatriz de Sousa
         Martim Ferreira Leitao – Briolanja Gois
1,450 Leonor Ferreira – Rui Vaz Leitao
1,420 Aires Ferreira – Joana Fogaca
1,400 Martim Ferreira – Violante Afonso da Cunha
1,380 Isabel Pereira de Lacerda – Gomes Ferreira
     The last couple is one of the 9greatgrandparents of Fernao Dias Paes Leme already presented. The couple is also ancestor of the Saint Friar Galvao. The personality Tiradentes wasn’t marriaged but had children with more than one woman. Part os his descendance still living in Minas Gerais State. Another example,
         Claudio Manoel da Costa
         Teresa Ribeiro de Alvarenga – Joao Goncalves da Costa
         Francisco de Barros Freire – Isabel Rodrigues de Alvarenga
         Luis de Barros Freire – Isabel de Paiva
         Catarina de Freitas – Francisco de Barros Freire
         Maria Pedroso de Alvarenga – Sebastiao de Freitas
     Claudio Manoel da Costa was also a great poet. The last ancestors above was one of the 4greatgrandparents of Saint Friar Galvao, from a lineage not presented. Last example,
1,756 Francisco de Paula Freire de Andrade – Isabel Alves Maciel
1,708 Jose Antonio Freire de Andrade – Maria do Bonsucesso Correia de Sa
1,660 Joana Vicencia de Menezes – Bernardim Freire de Andrade
1,630 Ambrosio Pereira de Berredo – Maria Lobo da Silveira*
1,600 Henrique Pereira de Berredo – D. Maria de Menezes*
1,580 Ambrosio Pereira de Berredo – Joana de Menezes*
1,560 D. Mariana de Portugal – Antonio Pereira de Berredo*
1,540 D. Cecilia de Portugal – D. Rodrigo de Castro*
1,485 D. Martinho de Portugal, Archbishop of Funchal – Catarina de Sousa
1,462 D. Afonso de Portugal, Bishop of Evora City – Filipa de Macedo
1,400 D. Afonso, 1st Marquiz of Valenca – Brites de Sousa*
1,377 D. Afonso, 1st duke of Braganca – D. Beatriz Pereira Alvim
1,357 D. Joao I, king of Portugal – Ines Pires
     Another interesting information about the “Inconfidente” Francisco de Paula Freire de Andrade is that, he was nephew of the general, Gomes Freire de Andrade. The general was the first count of Bobadela and until his death in January first, 1,756 he was the Minas Gerais State Governor. His brother and father of Francisco, Jose Antonio, was the second count of Bobadela. General Gomes Freire de Andrade signed documents of posse of lands in name of Manuel Rodrigues Coelho. As I mentioned before, some traditional accounts say that, these Manuel Rodrigues Coelho have something to do with our ancestor Jose Coelho de Magalhaes but is not determinated the kinship linkage between the two of them.
     Here we went back to the genealogical sequences presented at the chapter 5. D. Beatriz Pereira Alvim was daughter of the general, D. Nuno Alvares Pereira and grandaughter of D. Branca Pires Coelho. We got here the crossing between the families Coelho, Braganca, Alvim, Pereira and Portugal that is ancestor to all European Royal Families. I used the * to indicate other ways in which Francisco de Paula Freire de Andrade was descendant of the kings of Portugal.
     For long time, United States and Brazil didn’t have a together History. But they had occasional encounters. Some of the reason for it was beyond the control of both. As we know, at the same time the “Inconfidencia Mineira” was been derailled the Frensh Revolution begun. After the initial upheaval the doors was open to the arising of Napoleon Bonaparte and with him the Napoleonic Wars.
     Brazil had some benefit from the Napoleonic Wars in some unexpected way. Was long thought in Portugal that, wouldn’t be a bad thing to transfer the condition of Metropolis to Brazil and there the monarchy would thrive. It would be done to better protect the Portuguese interests because it is a such small country and subject to possible invasions from more powerful countries from Europe. But they aways reluctantly thought about that plan.
     Portugal and England had that Treaty since 1,385 when they agreed to protect each other against foreign invasion. And because England was at war with the Napolionic France, Portugal was cornered to make a decision in which side to go in. Portugal had a queen, Maria I, who was impaired by insanity. She had been the queen at the time of the condemnation of the “Inconfidentes” in Minas Gerais. She was contemporaneous of George III of England who also was affected by mental illness. He was the English king at the time of the American Revolution.
     Like king George III, Maria I, the Crazy, as she became known, were replaced by a Prince Regent. Her son, Joao, was acting on her behalf before the confrontation with Napoleon. He was not prepared to be king because had an older brother but his brother died of smallpox. And his death could be thanked to their mother because she was too conservative to let her son be vaccinated against the desease. At the time the vaccine already existed and was the first one that human being have at hand. Maria I considered the vaccination a violation of nature and an act against God’s determination.
     The Prince Regent Joao, who later became the king D. Joao VI, was a reluctant administrator. Looks like that, any decision would do to him a lot of pain. So his decisions would come slowly like from a slot. And before he decided which side he would be with, Napoleon Bonaparte ordered his Army to invade Portugal and destitute the king. Luckly, the time he gained thinking about which side to go helped him to decide to transfer his court to Brazil. Just in time because when his fleet was yet at sight from the land, the Napolionic troups was entering Lisbon.
     His fleet was not more than a shadow of what the Portugueses had in the times of their Great Discoveries. And he brought with him the Portuguese Treasury and around 15.000 people from his courts. Just outside Lisbon he meet an English fleet that was waiting to escort him along the way to Brazil. The voyage took too much time with many risk decisions made such as transport all three generations of heirs to the thone in only one ship. But at the end they went Brazil anyways. It was 1,808.
     The king of Spain wasn’t so lucky. Before his fleet could do the same the Napoleonic Army took him away. He was dethroned and replaced by Napoleon’s kin.
     In Brazil the courts were welcomed with an innocent enthusiasm by the Brazilian people. First the entourage made a stop in Salvador to soon arrive in Rio de Janeiro. The port of Rio de Janeiro was the busiest in the country and wasn’t without reason. If anyone wanted to do a safe travel across the world it was one of the obligatory stops along the way. Anyone traveling from Europe or East Coast of Americas would be resupplied in the Rio de Janeiro port. And at the time was there a small American fleet. And the Americans did a diplomatic mistake.
     At the arriving of the Prince Regent to the land the people was in a climate of carnival. All the ships presents in Guanabara Bay start to salute him with all its guns. One of the American Captains got so carried on by such wave of happiness that he also did the same for just one time. Someone else must had remembered him what for were the War of Independence in United States and he ordered to silence his cannons.
     I said it was a mistake because Portugal and Brazil were not involved in the conflict between England and United States. And back in Brazil have a saying that could be translated as, “celebrate with who is celebrating.” It mean that, is not polite you see your neighbor in joyous celebration and you alienate yourself from his happiness. Is like you are condemning his right to celebrate. But I am sure that, Brazilians didn’t took it so hard on themselves.
     I said before that the Brazilians celebration was a innocent act because the presence of the Portuguese courts in Brazil became a mix of good and bad news. And the bad came first. Rio de Janeiro was a small town, maybe 40.000 people or less. And hadn’t time to prepare itself to receive 15.000 newcomers. What next the Prince Regent and staff decided was quartering in the homes of the colonists. So, the Portuguese troups start doing inspections in each and every house around, and when it was good enough they just fixed a plate with the letters P. R. It was to mean that, Regent’s Property. And later on the humoristic Brazilians interpreted as, Robbed Property.
     And among the problems, Prince Joao was marriaged to Carlota Joaquina. She was a bad tempered princess from Spain and hated Brazil at the first sight. Her temper and probably the timid personality of D. Joao had put them in a clash course that ended taking them apart of each other. They just acted as marriaged to the public eyes but was separated. And Carlota Joaquina was wild. But the only useful information that interest us here is that, soon the Brazilian public learn to hate her as much she hated Brazil and Brazilians.
     At the good side we have for start the opening of all Brazilian ports to all friendly nations, namely, England. Portugal had the monopoly before. And England at the time was the China of today. As a leader in industrialization it had start the Industrial Revolution but the workers was underpaid back there, the production was vibrant and it was taken to all corners of the globe, except to France and its allies because they were at war. And England took great advantage of it flooding the Brazilian market with things that Brazilian haven’t even place to use, such as ice skates. But Brazilians was resourceful and transformed such things in something else for good use.
     Since the courts was in Brazil and hadn’t any clue about a time to go back, Prince Joao decided to take some measures that improved the Brazilian life. He reurbanized Rio de Janeiro, founded the first College, created a Botanical Garden and the first Bank of Brazil. At that time he also open Brazil to the scrutiny of European scientists such as August de Saint Hilaire. Saint Hilaire was Frensh and he went Brazil after the fall of Napoleon in 1,815.
     Saint Hilaire, mentioned by some old cousin, Dermeval Jose Pimenta, in his book, A Mata do Pecanha, sua Historia e sua Gente (The Pecanha’s Woods, its History and its People) made these coment about the people of Minas Gerais State at the time. He was admired by the vision of a wooden machine moved by water and used to crush sugarcane to produce brown sugar. “I couldn’t prevent let myself be taken in admiration by the gears that, although enormous, are, at the same time, of a strange lightness and nicely make. Was not these one time that I got proof of the hability of the “mineiro” worker; if they are slow in the execution of their work, at least do it with extremely care and I believe in that, they do a better finishing than the European artisans.”
     Before the Portuguese Royal Family went Brazil, in 1,803 United States had bought the Louisiana Territory which is the East area of Mississippi River. Such purchase made the American Territory be doubled. After it came the War of 1,812. This war is considered the second War of Independence. It because England was the hegemonic power in the world, specially at seas, and was the bullier of the time. Although United States had gain its Independence through the War of Independence, England continue to threat the new nation as its colony.
     What aggravated the situation was that, United States had been friendly to France which had give capital to the American Revolution. England was at war with the Napoleonic France now. England had the most powerful navy in number but was lacking of experient sailors. So it starts to boarding the American ships and taken the sailors born in England, even the naturalized Americans. They even took some who was American born but hadn’t their paper with them to prove it. A good part of the American exportation was to France and England was trying to blockade it, damaging the American economy.
     Another serious problem was that, probably the English Crown saw as a treat to its power the American expansion to West. And as they didn’t have population enough to invade the world as it pleased, they start to arming the American Indians who was fighting against the expansion. Those English attitudes convinced the President James Madison to declare war to England in 1,812 with the approuval of Congress. Lets put some insight of the genealogical sequence for Mr. President, James Madison.
1,751 James Madison – Dolley Payne Todd
1,731 Eleanor Rose Conway – James Madison
1,696 Francis Conway – Rebecca Catlett
1,675 Elizabeth Thornton – Edwin Conway
         Alice Savage – 1,651 Francis Thornton
1,605 Anthony Savage – Alice Stafford
1,556 Anthony Savage – Elizabeth Hall
1,528 Francis Savage – Anne Sheldon
1,510 Christopher Savage – Anne Lygon
1,450 Christopher Savage – Anne Stanley*
1,430 Katherine Stanley – Sir John Savage
1,409 Jean Goushill – Sir Thomas Stanley, 1st Baron of Stanley
     From these point on Madison’s genealogical sequence goes paralell to the one of John Adams, chapter 10, who was father of John Quincy Adams, who replaced James Madison after James Monroe. Another important character of the time was Andrew Jackson, who became the seventh president of United States of America. Andrew Jackson is the face on the twenty dollar bill as we know. He also have a genealogical sequence linked to the Portuguese royals. Let see it.
1,767 Andrew Jackson – Rachel Donelson
         Elizabeth Hutchinson – Andrew Jackson
1,700 Cirus Hutchinson – Margareth Lisle
1,675 John Hutchinson – Mary Hobart
         John Hutchinson – not identified
         Lucy Apsley – 1,615 John Hutchinson
         Lucy St John – Allen Apsley
1,473 Sir John St John – Jane Inwardby
1,437 Oliver St John – Elizabeth Scrope*
1,410 Margareth Beauchamp – Oliver St John
         Edith Storton – John of Beauchamp, 3rd Baron of Bletsho
          Catherine Beaumont – Sir John Stourton
1,340 Henry Beaumont, Lord Beaumont – Margareth of Vere
1,310 John, lord Beaumont – Aleanor of Lancaster
1,265 Henry Beaumont, lord Beaumont – Alicia Comyn
1,230 Louis de Brienne – Agnes de Beaumont-Maine
         Berengaria, Princess of Castilla – 1,148 Jean I de Brienne
1,171 Alfonso IX, King of Leon and Castilla – Berengaria, princess of Castilla
1,151 D. Urraca, princess of Portugal – Fernando II, king of Leon
1,109 D. Afonso Henriques, 1st king of Portugal – Mahaut of Savoie
     I took a look on the data at the portugal for all the 43 presidents of United States of America. I don’t want put more genealogical sequences from their ancestry. Here some insight about it. 29 of them are descendents of the kings of Portugal. 3 are descendents only of the kings Charlemagne, Hugh Capet of France and William I of England. Those three are, James Buchanan, Dwight D. Eisenhower and Barack H. Obama. So they also are relatives of the Iberian Royal Families who also are descendants of those 3 kings.
     Those who have not indication as descendants of kings are, Martin van Buren, Abraham Lincoln, Rutherford B. Hayes, James A. Garfield, Chester A. Arthur, William McKinley, Woodrow Wilson, Warren G. Harding, Harry S. Truman, John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson. It doesn’t mean that they don’t are descendants of kings but what probably happenned is that, the data on their ancestry was lost in some point of their ancestry. It was happen to most of us.
     The list of United States presidents descendents of king Afonso Henriques in order of their elections are, George Washington, John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, James Monroe, John Quincy Adams (son of John Adams), Andrew Jackson, William Henry Harrison, John Tyler, James K. Polk, Zachary Taylor, Millard Fillmore, Franklin Pierce, Andrew Johnson, Ulysses S. Grant, Grover Cleveland (who was elected again after his successor), Benjamin Harrison (grandson of William H. Harrison), Theodore Roosevelt, William Howard Taft, Calvin Coolidge, Herbert Hoover, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Richard Nixon, Gerard Ford, Jimmy Carter, Ronald W. Reagan, George H. W. Bush (father), Bill Clinton and George W. Bush (son).
     What would be a bit of surprise is that, I also checked 42 names linked to the Brazilian presidency. It included elected presidents, dictators and administrative councils. Only Twelve out of 42 people was descendants of kings, accordingly with the data in that particular site. It is not so much of a surprise because I know how hard is to assembly such data in Brazil. The climate is not so friendly to conservation of paper. As I said before, only after 1,808 the newspapers were allowed, with restrictions, to exist. The illiteracy was an way to dominate the population. And, above all, just a handfull of people really try to brake such vicious cycle. I myself have seen things that are heartbroken in these issue.
     The list of our cousins presidents in Brazil are, Floriano Peixoto, Prudente de Morais, Manuel Ferraz de Campos Salles, Augusto Moreira Afonso Pena, Nilo Procopio Pecanha, Joao de Deus Mena Barreto, Jose Linhares, Carlos Coimbra da Luz, Nereu de Oliveira Ramos, Joao Belchior Marques Goulart, Humberto de Alencar Castelo Branco and Tancredo Neves (was elected in an electoral assembly but died before assume the position).
     The War of 1,812 could be avoided if in the time we had at least a transatlantic telephone line. The English Parliament had revoked some of the decisions that was causing the war but before it came to be known United States was trying to invade the English Possession in Canada. Nevertheless the better moment to have an war against England should be that time because it was involved in a much bigger war against France so England had to fight with a smaller force. Although that smaller army was a numbered and well prepared.
     At the course of the war the English invaded Washington Capital and burned its main buildings. The English fleet then headed to Baltimore, Maryland. But they were unable to take a better defended fort there. In there despite of the intense bombardment the men in Fort McHenry didn’t give up on their positions and the English fled empty handed. The commander of the Fort had instructed some women in Baltimore to make a enormous flag and as soon the bombardment stoped the flag was raised to make sure that the English would see it even when they were far.
     At the time, Francis Scott Key was stranded in a merchant ship and witnessed the scene. Immediately after he was inspired to write a poem which later became know as The Star-Spangled Banner. In 1,831 the Congress passed a law naming the poem as the official national anthem.
     The English forces decided to attack New Orleans which was the gate to the inland basket of United States. And there they confronted Andrew Jackson and his army. He was a veteran from the War of Independence and had an old hate for the English people since then. His mother and brothers were dead at the time.
     At the scenary of the last battle the much smaller force commanded by Jackson was entrenched waiting for the enemy. The leader of the English forces decided to attack in three fronts. And divided his group accordong to attack front, left and right sides. But one of the groups had to go to the other side of the river and the wind was strong delaying its part on the plan. Also an advanced unity of American snipers ambushed the group that was attacking from the right side and kill the commander.
     When the battalion was face-to-face with the American forces it were exposed and disorganized. In a better position to shot and kill the Jackson’s forces acted like was shooting ducks. At the end, around 2,000 English were dead while not more than three dozens Americans had the same faith. Again, these episode could been avoided if the communications could be transmited more quick in that time. The English and American diplomacy had already reached an agreement to end the war but the notice only arrived about three weeks later.
     What is more interesting in that last battle is that, volunteers came from as far as Connecticut to defend the American Nation. All collors of skin volunteered to do the ultimate sacrifice on behalf of it. And Jackson became the celebrated hero of the nation.
     What is sad about it is that, looks like Jackson drove all his hatred against the Indians on the West Frontier. He became the president of United States from 1,829 to 1,837 and expelled many tribes from their ancestor lands provoking what is known as “March of a Thousand Tears”. It pratically was a genocide. Although what he did cann’t be judged by the laws of today, even then some had perceived the use of excessive force. With such atrocity he paved the way for the American expansion toward the Pacific Ocean. But if he had done what he did, in our days, surely he would be comparable to Saddhan Hussein or Moammar Gadhafi. (Note: Today, October 20, 2011, the Lybian dictator was killed by the insurgents).
     The other faces on the American Dollar Bills are, 1.00 George Washington; 2.00 Thomas Jefferson; 5.00 Abraham Lincoln; 10.00 Alexander Hamilton, who never got to the presidency but was Treasury Secretary who gave tools to the administration of George Washington and were another writer for the Federalist Paper; 50.00 Ulysses S. Grant; 100.00 Benjamin Franklin, who also never got to the presidency but helped write the Declaration of Independence and did others services; 500,00 William McKinley; 1,000.00 Grover Cleveland; 5,000.00 James Madison; 10,000.00 Salmon P. Chase, who didn’t got to the presidency also, and 100,000.00 Woodrow Wilson.
     The American coins have the face of, 0.01 Abraham Lincoln; 0.05 Thomas Jefferson; 0.10 Franklin D. Rosevelt; 0.25 George Washington and 0.50 John F. Kennedy.
     I think I better put here some genealogical sequence. The first one is from the kings and queens of Portugal and Brazil, starting from the ancestors of the dukes of Braganca.
1,290 Estevao Coelho – Maria Mendes Petite
1,330 Branca Pires Coelho – Joao Pires de Alvim
1,360 Leonor Alvim – D. Nuno Alvares Pereira
1,380 D. Beatriz Pereira Alvim – D. Afonso, 1st duke of Branganca
1,403 D. Fernando I, 2nd Braganca – D. Joana de Castro*
1,430 D. Fernando II, 3rd Braganca – D. Isabel, princess of Portugal*
1,470 D. Jaime, 4th Braganca – Leonor de Mendonca*
1,510 D. Teodosio, 5th Braganca – D. Isabel de Lancastre*
1,543 D. Joao I, 6th Braganca – D. Catarina de Portugal*
1,568 D. Teodosio II, 7th Braganca – Ana de Velasco y Giron*
1,604 D. Joao IV, king of Portugal – Luiza de Guzman*
1,648 D. Pedro II, king of Portugal – Marie Sophie Elisabeth*
1,689 D. Joao V, king of Portugal – Maria Anna Josepha*
1,714 D. Jose I, king of Portugal – Maria Ana Victoria de Bourbon*
1,734 D. Maria I, queen of Portugal – D. Pedro III, king of Portugal*
1,767 D. Joao VI, king of Portugal – Carlota Joaquina de Bourbon*
1,798 D. Pedro I, emperor of Brazil – Maria Leopoldine*
1,825 D. Pedro II, emperor of Brazil – Teresa de Bourbon*
1,846 D. Isabel de Braganca – emperial princess of Brazil – Gaston d’Orleans, count d’Eu*
     Just to remember, on the fourth line, D. Afonso, I duke of Braganca was son of D. Joao I, king of Portugal and Ines Pires. D. Joao I became to be king after the Crisis of 1,383 to 1,385 when the Spanish king demanded the Portuguese Crown to himself. But he was defeated by the combined forces of Portugal and England lead by the king himself and his noble servant, D. Nuno Alvares Pereira.
     At the twelveth line, the king D. Pedro II of Portugal was brother of D. Catarina of Braganca, princess of Portugal and wife of Charles II, king of England, Scots and Ireland, the one who unified the American Colonies and acquired New York from the Dutchs. Also, D. Pedro III, king of Portugal and husband of D. Maria I was brother of D. Jose I, king of Portugal. So he was uncle of his own wife.
     At the death of D. Joao VI, king of Portugal, in 1,826, the right heir was D. Pedro I, emperor of Brazil. But his brother assumed the position first as D. Miguel I, king of Portugal. It lead to a clash between two parties, each one in favor of the two kings. D. Pedro I, emperor of Brazil, renounced to the Brazilian throne, living there his infant son Pedro as heir in Brazil and took the Portuguese Throne back. He assumed as Pedro IV, king of Portugal. And the succession in Portugal went almost like that.
1,798 D. Pedro IV, king of Portugal – Maria Leopoldine*
1.819 D. Maria II, queen of Portugal – D. Fernando II, king of Portugal*
1,838 D. Luis I, king of Portugal – Maria Pia, princess of Savoie*
1,863 D. Carlos I, king of Portugal – Amelie d’Orleans, princess of France*
1,889 D. Manuel II, king of Portugal – Augusta Viktoria*
     The monarchy ended in 1,889 in Brazil with the Proclamation of Republic. The same was done in Portugal at the year of 1,910. Since then the royal families still existing without throne. They use titles but not kings and queens.
     I will take advantage in this point to post some more little genealogical sequences that have something to do with our now-a-days, although it is not so important for the present book data. I will start from the princess Isabel and her partner Gaston d’Orleans.
1.846 D. Isabel de Braganca, emperial princess of Brazil – Gaston d’Orleans, count d’Eu
1,875 D. Pedro de Alcantara de Orleans e Braganca- Elisabeth*
1,913 D. Pedro de Orleans e Braganca, prince of Orleans and Braganca – Maria de la Esperanca de Borbon*
1,948 D. Afonso Duarte, prince of Orleans and Braganca – Silvia Amelia Hungria Silva Machado*
     Another example.
1,846 D. Isabel de Braganca, emperial princess of Brazil – Gaston d’Orleans, count d’Eu
1,878 D. Luis de Orleans e Braganca, prince of Brazil – Maria Pia de Borbon*
1,909 D. Pedro Henrique de Orleans e Braganca – Maria Elisabeth, princess von Bayern*
1,959 D. Maria Gabriela de Orleans e Braganca, princess of Brazil – Theodoro Hungria da Silva Machado*
     The last couple in each sequence end with a sister and brother. Through their grandmother’s lineage they are for sure descendants of Fernao Coelho, 1st lord of Felgueiras and Vieira and his wife Catarina de Freitas. Fernao Coelho was greatgrandson of Estevao Coelho and Maria Mendes Petite from which ones I start to post the genealogical sequence of the kings of Brazil and Portugal. Catarina de Freitas was descendant of all the royal families from Iberian Peninsula and beyond. Lets post though some genealogical sequence from their maternal side.
         Silvia Amelia* and Theodoro Hungria da Silva Machado*
1,930 Sylvia Emilia de Mello Franco Senna* – Paulo Argemiro Hungria da Silva Machado
1,900 Mucio Emilio de Senna(*?) – Sylvia Amelia de Mello Franco*
1,876 Nelson Coelho de Senna(*?) – Emilia Gentil Horta Gomes Candido
1,847 Maria Brasiliana Coelho(*?) – Candido Jose de Senna
1,785 Joao Coelho de Magalhaes(*?)- Bebiana Lourenca de Araujo
1,759 Jose Coelho de Magalhaes(*?) – Eugenia Rodrigues Rocha
     As I observed before, we cann’t say or deny for sure that the patriarch of our family Jose Coelho de Magalhaes is the same one noble person who first was posted at the site portugal. If it is so, our cousins Silvia Amelia and Theodoro are at least two times descendants from our same ancestors. But we better went back to our main issue.
     After the fall of Napoleon Bonaparte Brazil were the only American country to have a seat at the Congress of Vienna to remap Europe. Is not because Brazil was that great but the Portuguese Royal Family living in Brazil had their interest in there, since Portugal and Algarves was part of their Empire. And Portugal was for once a Brazilian Colony. The inversion of position didn’t pleased Portuguese people. At that time, Brazil gave Guiana back to France. It had been a small effort from Brazilians to help defeat Napoleon. They went Guiana, conquered it almost without any resistence.
     Since then the Portuguese people start pressuring the king Joao VI for get back to Portugal. Brazilian also was not willing to go back to the old condition of colony. D. Joao VI was eagering to stay in Brazil where he was loved and unconditionally respected. And his son, Pedro de Alcantara, then just a young man who went Brazil on his nine years old felt more like Brazilian than Portuguese and refused to go on his father’s behalf. After a long playing cat and rat, D. Joao VI agreed on to go to Portugal, but when he was about to aboard the ship he whispered on Pedro’s ear, “Before any adventurer do, do it yourself.”
     That phrase was a mention to Brazilian Independence. Other countries in Latino-America had already made their independences and D. Joao VI knew it was a question of time for someone else do the same in Brazil. And with his return to Portugal, D. Joao VI had to adapt himself to a knew way of life. The Portuguese Army had taken the country and wasn’t up anymore to accept an absolutist king. And they also demanded for Brazil be taken to its old condition of colony.
     In quickly movements of the History soon after, the Prince Regent of Brazil, Pedro, were pressed not go to Portugal and stood there in a episode called “Dia do Fico” (The Stood Day). When the courts in Portugal decided to reduce his powers, Pedro declared the Independence of Brazil in September 7, 1,822. He was chrowned as D. Pedro I, emperor of Brazil.
     But his success was in great part thanks to a nobleman, Jose Bonifacio de Andrada e Silva. These one was Brazilian born who had studied in Europe. Even living there at the time of the Frensh Revolution. He was liberal at the point that wanted to end the slavery and to promote certain kind of agrarian reform. He recognized that the imense territory of Brazil was in a few hands and econimically unproductive. He stood as right hand of the emperor as chief executive while the initial clashs was going on.
     Brazil was divided between those who wanted stay with Portugal as the Province of Bahia, those who wanted the republican regime as the Province of Pernambuco and under the manace of Portugal send troups to dominate again. The liberalism of Jose Bonifacio afterwards was responsible for his downfall because the owners of great lands and merchants of slaves added to his own inability to negotiate was against him. Soon he was exiled and moved to France where he lived for six years.
     In 1,831 the emperor D. Pedro I was about to return to Portugal. He named Jose Bonifacio as tutor of his children, even the prince Pedro who would become D. Pedro second emperor of Brazil. Again he clashed with the conservatives and was accused of to conspire to bring the king Pedro I back to Brazil. These time he was kept in domicile imprisonment at the Paqueta Island, in Rio de Janeiro. For his services he got the nickname of Patriarch of the Independence. He was descendant of the kings of Portugal and marriaged to an Irish woman named Narcisa Emilia O’ Leary.
     As tutor of the infant Pedro he was replaced by another noble with a long name, Manuel Inacio de Andrada Souto Maior Pinto Coelho. These one also was many times descendant of the kings. Lets put some genealogical sequence for the two of them.
1,763 Jose Bonifacio de Andrada e Silva – Narcisa Emilia O’Leary
1,726 Bonifacio Jose Ribeiro de Andrade – Maria Barbara da Silva
1,678 Jose Ribeiro de Andrade – Ana da Silva Borges
1,645 Filipa de Andrade Machado – Gaspar Ribeiro da Silva
1,610 Antonio Pacheco de Andrade – Catarina Rebelo Machado*
1,580 Maria de Gouveia de Andrade – D. Francisco Pacheco*
1,540 Maria de Andrade – Cristovao Rebelo de Meireles
1,515 Leonor de Andrade – Rui Pires de Gouveia*
1,480 Leonor Freire de Andrade – Luis Machado, lord of Sandomil and Loriga
1,385 Joao Freire de Andrade, 2nd lord of Bobadela – Catarina de Sousa
     These last couple is already in the genealogical sequence for the “Inconfidente” Francisco de Paula Freire de Andrade at the chapter 10. Lets put something for Manuel Inacio de Andrada Souto Maior Pinto Coelho, Markees of Itanhaem.
1,782 Manuel Inacio de Andrada … – Maria Angelina Beltrao
1,735 Antonia Joaquina Luisa Ataide Portugal Pinto Coelho – Inacio de Andrade Souttomayor*
1,700 Luis Jose Pinto Coelho da Cunha – Antonia Joana Miranda Costa
1,671 Antonio Caetano Pinto Coelho – Maria Josefa Azevedo Coutinho
1,640 Francisco Pinto da Cunha – D. Francisca Maria da Silva e Castro*
1,600 Antonio Pinto Coelho, IX lord of Felgueiras and Vieira – D. Francisca de Ataide*
1,560 Francisca Maria da Silva Coelho de Noronha – Francisco Pinto da Cunha*
1,540 Aires Coelho, 7th lord of Felgueiras – Maria de Noronha
1,510 Goncalo Coelho da Silva, 6th lord of Felgueiras – D. Maria de Melo*
1,470 Aires Coelho, 5th lord of Felgueiras – Maria de Castro*
1,435 Goncalo Coelho – 3rd lord of Felgueiras and Vieira – Violante de Magalhaes*
1,420 Martim Coelho, 2nd lord of Felgueiras – Joana de Azevedo
1,370 Fernao Coelho, 1st lord of Felgueiras and Vieira – Catarina de Freitas*
     Fernao Coelho was greatgrandson of Estevao Coelho and Maria Mendes Petite from which ones I start to post the last genealogical sequence of the kings of Brazil and Portugal at these chapter.
     In 1,831 with the departure of D. Pedro I to Portugal, Brazil pass through a series of Regencies until 1,840 when had a revolt and the people demanded the 14 years old Pedro be considered adult and take the crown for his own. But one decision of 1,831 had consequences to the rest of Brazil’s History. It was the creation of the National Guard. The problem was that, Brazil was devided in three parties. The Conservative, the Liberals and the For Restauration. The last one wanted the return of Pedro I. The Conservative didn’t trust the Army because it could be lead by someone who wanted the power. The Liberals also didn’t trust because was afraid of it be use to suppress their opinions.
     The idea of National Guard in Brazil was based on the Frensh experience where each citizen were called to defend their country. But in there it gain another particularities. For you be a member you have to be a voter. To be a voter you needed to make some yearly amount of money that would put you in a level of middle class or above. And yet, at that time you had to be a man to be a voter. So almost the entire society wouldn’t have the full citizenship.
     The person enrolled at the National Guard didn’t owned any salary for that. He had to pay for his uniform, weapons and pay a small contribution to keep the institution. But had all the privileges that the position could give him. At the time and long after most of the Brazilian population lived in rural areas. Most was called “Grotoes”. It remember a little the word grotto and its meaning in English. Although grotto is something cavelike, the “Grotoes” can be described as an end the road in an imense rural area dominated by a graduated member of the National Guard.
     From it came the Portuguese word of “coronelismo”. And also the saying, “Manda quem pode e obedece quem tem juizo” (Give order who have the power and obey those who got brains). Those rural leaders were sometimes violent people and took the population around them as hostages of their will. In Brazil is plenty of stories of clashs between two or more colonels. Some were true gangsters.
     What kept them more attached to the power was their political leadership. Any benefit that could come from the government had to pass through their approuval to go to the smaller people. All positions of employment in the local administration level was fulfilled by their trustfull allies, particularly their relatives. With their control over everything, Brazil never evolved to a Market Economy untill the middle of the 20th century. Although the National Guard was dismissed at 1,920s the society didn’t got freed from the system until the old generation was dead.
     Even after, the power of the “Grotoes” stood on its long way to death. And it kept Brazil in a situation like semi-Middle Ages. Not even the called Liberals in Brazil were the champions of liberty or independence for the people. They were Liberals only in comparison with the Conservatives. But the Institution of National Guard in Brazil favored the Conservative because was restrict to the economic elites. And when an human being is comfortable with some privileges what he less want is to change anything. Even if the change is for the good of the society as an whole.
     In 1,860 the number of member was 500,000. While the Brazilian Army was not more than 20,000. Accordlingly to a conservative calculation, if each guardsman have 500 descendants in average, Brazil was supposed to have 250 millions people not counting on the descendents of those who was not guardsman. But Brazil have a population a little lower than 200 millions. So, where is the rest of it?! Almost all of them are inside the number of today’s Brazilian population. And the number was supposed to be much bigger wasn’t for the marriage between their combined descendance.
     What I mean about it is that, we are descendant of many of them at the same time and many times we are descendant of some of them multiple times. I myself am six times descendant of the captain Jose Coelho de Magalhaes Jr. also called Jose Coelho da Rocha. And also descendant of his sons who got the charter of leutenants and from another captain. Because of that each one of the guardsman may have much more than a thousand descendants today in average but we can’t just add the number of descendants of each one to calculate the Brazilian population.
     A great part of Brazilians are descendant of them but what is very sad is that, the National Guard had a file with precious genealogical information of its members but it may be lost to codling-moth, mould and disrespect for what is historical.
     We have many people who participated in the design of the Brazilian History from the XIX century. Each one of them deserved a long motion picture acted by the best known actors and actress of Hollywood. But I choose to say something about two of them. Luis Alves de Lima e Silva, the duke of Caxias and Theofilo Benedicto Ottoni. If we look at their genealogical data present at the site portugal we can’t say if they are or not descendants of our ancestors kings but I suspect they are. Not because they had it written on their forehead or is something that can indicate that a man is or isn’t a noble. But just because of the favorable probabilities of it be so as I put at the begining of these book.
     The first one, Luis Alves de Lima e Silva, the duke of Caxias, have some ancestors there, since the years 1,200s. But most of his genealogical data is incomplete as of everybody else do. He was accepted as private in the Army when he was only 5 years old. He were raised in the Academy. He was chosen to combat the resistence against the Brazilian Independence at the State of Bahia.
     Luis Alves de Lima e Silva was a militar genius. He fought from north to south of Brazil in numerous campaigns such in Maranhao State named “Balaiada”. In there the last city to be conquered was Caxias, from which he gained the title of baron of Caxias. Later he fought at the south first against the dictators of Argentine and Uruguay. He also pacified a revolt that had the intention of create a Republic out of the states of Southern Brazil. This revolt is called by the name of “Farroupilha”.
     The victory over the “Farroupilhas” have a special meaning. One of the combatents was Giuseppe Garibaldi who was marriaged to the “Braziliana” Anita Garibaldi. With the peace made in Brazil the couple went to Italy where they fought for the unification of that country and became major heroes there too. In Brazil they fought for the “Farroupilhas”.
     Luis Alves were worthy of all titles in militar and nobility career. He is well known for his roll in the War of Paraguay. Under the “caudillo” Solano Lopez, Paraguay became a major militar force and wanted to conquerer all the region around the Basin of the Prata River. It mean take lands from Brazil, Uruguay and Argentina. The three countries made an alliance. Even so, their team up wasn’t enough to take down the dictatorship of Solano Lopes. And they fought for four years.
     When Caxias assumed the command he first trained the troups in specific tatics of the Army. The majority were from the National Guard. Then he commanded them personally. After a series of victories they encoutered a dead end. The allies had to cross a bridge loaded with explosives. Is said that, the more than sixty years old man bravely took the front of his subordinates and crossed it first saying: “Those who are Brazilian follow me.” The explosives didn’t went off and he won the Battle of Itororo. From that point on the allies conquered all Paraguay in a short term and the war was ended. But it almost at the year of 1,870.
     What the duke of Caxias represented to the emperor D. Pedro II is similar to what D. Nuno Alvares Pereira represented to the king D. Joao I of Portugal. If was not for D. Nuno maybe D. Joao I wouldn’t be king after the Crisis of 1,383-1,385. Maybe, without Luis Alves de Lima e Silva Brazil hadn’t have its second emperor. Caxias died at 1,878. Although his genealogy doesn’t indicate ties with the Royal Families before, his two daughter marriaged to people who was of noble origins. Then his descendance have ties with them.
     The other Brazilian hero, Theofilo Benedicto Ottoni, had one non pleasant encounter with Caxias. He was a militant on the Liberal Party. And in 1,842 were a political impasse because the Conservative Party was manipulating the government. Then a Revolt of Liberals went off. First at Sao Paulo Province and then in Minas Gerais Province. Theofilo Ottoni was the leader in Minas Gerais and organized the resistence. But at the Battle of Santa Luzia City his forces were dominated by the Emperial Forces leadered by Caxias who take him away. Later on he was judged and cleared as innocent. One of the fellow combatents of Ottoni was Modesto Jose Pimenta, one cousin of the Coelho Family.
     Theofilo Ottoni have just a small known ancestry. He was born in 1,807, at Serro City, Minas Gerais. His greatgreatgrandfather, Emmanuel Antao Ottoni was an immigrant from Genoa, Italy. I think he probably have ties with the Iberian noble families because he had ancestors with names like, Sousa, Maia and Paes Leme. Paes Leme is also family name for Fernao Dias, the well known “Bandeirante”. But it does not matter for now. What matter is that, he is not considered worthy of attention to many Brazilian historians but he did things that was way beyond any other Brazilian of his time was up to do so.
     His life is entirely dedicated to combat the absolutist monarchy, love for democracy and the search for new ways to the economy around about his birth place and Brazil in general. After many disturbances in his life he founded the Company of Commerce and Navigation of Mucuri River. The Mucuri River is in the Northeast of Minas Gerais and is basin for a extense region where stands his birth place, Serro.
     Minas Gerais had a big problem at the time because it was served by the Royal Road only, and Serro City was almost at the end of it. Then to have access to the Atlantic Sea one must had to travel more than a thousand miles in southbound way. In a eastbound way the distance was less than one fifth to do the same. But between Serro City and the lands already populated at the Coast of the neighbor States of Bahia and Espirito Santo had a extense almost pristine wild area inhabited by indians.
     On homage to his idol mentor, Thomas Jefferson, he created the Project Philadelphia. It was a different kind of colonization that the world had never seen. First of all he made agreement with the indians that included them in the project. He opened the project to the participation of people of all nationalities. The center of the project was the City of Philadelphia which later was renamed by others after the name of its founder, Teofilo Otoni. To there came immigrants from China, Italy, Germany, Netherlands, Belgium, Switzerland, Portugal and Spain.
     For a Brazilian man of his time, Theofilo Ottoni was way ahead. His City of Philadelphia was born with School for different languages, newspaper, Catholic and Lutheran Churchs (the Catholicism was the official religion of the empire and to be open to others religious beliefs was the same as looking for trouble with the Catholic dominance) and soon complete more than 100 miles of road link it to the town of Santa Clara, now Nanuque, which was part of the project. He also associated with the Baron of Maua to recreate the Bank of Brazil. The first version was created by the king D. Joao VI but the first version was nothing more than a Ponzi Scheme.
     The ideal of Theofilo Ottoni included the Proclamation of Republic for Brazil but the country was in too conservative hands to do it. He wanted to industrialize but the conservative Brazilians was too attached to the old ways. He visualized the abolition of slavery but it came almost twenty years after his death. He died at 1,869 in consequence of many times he got malaria working in the Project Philadelphia.
     At the last years of his life Theofilo Ottoni was a respected popular figure in the Brazilian public life. He became senator and natural leader for the people. One example of it is his participation in the Brazilian History chapter named “Questao Christie” (Christie Question). In that time a series of unfortunate events put Brazil and England in a confrontation state. The ambassador for United Kingdom, William Dougal Christie, tried to preasure the emperor Pedro II saying that, the English Armada would come and seize the capital Rio de Janeiro.
     It angered the population at the point that the people was about to take justice in their own hands. It would mean do damage to property of any English person living in Brazil. The emperor called for the arbitration of king Leopold, who was his relative and uncle of queen Victoria of England. Before an answer came and to prevent the worsening of the situation, he also cut the diplomatic ties with England and paid in advance what England was demanding thinking Brazil would loose in the arbitration.
     The decision was communicated only later and was favorable to Brazilian’s demand. Theofilo Ottoni was leading the people on that case. So Brazilians experienced some of the English hassle as superpower of the time. The ties were restored later, when Brazil was yet at war with Paraguay.
     Lets put here some genealogical sequence. I will start from queen Elizabeth II of England regarding that, queen Victoria was her ancestor and appear in it.
1,926 Elizabeth II, queen of United Kingdom (UK) – Philip, prince of Greece and Danmark*
1,895 George VI, King of UK – Elizabeth A. M. Bowes-Lyon*
1,865 George V, king of UK – Mary, princess of Teck*
1,841 Edward VII, king of UK – Alexandra, princess of Danmark*
1,819 Victoria, queen of UK – Albrecht, prince of Sachsen*
1,767 Edward Augustus, duke of Kent – Viktoria, princess of Sachsen*
1,738 George III, king of Great Britain – Charlotte, princess of Mecklenburg-Strelitz*
1,707 Frederick Louis, prince of Wales – Augusta, princess of Sachsen*
1,683 George II, king of Great Britain – Carolina, marquise of Brandenburg-Ansback*
1,660 George I, king of Great Britain – Sophie Dorothea, princess of …*
1,630 Sophie von der Pfalz – Ernst August von Hannover*
1,596 Elisabeth Stuart, princess of England – Friedrick V von der Pfalz*
1,566 James I, king of England – Anna, prinsesse til Danmark*
1,542 Mary Stuart, queen of Scotland – Henry Stewart, duke of Albany*
1,512 James V, king of Scotland – Marrie de Lorraine*
1,473 James IV, king of Scotland – Margareth Tudor, princess of England*
1,451 James III Stuart, king of Scotland – Margrethe, prinsesse til Danmark*
1,430 James II, Stuart, king of Scotland – Maria von Egmond*
1,399 Joan Beaufort – James I Stuart, king of Scotland
     The two last couple are yet in the genealogical sequence that I put at the end of the chapter 9 for king Charles II, king of England. As we can see, all spouse of these lineage got the * sign indicating they also are descendants of the kings of Iberian Peninsula. I didn’t followed all their ancestry but at the site portugal all of them got the blue ball indicating they are descendants of Afonso Henriques, first king of Portugal.
     Following the descendence of queen Elizabeth II, the first wife of prince Charles, Lady Diana is descendant. And in the line for be consort queen of England, Catherine E. Middleton also is descendant of king Afonso Henriques.
     Meanwhile in United States, or Mexico, in 1,836 was proclaimed the Republic of Texas. Some authors say that, it was part of the expansionist plan from United States. Before it happen the American colonists were stimulated to move across the borders and establish themselves in Mexican lands. As Mexico had an immense territory, an scarse population and was unable to attract more people it made it vulnerable to such tactics. So the proclamation of Republic of Texas was manipulated by American politician.
     Doesn’t matter if it is only a theory of conspiracy. At the end the result were the same. What did happen for sure was that the president James K. Polk was an expansionist figure and pushed for the Annexation of Texas in 1,845. But Mexico considered Texas as its rebel province and it lead to the Mexican-American War which start on April 25, 1,846 and end on February 12, 1,848. Among the annexed territories after was the Alta California and New Mexico what established the borders at the Rio Grande. After it, United States paid 18 million dollars of compensation.
     American people wasn’t so trielled with the war with Mexico but the next chapter of American History let the unsatisfied without argument. Before even the end of the war, in January 24, 1,848 began the California Gold Rush. It lead to a immigrational movement without precedent in United States. The easy gold ended around 1,855 when 300,000 people from around the world had arrived there.
     Accordingly to a text in the Wikipedia, less than 4,000 had African Ancestry and came from the Southern States, Caribbean and Brazil. These mention let not clear if had more Brazilians, specially Caucasian. But probably yes because slavery wasn’t an abolished practice yet in Brazil. Although had many ex-slaves that had bought their freedom out of slavery.
     Is also not clear if those Brazilians stood in United States and maybe participated in the Wyoming Gold Rush that started in 1,871. If so, part of the people from both states and from others points of internal migration could expect have a little ancestry from Brazil, specially from Minas Gerais State where probably those Brazilian immigrants should come.
     Looks like coincidence but as the Civil War here in United States ended the War of Paraguay started at South America. As I said before, it occurred in consequence of the attempt of Solano Lopez to dominate the lands around the Prata River what could guarantee to Paraguay a free way to export its production. Since 1,811 the presidents in Paraguay had developed a different politic from the others Latino-American nations. They had opted for eradicate the illiteracy and invested in industrialization.
     Then, Solano Lopez start to use it to make a strong militarized nation. Some historians believe that, what was happening is that, the Paraguaian industry was competing with England’s. So England promised easy financial assistence to Argentine, Brazil and Uruguay and incited them go to war. But it doesn’t add so well. Firstly, Brazil and England didn’t had their diplomatic relationship restored yet.
     Otherwise, the Brazilians, Uruguaians and Argentines had to be dumb if they was just playing innocently in the English hands. And Solano Lopez had to be a saint, and the powerful army he had prepared wouldn’t be used to invade the lands around the Prata River Basin. The result of the war was devastating to Paraguay and its enemies. 80% of young men were killed in Paraguay. Its industries were lost. In the side of Uruguay, Argentine e Brazil they lost unaccountable number of male population too. After the war, Brazil had a tremendous bill to pay for it. And would be dumb from the part of England not to put on the table the possibility of Paraguay win the war.
     For sure, England was the only one to take advantage on it because was one competitor less in the world and received the dividend from the loans for the war. But also probably lost much more because the impoverishment of the region meant a small commerce around about. If England did something in a sense of induce the war, it was make dumb of itself in first place. But you never know how dumb the human mind can be. The entire chapter of colonialism is a “good” (or bad) example of it.
     Anyways what add to our common History here is the presence of Americans in Brazil. I think the emperor D. Pedro II must learned something from the Project Philadelphia. Despite the good example from Paraguay which had proved be possible work with the local population and develop the country, he start looking outside for colonists who would bring development to Brazil. And he made available lands and easy loans to all sort of Caucasians that Brazil could attract to there. To him, Brazil had a big problem. It was inhabited by too much dark skin people. And as a man from his time he believed that people of dark skin was not fit for development. In other words, he was kind of prejuditial person.
     And he offerred welcoming to the Confederate families which wanted migrate to Brazil after the lost in the Civil War. Around 1,500 families accepted the offerring and moved to there. Not everybody stood forever but a considerable number did. One good example was the senator from Alabama, William Hutchinson Norris. He not only did a good deal. After see the opportunities, he brought many members of his family. And they were responsible for the colonization of the cities of Santa Barbara d’Oeste and Americana, Sao Paulo State. Another is the engineer Clement Willmot who start a Cotton Mill which helped the success of the City of Americana.
     Probably the newcomers in Brazil from the Southern States felt very comfortable in that empire since the slavery wasn’t yet emancipated. Although not all the attempt to immigrate to Brazil were successful.
    In our days those cities steel keeping some traditions from the American Southern States. They have parades around the year that are touristic attractions. Even Americana is well known for have good teams of basketball which is not a common thing out of the great capitals in Brazil. By the way, the name Hutchinson have its representativity in the site of portugal but the senator William is not there yet. Hutchinson is part of the ancestry of Andrew Jackson.
     The American immigration to Brazil was just a minimal part of what occurred at that time. King D. Pedro II’s effort brought many Europeans offering the same deal. The Italians are probably the most notable presence after Portugueses. And the migration to there entered along with the XX century. At Brazilian south does exist many cities based on that migrations. One could went in Novo Hamburgo or Caxias do Sul and feel like be in Germany or Italy. The Asians and Middleasterns are also a visible presence in Brazil.
     Differently from United States, the emancipation in Brazil was a long process. I didn’t told about before but since the colonial times the slavers sought to make their own freedom. Many went to the wildness and established themselves in communities called “Quilombo”. One of those, the “Quilombo de Palmares”, was like a mini African nation and existed for some generations until it was conquered by the European colonists.
     At the time of the Brazilian Empire it became evident to some that slavery wasn’t in not way good for the businesses in general. But Brazil was dominated by a conservative minority that didn’t saw things so clear. Liberals like Theophilo Ottoni had made from the emancipation one of their goals since the 1,820s and slowly it was been picking up in the minds of commoners.
     England saw in it some opportunity and launched the decree of the Bill Aberdeen, which prohibit the traffic of Africans. But the Bill had the opposite effect of intensify the traffic since it wouldn’t be more available for the future. The Bill also fired back in England itself because part of the English public didn’t see the reason for England be involved in conflicts that had not their interests on it. The Bill Eusebio de Queiros complied with the Bill Aberdeen in Brazil and put an end to the traffic.
     Only in 1,871 was promulgated the law called “Ventre Livre” or “Freed Womb”. It meant that, all children born from slave mother was free from slavery. The particularity of these law was that it was a propousal from the dominant Conservative Party. They was preasured by the international market and in the allegation in favor the law was included the Brazilian image in the exterior. But behind the facade the Conservative Party which represented the agricultural oligarchy was fighting hard to prolong the slavery at the maximum.
     Since then one small number from urban origins and young people, specially students, start to fight for the emancipation. Many societies were founded to give back up to the idea. Abolitionists start organize secret and open societies to pay for emancipation or invade private properties to freed and hid slaves. Some slaves fled by themselves and the “Quilombos” multiplied. Poets like Castro Alves and the wiseman Rui Barbosa de Oliveira, also called by the nickname of Eagle of Haia, embraced the cause in a way that became hard to Conservatives imposed their will.
     One blow in the Conservative position came when the Army excused itself and refused to be used for aprehend the fugitives. At these time the Brazilian government intesified the promotions to attract more immigrants from Europeans countries, specially Italians, to be substitutes for slaves in the farms of coffe beans. But many rich farmers was treating the immigrants alike slaves and the agencies of immigration start to protect them against the abuse.
     Another blow came in 1,887 when was passed the “Lei do Sexagenario” or Bill of Sexagenarian. It meant that the slavery ended to all that was sixty or over or become sixty from then. So the slavery in Brazil was already in a path of end but the final blow came in May 13, 1,888. The emperor D. Pedro II was in Europe taking care of Brazilian business there and left his daughter, princess Isabel, as acting emperess and she signed the “Lei Aurea” or Aurea Bill which freed all slaves.
     Princess Isabel was a woman of the kind. She was abolitionist militant who helped many to hid. Although I didn’t take on the issue, Brazilian women wasn’t so submissive. With princess Isabel does exists many other examples of women that made History in Brazil but they are allways left behind in the official historical accounts. It is true for Bartira (Isabel Dias), D. Joaquina do Pompeu, D. Beja, Chica da Silva, Anita Garibaldi, Maria Quiteria and many others.
     The slavery was already in its path to end when princess Isabel signed it but the Conservative Party didn’t forgave the monarchs for her audacious move. The Liberals was already republicans, then conservatives just decided to adhere the Republican Parties and pushed the militar personel to lead the way to the Proclamation of Republic in Brazil. In November 15, 1,889 it was done.
     Interesting thing is that, the Brazilian Royal Family was exiled in Europe and had many Republican Clubs politically involved in the movement. And each one had its flag. So until wasn’t been decided how the Brazilian Flag would be the ship in what the Royal Family was transported navigated under a flag just like the American. The difference was that, the strips was green and yellow and the number of stars was 21.
     It can be visualized at the address among with many other ideas. The name of the country as a Republic couldn’t be more suggestive, Republic of the United States of Brazil. Only after May 28, 1,968 Brazil adopted a new name that reflected an autonomous identity and some animosity against the interferences from its partner from North America. Brazil became the Federative Republic of Brazil. And in other chapter I will give some reasons for the changing of relationship from all admiration to almost enemity.
     Brazil and Latino-America in general was legging behind in many aspects around the begining of the XX century. For example, in the Census of 1,900 the data indicates that, Brazil had only 17,438,434 inhabitants, in contrast with United States which already had 76,212,168. To make it worse, 75% of the Brazilian population was illiterated and its expectancy of life was only 33,4 years.
     In around the year 1,900 United States had cities like New York with almost 3.5, Chicago around 1.7, and Philadelphia with 1,193,697 inhabitants. At the same year in Brasil Rio de Janeiro had 275,000, Sao Paulo 240,000 and Salvador 206,000. Twenty years later, Rio de Janeiro counted 1,148,000, Sao Paulo 579,033 and Salvador had 283.422 inhabitants. Belo Horizonte which was a planned young city to be the State Capital of Minas Gerais had 55,563.
     After the Proclamation of the Republica in Brazil at 1,889 Brazil and United States start to construct a strange relationship. But the precedent come from something else. In 1,826 the hero Simon Bolivar who is called by the nickname of Father of Five Nations launched a proposal of a militar alliance and a Representative Congress for all American nations. The goal of Simon Bolivar was protect the young nations, then becoming independent,  against the European colonial interests. The idea weren’t fruitful in consequence of the desmemberment of the initial nations in smaller countries more interested in their own than on the collective.
     As we can’t expect otherwise, Bolivar had extense name of Simon Jose Antonio de la Santissima Trindade Bolivar Palacios y Blanco, el Libertador (the Liberator). And he also was descendant of the Iberian monarchs as one of his ancestry lineage shows.
1,783 Simon Bolivar – Maria Teresa Rodriguez del Toro
1,726 Juan Vicente Bolivar y Ponte – Maria de la Concepcion Palacios y Blanco*
1,665 Juan de Bolivar y Martinez de Villegas – Maria Petronilla de Ponte y Marin*
1,627 Luis de Bolivar y Rebolledo – Maria de Martinez de Villegas e Guevara*
         Antonio de Bolivar Y Diaz de Rojas – Leonor de Rebolledo y Maldonado de Almendariz
1,573 Beatriz Diaz de Rojas – Simon de Bolivar y Castro
         Ana Gomez de Aguero y Rojas – Alonso Diaz Moreno
         Ana de Rojas – Diego Gomes de Aguero
         Lazaro Vasquez de Rojas – Mariana de Rojas
         Juan de Rojas e Escobar – Aldonza de Ayala
         Alonso de Caceres y Escobar – Mariana de Rojas y Cervantes
         Mencia de Caceres y Solis – Diego Hernandez de Escobar
         Leonor de Noron(h)a – Diogo de Caceres y Solis
         D. Diego Henriquez – Beatriz de Guzman
1,365 D. Fernando Henriquez – Leonor Sarmiento
1,333 Enrique II, king of Castilla – Beatriz Fernandez de Angulo
1,311 Alfonso XI, king of Castilla – Leonor Nunez de Guzman*
1,290 D. Constanca, princess of Portugal – Fernando IV, king of Castilla*
1,261 D. Dinis, king of Portugal – Saint Isabel, princess of Aragon
     Bolivar gave the idea and the ideal but only in 1,889 the American States had meetings in Washington DC which established something concrete. Their goals was commercial, mutual defense and arbitrament of disputes between the American countries. The intial name for the entity was International Union of American Republics, later it became, Pan-American Union and finally, Organization of American States (OAS).
     Putting in practice what was hopeful between the two nations Brazilians and Northamericans signed the Treaty Blaine-Mendonca which gave access to Brazilian sugar and coffe and American wheat flour in preferencial conditions on its reciprocal markets. It happened in 1,891.
     The strange happening about the relationship between Brazil and United States came in the next year, although it started in the same year. As Brazil wasn’t prepared for be a republic, only in 1,891 it had an Assembly to aprove its first Republican Constitution. And was acting as president the old marshal Deodoro da Fonseca. And Fonseca was totally unable to negotiate anything with the new Assembly, so he renounced his position and open space to his vice, also marshal, Floriano Peixoto.
     In the Constitution previewed such situation and ordered that, a new election was supposed to happen no much longer than 2 years later. But in the come year of 1,894 Peixoto hadn’t taken any measurement to make the election happen. Some officials then sent him a letter demanding it. They were immediately imprisioned and it lead to what is known as “Revolta da Armada” or Naval Revolt.
     The leaders of the revolt were the admirals Luiz Philippe Saldanha da Gama, Eduardo Wandenkok and Custodio Jose de Melo. Some of their allies were monarchists which was comprehensible because if they wanted in any future day be back they had to pass through the constitutional means. And in a dictatorship it would be impossible. Lets though post some genealogical sequences for the admiral Luiz Philippe Saldanha da Gama.
1,846 Luiz Philippe Saldanha da Gama – Emilia Josefina de Melo
1,808 Jose de Saldanha da Gama – Maria Carolina Reis Barroso
1,773 Joao de Saldanha da Gama Melo Torres Guedes Brito – Maria Constanca de Saldanha Oliveira e Daun*
1,715 Manuel de Saldanha da Gama – Francisca Joana Josefa da Camara*
1,686 Joana Bernarda de Noronha e Lancastre – Joao de Saldanha da Gama*, 41th vice-roy of India
1,657 D. Mariana de Lancastre – Luis Cesar de Menezes*
1,620 D. Rodrigo de Lancastre – Ines Teresa de Noronha*
1,580 D. Lourenco de Lancastre – Ines de Noronha*
1,550 D. Joao de Lancastre – Paula da Silva*
1,505 D. Luis de Lancastre, 1st comendador-mor of Avis – Madalena de Granada
1,481 D. Jorge de Lancastre, 2nd duke of Coimbra – D. Beatriz de Vilhena*
1,455 D. Joao II, king of Portugal – Ana de Mendonca*
1,432 D. Afonso V, king of Portugal – D. Isabel, princess of Portugal*
1,391 D. Duarte, king of Portugal – Leonor, princess of Aragon*
1,357 D. Joao I, king of Portugal – Philippa de Lancaster, princess of England*
     I preferred to post these sequence and not other from the three that I checked because it shows something more about the genealogy which come from the Portuguese royal family. We can’t forget that, D. Joao I became king after the Crisis of 1,383 to 1,385.
     Contrary to everything we understand as respectfull to our Constitution here in United States the president Grover Cleveland authorized an American fleet, 80% of the Atlantic American Fleet at the time, to intervene in favor of the Brazilian dictator Floriano Peixoto. By the way, it became like a pattern of action from United States along the History of Latino-America. Under the allegation of protect the American interests. Also the banker Charles R. Flint helped those who was trespassing the laws of both countries.
     With the help of the Army and Brazilian National Guard the dictator Floriano Peixoto defended his position. The rebel force became isolated and the rebellion died out since the rest of the country wasn’t yet prepared to live in a democracy. Floriano Peixoto was called by the nickname of Marshal of Iron in reference to his dictatorial selfishness.
     Along the History of Americas the Union Pan-Americana had a preponderant disguise effect to what the relationship between the latinos and United States became. In the begining everybody wanted to be freed from European Colonialism and also from monarchies which was saw as a factor of delaying the development of the region. In principle the bind with United States was seen as a liberation from the formal colonialism.
     Only later it was dismissed as a hoax by many because United States took great advantage from the relationship as the others countries was not taken much more than itself back yard and not partners. For the Latino-American nations even today the feeling is that, as Brazilian use to say, “trocaram 6 por meia duzia” (changed 6 by half dozen). The colonialism stood on, only disguised itself in a apparently more palatable way. In some cases it was made worse. But it is History for later.
     By the way, the presidents Cleveland and Peixoto was equally descendants of the kings of Portugal but I didn’t look at their data beyond these information.
     Another problem in the relationship of the both countries came from the the question, Who invented the airplane. In our days it doesn’t looks like so much of issue but in the begining of the XX century it was central. As far as we know the man aerial transporter machine was first invented by the father Bartolomeu Lourenco de Gusmao. He was born in Brazil, Santos City, Sao Paulo State, in 1,685. And in his earlier age start design flying machines while at the seminary in Bahia State.
     He was a man of many inventions and moved to Portugal where served as priest for the courts. In 1,709 the king Joao V granted him a patent for his invention of a balloon. He did some demonstrations in public and in one of those the ignorant people began accuse him of witchcraft, crime which was punishable by death through the Inquisition. Desperated he destructed much of his writings and sought for safe heaven in England but while he stood in Toledo, Spain, sufferred a fever that lead to his death in 1,724.
     From there on the balloonism were slowly developed. The Americans used it at the Civil War to observe the enemy positions. Possibly, with the advise from some veteran from the American South immigrated to Brazil, the duke of Caxias used it at the Paraguay War. The use is registered in the books of History but is my supposition that Brazilians weren’t making regularly use of it until that war.
     In July 20, 1,873 was born in Minas Gerais State, in the City now called Santos-Dumont, the boy named Alberto. The city was renamed after his last name. He was raised by his rich Brazilian with Frensh ancestry father who owned a huge coffe bean farm. He had great interest in every machinary. Except for two youngest sisters the many children of Henrique Dumont, the father of Alberto, was born at the Minas Gerais State and then were raised at the Sao Paulo State. When Alberto de Santos-Dumont was 17 his father brought the family to Paris.
     As a contribution from our cousin Rogerio Alvarenga, who have his own site at the address,, without the www. The father was from Diamantina City and his mother from Ouro Preto City. (His paternal grandparents were French). Henrique Dumont, the father, was engineer, and one of his works is the bridge in Sabara City of the EFCB – Central Brazil Railroad.
     He studied all sort of disciplines and had read Jules Verne before his tenth anniversary. His favorite subject became since the earlier infancy flying machines. And in Paris, he learn how to fly balloons and start constructing his own ones. In 1,898 he invented the steerable ballon which is called dirigibles (drivables). In 1,901 he won a great prize for start flying 6,8 miles away, make a turn around the Eiffel Tower and back to the starting point. It made him famous in the entire world.
     After that he start on work to conquer the air, flying machines heavier than it as was called. The Federation Aeronautique Internationale had established some rules which defined what was the mean of fly a machine heavier than air and all inventors worked hard to comply with those rules. In 1,906 Santos-Dumont was able to assembly his 14-Bis aircraft and do the wanted flight.
     Americans had claimed in 1,903 the flight of the Wright brothers but it was never proved. Until now-a-days nobody were able to replicate the machine made by the Wright brothers and fly it. Even at the commemoration of the supposed 100 years of aviation in 2003 we hadn’t a flight to commemorate such machine. Although the flight of the 14-Bis was well documented by the Aero-Club de France. And in 2,006 a replica of the 14-Bis was shown flying on its commemoration of 100 years of aviation.
     Later on, the Wright brothers presented themselves in Paris, in 1,908, and really flied to the Frensh public. But anyways the doubt will be in favor of Santos-Dumont if his flight of 1,909 on the aircraft Libelule (Dragon Fly) be considered. Later he made a better model named Demoiselle (Miss) and gave its design for free to all nations. The importance of these is that, his last model had all resources to true flying. Even in our days most of the aircrafts still having something of his Demoiselle.
     The act of distribute his design had a reason. Santos-Dumond dreamed of his invention would make peace in the world. He thought that making easy the contact between different people only could bring peace to mankind. His illusion was short lived since the WWI broke out and his invention were largely used to do evil. His remorse was so large that he thought his life was worthless and became a depressed man.
     The final blow for him came when he witnessed brother killing brother in one Brazilian revolution with his invention. From that he just went his hotel room and hanged himself. It was July 23, 1,932, two days after his 59th anniversary.
     To Brazilians from older generations the claim of the Wright brothers as inventors of the avion is like to say that, the Olympics will be in 2,012 but someone else will do a good time in his modality of sport in 2,011. This someone will not show himself for the Olympics games but claim any of the medals based on his time. For them, the claim of the Wright brothers is baseless since they didn’t showed themselves up for the real ran.
     As I said, it is not much of an issue to average Brazilian but many other issues piled up during the History. More details anyone can look for the book, WINGS OF MADNESS, Alberto Santos-Dumont and the Invention of Flight, by Paul Hoffman or for its video version from Nova Look at the site, Like his predecessor, father Bartolomeu Lourenco de Gusmao, Santos-Dumont was also a man of many inventions. In Brazil and many other nations Santos-Dumont owned the title of “Father of Aviation”.
     Just something to remember. To Brazilians it is not a question of nationalism since for something be considered as scientifical it need to be replicated by others with the instructions of the author.
     At the same time, the next chapter of Brazilian History give a good idea in what the Brazilian society had become. The chapter is called by The Revolt of the Whip. The Brazilian Navy kept the old ways of punishment to the mariners untill 1,910. It was not seen as way of to correct the mistakes or errors made by the sailors but as an way to show them who was the boss through the humiliation.
     Another aspect was that, mostly of Brazilian sailors were black or mix races. But the officers was always white. Then the mariners began to plan a revolt to emancipate themselves from such nosense. But the plan went wrong because they decided to start in the next day when the officers of one ship would come from a meeting. And they came back earlier. The anticipation gave chance to one officer who reacted not accepting their demand that he should leave. Not only he denied to leave and probably he start to fight the mariners.
     In the fight the officer were killed and, in the sequence, similar situation ended in the death of two more officers. The revolt stood on for many days until the government agreed on to accept the demands from the sailors of lift the punishment by whip and amnesty to them. After the agreement the revolt ended but the conservatives in the Congress and newspapers start to provoke the feelings for vengeance.
     Through many false alarms the sailors began to feel afraid of loose the conquered rights. And with maneuvers of deception the officers drove the sailors to a new revolt. It gave the opportunity to the administration of the president Hermes Rodrigo da Fonseca decree Martial Law to persecute not only the sailor but also the political opposition that stood on the sailors side. More than two hundred were killed. Two thousand sailors were expelled. Some were even exiled in the Amazon Forest. Some executions are despicable.
     The lecture that the government and its conservatives partners was sending was that, Brazil was in a regimen of apartheid and the subordinate people had to know their place in the society. The country had an white economic elite that judged itself as genetically superior and any interpretation in contrary was like to defy the laws of nature.
     It is why when the emancipation came to Brazilians the elite sought for workers from European and Asian nations. The Black and mix races population wasn’t attended by schooling and had to accept be the lower hank level of society. Those who accepted such conditions had to do most of the hardwork and lower paid jobs. And only those who complied with such conditions were praised as person of good behavior.
     The prejudice in Brazil wasn’t something written in papers. It was put in the minds. The burden was so heavy that even Black people didn’t like to be Black. They felt ashamed by it. I remember one case that my father witnessed and used to talk about in our privacy. He knew a rarely case of Black man in his time of youth who always was saying that, “I am looking to marriage an white woman to clean up my race off.”
     He kept saying it for many times until another friend of both said to him, “You must remember that, to clean up your race off you will make the others dirty.” Still, he ended marriaging his white princess. We never meant to agree with them about the marriage be an way of clean up or make dirty anybody because the skin collor. I just want to point out here how mislead many people were in that particular time.
     The prejudice in Brazil was so crushing that had a saying that discribed it: “In Brazil the burden of law was made for three Ps. Poor, Prostitute and Black (Preto in Portuguese language). Although the prejudice affect the Black people in a sounded way it is equally directed against indians and the poor in general, whatever they racial classification will be. Only in the recent Brazilian History it is been issued and measurements have been taken to solve the problem but it is far way to be solved. The truth is like that, despite of the long time romanticized figures of the mulatos and caboclos.
     Around the begining of the century, 1,914, a curious link between Brazil and United States was made. The old style cowboy like, president Theodore Roosevelt went Brazil to cheer himself up because his own problems in United States. He was up to do something great and at the time had a river from the Amazon Basin that was unknown to the world outside. Then he set up to put it in the map. The River was called by the name of River of Doubt because at the Amazon Basin it was navigable and known. In the Brazilian Upland had another known part of the river but not one was sure if was or not the same. And had a vast unknown region in between.
     To assist him were named the colonel Candido Mariano da Silva Rondon an experient Brazilian naturalist. Rondon was himself descendant of native Brazilian and worked his entire life maping, establishing telegraphic lines and making contact with undescovered tribes of the immense unknown Brazilian Territory. In one of his contact he had been shot by a poisoned arrow and saved by the cover of his knife. Even so, he ordered his companions, “Morrer se preciso for, matar nunca” (Die if needed, never kill).
     Despite of his cowboy knowledge, Theodore Roosevelt didn’t had a minor idea of what he was about to do. But he assumed that, it wouldn’t be different from take the first office in United States or bossing around in an American farm. Contraried Rondon had a bad time because the ways of Roosevelt wasn’t the way of be safe in the jungle. And they faced unnecessary dangers like, shortage of supplies, inadequated ways of navigation and even death of helpers.
     The arrogance of the president were politely forgave by the Brazilian hero. Marshal (title at the time of his death) Rondon accomplished an almost impossible mission. He was named to care for the safety and bring back Roosevelt alive and he did it, despite of many difficulties such as deseases and ferocious unknown tribes that could be around. But the president didn’t scape from contract some tropical deseases. And he died 5 years later back in United States.
     For the accomplishment of the mission the Doubt River were named after the last name of the president. A Rio Grande size river in the Amazon Basin is now known as Roosevelt River.
     Marshal Rondon had much to live then. He died at 93 years old in 1,958, the year of my birth. He was responsible for the creation of the “Servico de Protecao ao Indio” (Indians Protection Service Institute). He help create many reservations since without it the other Brazilians would keep invading and taken lands from the indigenous people. After his death the system of protection didn’t work well because of the negligence of Brazilians government.
     He also were indicated to the Peace Nobel Prize but not laureated. Then a good size of peace of land were emancipated to become the progressive State of Rondonia in his homage.
     The period between 1,889 to 1,930 is called “Republica Velha” (Elderly or Old Republic). In Portuguese language it doesn’t mean only an old aged republic but something linked to the old system. Even it not living long enough to be really called old. It was decrepit since was born.
     The system was dominated by two of the most powerful Brazilian States at the time, Sao Paulo and Minas Gerais. The Republic is also called “Coffe n’ Milk”. It is a reference on the main products on its economy were seat. In resume was the power from the old monarchist elites that was trying to keep the power for themselves. Minas Gerais was the most populous State and began its career as the richest one.
     The electoral system was like “so para ingles ver” (only for Englishman to see) as Brazilians say. Just a tiny percentage of people could vote and had to declare it because wasn’t secret. It was when the “Coronelismo” (the roll of the colonels) ruled Brazil. They control their “Grotoes” which elected representants. The representants elected the governors and then the president. Sustaining such system was always the Army which became a decisive fourty branch in the government. Often the militars were governors themselves.
     In this period Europe and the Turkish Ottoman Empire was in upheaval and it sent waves of immigrants to the Americas. In Brazil they went mainly to the southern states such as Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina, Parana and Sao Paulo. They came in more numbers from Portugal, Italy, Germany, Poland, Spain and also Middle East and Japan. But they also went others states. A small idea from that wave is given by the information that, Brazil is the place where the biggest Japanese population live outside Japan.
     Among these population some were trade unionists, anarchists, socialists or communists. At the time Brazil also increased its potential industries which also increased the urbanization. Small and medium size cities start to get bigger and the demand for better social conditions gave place to a more reinvindicatory society. But the conservative Brazilian government became more restrictive and dictatorial oriented.
     One example of the situation was the administration of the president Arthur da Silva Bernardes. He had to administrate under the Emergency Law. But he had good relationship with United States. One of his accomplishments was the foundation of the “Universidade Federal de Vicosa”. Vicosa City, Minas Gerais State, is his birth place and he envited the American professor P. H. Rolphs to assist him in these task. It is the place were I went to have my college degree.
     In 1,922 the young Brazilian artist created the “Semana da Arte Moderna” (Modern Arts Week). The exposition of their arts had the intention to break the conservativism dominant in Brazil. They were criticized by the old artists like Jose Bento Monteiro Lobato. But their seeds slowly through the decades became fruitful. Some of them are now famous even outside Brazil.
     Some of the names which became more famous was, Emiliano Di Cavalcanti, Mario Raul de Morais de Andrade, Oswald de Andrade Souza, Anita Malfatti, Menotti del Picchia, Sergio Milliet, Jose Pereira da Graca Aranha, Guilherme de Andrade Almeida, Heitor Villa-Lobos, Guiomar Novais. The Modern Arts Week didn’t made a strong impact in the Brazilian society but gave the idea to young artists to iniciate a Brazilian cultural independence. Before it in almost all areas of arts, Brazilian artists just played Follow the Leader and it meant, whatever came from outside.
     One of the artist who detached from the others in a bad way was Plinio Salgado. He later became a politician with Fascist orientation. He leadered the movement called “Integralismo” (from integral) which gave support to the coming dictatorship.
     Lets post some genealogical sequence for three of the Brazilian intellectuals from that time.
1,893 Mario Raul Morais de Andrade (Mario de Andrade)
         Maria Luisa Leite de Morais – Carlos Augusto de Andrade
1,834 Joaquim de Almeida Leite Morais – Ana Francisca de Almeida
1,796 Joaquim de Almeida Leite Morais – Isabel Rodrigues da Silva
         Manuel Jose Leite de Morais – Maria Luisa de Almeida*
         Tomas Correia de Morais – Isabel de Anhaya Leite*
         Francisco Correia de Morais – Ines Monteiro Carneiro
         Simao Correia de Lemos Morais – Izabel da Silva Pinto*
         Maria de Morais – Francisco Correia de Lemos
         Sebastiana Ribeiro de Morais – Vittore Antonio de Castronuovo
         Jose Godoi Colaco – Ana Pires Ribeiro
         Gaspar de Godoy Colaco – 1,652 Sebastiana Ribeiro de Morais
         Eufemia da Costa Mota – Joao de Godoy Moreira
         Atanasio da Mota – Luzia Machado
         Felipa Gomes da Costa – Vasco Pires da Mota
         Isabel Lopes de Sousa – Estevao Gomes da Costa
1,490 Martim Afonso de Sousa, governor of India – Unknown wife
1,460 Lopo de Sousa, lord of Prado – Brites de Albuquerque*
1,425 Pedro de Sousa, lord of Prado – Maria Pinheiro
1,385 Martim Afonso de Sousa – Violante Lopes da Tavora
1,341 Martim Afonso de Sousa – Aldonca Rodrigues de Sa
1,320 Vasco Martins de Sousa Chichorro – Ines Dias Manoel*
1,280 Martim Afonso Chichorro II – D. Aldonca Anes de Briteiros
1,250 Martim Afonso Chichorro – Ines Lourenco de Valadares (ou de Sousa)
1,210 D. Afonso III, king of Portugal – Madragana (renamed Mor Afonso)
     From Gaspar de Godoy Colaco and Sebastiana Ribeiro de Morais these sequence were already presented for the poet Carlos Drummond de Andrade. I anticipated his genealogy before when I took on the genealogy of Martim Afonso de Sousa, governor of India, who also were the first general governor of Brazil, at the chapter 09. I repeated here just to make easier to the readers.
1,890 Jose Oswald de Andrade Souza  (Oswald de Andrade) – Tarcila do Amaral* (2nd wife)
         Jose Oswald Nogueira de Andrade – Ines Henriqueta Ingles de Sousa
         Antonia Eugenia Nogueira – Hipolito Jose de Andrade
         Antonio Gomes Nogueira Cobra – Maria Custodia de Meireles Freire
         Caetana Nogueira de Lemos – Domingos Rodrigues Cobra
         Joana Nogueira do Prado Leme – Joao Gomes de Lemos
1,690 Maria de Leme do Prado – Tome Rodrigues Nogueira do O
1,667 Antonio da Rocha Leme – Antonia Leme do Prado*
         Maria Leme Bicudo – Cornelio da Rocha
         Thomasia Ribeiro de Alvarenga – Francisco Bicudo de Brito
         Luzia de Leme – Francisco de Alvarenga*
         Aleixo Leme – Ines Dias
1,568 Leonor Leme – Bras Esteves
         Pedro Leme – Luzia Fernandes
     From these point we got back to the genealogical sequence for the “bandeirante”, Fernao Dias Pais Leme. Pedro Leme was his greatgrandfather with another wife named, Izabel Paes. He also is at the chapter 09. The name of the second wife of Oswald de Souza, Tarsila do Amaral, also is a myth for the Brazilian arts. She participated on the show of arts in Sao Paulo. Lets see some genealogical sequence for her.
1,886 Tarsila do Amaral – Jose Oswald de Andrade Souza*
         Jose Estanislau do Amaral – Lidia Dias de Aguiar*
         Jose Estanislau do Amaral Campos, o milionario – Teresa de Jesus Aguirre
         Estanislau do Amaral Campos – Ana Leoniza de Camargo
         Estanislau Jose de Abreu – Ana do Amaral Campos
         Jeronimo de Almeida de Abreu – Leonarda de Moura
         Antonio Proenca de Abreu – Francisca de Almeida*
         Maria Bicudo de Brito – Paulo Proenca de Abreu
         Ana Ribeiro – Joao Bicudo de Brito
         Francisco de Alvarenga – Luzia de Leme*
     Again, here repeat the same couple present at the genealogical sequence for Oswald de Andrade Souza above.
     The Old Republic ended with the turmoil which Brazil was involved in. The social and political unsatisfactions, the Crash of the Stocks in New York and the ambition for the power from certain sector of Brazilian Society, namely the militar personel, lead to a coup d’ etat that start with the raising of Getulio Dorneles Vargas as president and end with him as dictator, throughout the next 15 years.
     The dictatorial regimen was ambiguous in nature. Getulio Vargas was a civilian with back up from the militar personnel. As usual, persecuted his opponents, particularly the intellectuals. Through his dungeons passed personalities such as the writers Graciliano Ramos, Rachel de Queiroz and even Jose Bento de Monteiro Lobato. Getulio Vargas was populist on one face and elitist on another. For that he gainned the nickname of “Father of the Poor and Mother of the Rich.”
    During his administration broke up the polemic about the petroleum in Brazil. It was discovered at the Bahia State and he were accused of do nothing, “not explore and not let others to explore”. It was the reason that the nationalist Monteiro Lobato was taken to prison. His policies had a nationalistic orientation but much of it was scenery to propagate his popularity.
     Minas Gerais State and its population have more on to dislike than like the dictator. As the market plunged in the world by the Stocks Crash, Brazil sufferred the most since its economy was based on exportation of raw material and agricultural products. Then the way his administration faced the problem was order the end of production of coffe bean and sugar in that State. So he privileged the southern States specially Sao Paulo.
     Getulio Vargas also created the universal health program and start the taxation on the employees payments. With the money he were able to increase the Brazilian industrialization. He is responsible for the creation of the Companhia Siderurgica Nacional (CSN) (National Siderurgicial (steel) Company at the Rio de Janeiro State. What would be curious about it is that, all the raw material was produced at the Minas Gerais State and exported to be industrialized.
     The whole Brazil sufferred with the worldwide depression before and during the WWII. But Minas Gerais State had a bigger share on it because it was left behind of the industrialization process. The States of Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro were largely benefited. And the crescent population of Minas Gerais was pushed toward migration to the last pristine areas in there or to the privileged States. Sao Paulo became populational and economically the number one with a large advantage. Rio de Janeiro and Minas Gerais have been sharing the second place in alternated positions along the time.
     The 1,940s were some kind of decade. We had a government alined with the European dictators such as Hitler (Germany), Mussolini (Italy), Franco (Spain), Salazar (Portugal). In their propaganda also had something else in common. They had to have an excuse to keep the power and initially the scape goat was the Communism. But what was the reason for the Communism be such a terrible thing? Just what always will be, the totalitarism.
     The totalitarism comes when a small group of people think that “everybody is equal before the law, but some are more equal than others.” And those more equal are them, the Illuminated. Not without reason I used the word here, it start with ill as from illness. The ones who know better than yourself what is good for you and everybody else, even themselves. Then they starts doing incomprehensive things like “kill others that don’t understand what is good for themselves”.
     In the upheaval that Brazil was engulfed at the 1,920 and 1,930s some people start to look the Communism as understandable alternative to solve all problems. The leader of the movement was Luiz Carlos Prestes who had born in 1,898 and was orphan at the age 10 and turned out his initial difficulties through the military career. He was exiled to Russia where he marriaged a german born, Olga Benario, who was Jew also.
     After a failled attempt to taken the power in Brazil, fact known as “Intentona Comunista” (Communist Intentish), the couple was jailed and Olga Benario, at her seventh month of pregnancy, was extradicted to the Nazi Germany where she was killed in the gas chamber. Before it, she gave birth to her daughter, Anita Leocadia. Prestes never sought revenge for his set backs in life and kept his ideals and rich biography until his death in 1,990.
     I used this fact just to illustrate how bad a dictotorship can be even when the people is mislead by the impression that some dictators are not so bad. And the madness of Getulio Vargas is shown at the next step of Brazilian History. The WWII was going on and he was reluctantly into choose the side to go. Brazilian people was aware that the Axes wouldn’t be solution and became in a crescendo of impatience with him. His concerns about choose a side probably had more something to do with his own position than know what was the right decision. If the allies privailled he knew the opposition wouldn’t allow him to stay in power as dictator as it really happened.
     The dictatorship of Getulio Vargas is called “Estado Novo” (New State) which had no much of new. Was the old fashion elite trying to keep its power against the majority of the people. As had been, since the begining in 1,500, the History in Brazil was the same. A few people got most of the riches and the rest had not choice but be around as satelite. And the system had been working in favor of the elites until the bigger number of immigrants came in, the cities got bigger and bigger and start to form a more educated and demanding middle class.
     When the Brazilian population was limited and everybody had some known kinship with the others, the Catholic godfatherhood worked well because you could be poor but one of your youngs was godchild of the colonels around and it guarantees your small share of benefits from the society and your loyalty to the bosses around. Was a non written contract that worked most of the time.
     But in a bigger city and more conscious society, where the kinship is more volatile, the people want more monetary independence. If you work, not matter what you do, you expect to be able to provide for your family as you please not only a limited what the bosses allow you to do so. And using such expectation Getulio Vargas created the minimum wage in Brazil but most of the population lived on the countriside and their wages was just a fraction.
     The demanding for fairness became to much intense for the slow minded conservative in Brazil. They thought everything was a plot from the immigrants and the first reaction was to limit the numbers of newcomers. Brazil adopted a system of quote for each country which ones traditionally sent immigrants to there. And it helped on to keep the country in a left behind state because the forces of the inconsequent conservatism stood in power more longer. Curiously, every opinion against such forces was taken as from communists or communists ideas and many, such the writer Rachel de Queiroz, were imprisioned under the false accusation of be one of them.
     Also, because the population in the cities were better assisted in relationship to schooling, health, security and better waged jobs the great migration toward the cities began. Although it is accelerated at the 1,960s and 1,970s. The slums (Favelas) that appear in Brazilian History at the end of the XIX century, with the emancipation of slaves that was freed but hadn’t not where to go because was totally abandoned by the society, sprout large. Some became cities inside the city. And more and more people fell in the vicious cycle of poverty.
     Going back to our point, the Second World War was going on and until 1,942 Getulio Vargas hadn’t decided which way to go. He was managing to let Brazil be neutral, although in the field of diplomacy some diplomats allowed the faking of passaports to save some of the persecuted by the Nazis, specially Jews.
     The neutral Brazil had a set back from 1,941 on. As United States went the war and the Americans nations had the agreement on defend each other against alien aggressions the people start pressing the government on to decide. Brazil was the primary source of raw materials needed by United States for keep its bellicose industry. And Minas Gerais State was the “gold mine” for such materials.
     At these point is the best time to watch the video that I mention before, at the address, Although the video is dated from 1,948 it point out the importance of the Minas Gerais State as supplier of the most sensitive raw materials during the war. The video presents a glimpse of the ex-mayor and then future president of Brazil, Dr. Juscelino Kubistchek. He was born in Diamantina and through his grandma, Joaquina Coelho, our cousin.
     Already United States was at war and Brazil was just half way of it. Brazil wasn’t legally at war but was sending vital raw material which was been transformed in the American Power of Fire and secret weapons. In a short space of time 19 Brazilian civilian ships were torpedoed. Hundreds of lives were lost. And the preasure to enter the war in the side of the allies became to much to be ignored by the dictotorship. It was done since August, 1,942.
     Is a theory of conspiracy that say the Americans and not the Germans did it and since nobody saw who did presumably would be the Germans. The theorists have their point because was the Germans interest that Brazil stood neutral and, if they had done, the answer should be only against them. In other hand the Americans needed desperatedly Brazil on its side. Among the lines of the theory is said that, Americans invaded the shores of the Region Northeast, specially Natal City, Rio Grande do Norte State, where a big airship base were created and from there the shipment of weapons and men turned possible the invasion of North Africa and the expelling of German forces.
     I remember here that I am not taking about these suspicion as truth. I am talking about because doesn’t matter if is true or not. What matter is that some people believe in it and it is part of the reasons that does exists some feeling against Americans in part of Brazilian population.
     In my point of view, if Americans had entered Brazil without permition even before it decided which side to be part on, they did a very stupid step. If anybody look at the map shall see how strategic Natal City was in that operation because was the shortest distance between Africa and Americas. But in another hand, if Brazilians had decided to join forces with the Axes the Americans would be easely bitten by Germans and their submarines at sea and by combine forces by land.
     I am very awared that, Brazil didn’t have a combat force in a level to confront United States but if had assistence from Germany, one Army would be quickly trained, taken the advantage of numbers and the nationalism which would play a dangerous roll in the conflit. But I was born there just 13 years after the war ended and I know the feelings at the time was totally against the Nazes. Getulio Vargas wasn’t yet prepared to suicide and if he had choose the other way he would engulf Brazil in a sea of blood.
     Brazil entered the war but with a minimal combat force. It mobilized thousands more to do others tasks such as enter the Amazon Forest to produce more latex which was intensily needed for the efforts of war. And the small number of Brazilians direct involved in the war is reflected by the statistics. Brazil lost only around 1,500 militars. But the small Expeditionary Force became vital on the taken of Monte Castelo and Monte Cassino, in Italy.
     Strangely, usually in my overheardings of some American documentaries about the WWII and the participation of Brazil in that war is totally ignored. Even for the forces of combat neither the bases that support the operations in North Africa. Is like to mention it is a tabut. Although some years ago I new an American Veteran who served in Brazil and he mention that he liked Brazil very much. But at that particular time I had much more difficult to understand the English language and I didn’t got more informations from him.
     I must remember two of my relatives veterans in that war since I am writing it today, November 11, 2011, Veterans Day in United States. One of them, Felix de Aguiar Coelho, fought in Italy. From him we have the mention that, as a native born in Virginopolis, go to church was a fundamental issue. Sometimes we joke about it saying that, if you need to meet somebody from Virginopolis go to any church because you might find someone there.
     And he went some church in Italy and invited his brothers-in-arms to go with him. They joke about his devotion and stood outside. When he was praying heard explosions and he went to verify what was going on and an aerial surprise attack had killed his companions. I didn’t knew him closely, at least I don’t remember know him, but I heard something about he became anguished. Probably was PTSD (Pos-traumatic Stress Disorder) but nobody new nothing about it at the time.
     The other veteran in the family was my funniest uncle, Otacilio de M. Barbalho. He was called and prepared to go. Who became anguished about it was his mother Dindinha (godmother) Zulmira. She also went the church to talk to father Felix Natalicio de Aguiar who was the parish priest at the time (or David de Alcantara Miranda who is regarded as saint, I am not sure) and the old father just said to her: “Don’t worry, the war will end before he went Italy.” And when uncle Otacilio was in the ship, at the Brazilian Northeast Coast it really happen. But he became a double hero too.
     Firstly because in the voyage they encountered a bad weather situation. And one of his companions was thrown in the agitated waters not knowing how to swim. The old uncle got after him and saved his life. When he went back home all veterans (ex-combatentes in Portuguese language) gainned many privileges such as free college for their children, free health insurance, and many others. The humble uncle never used such rights because to him he had done nothing to worth it. He died in a modestly existence and his children sttrugled to avoid poverty. By the way, some of them immigrated to United States.
     Is an account about a crazy Brazilian soldier that sometimes decided to rob the German storage of food. It must be true because was commented by our older folks and is even recorded in old newspapers. He did it just for fun and ditching enemies bullets. Always at launch time and always for a bottle of wine. The scene got its version at The Three Musketeers movie. But I can’t say for sure if the life copied the arts or the arts copied the life.
     But what was most important to my remembrances of our common History was the construction of one road. It is called Rio-Bahia and is also numbered as Br 116. It were done in a blink of eye. And as the name say is a link between the cities of Rio de Janeiro and Salvador, Bahia State. What is important about it is that, the road were a great effort from Americans and Brazilians who needed a safely way to transport some strategic raw material, specially mica.
     Mica is a mineral which in its constitution looks like a transparent peace of carboard. It is also light weighted and was used in all electronic instrument in that time. Its occurrence is abundant at the Governador Valadares City region. Sometime you find it coming out from the soil without asking for it. At the video above mentioned you can see how it was manufactured at the time if you are not old enough to remember it been used in radios, televisions and others.
     Even today mica is used to cover the body of the space shuttle with the purpose of isolate it against the friction of the air on its reentry to the earth’s atmosphere. Without it maybe we wouldn’t have the same space program we do.
     The region of Governador Valadares City practically were rediscovered when the road was done. Coincidently the road is also a link to Philadelphia, the city founded by Theophilo Benedicto Ottoni which now is renamed after him. The old relatives on my family used to say that, when the tractors was cutting the earth to make the road the people went walking along and gathering precious and semi-precious gems of which the entire valley is rich.
     Such riches is so visible that even in our days the around about the two cities kept known as capitals of gems in Brazil. They had International Fairs to market it. Governador Valadares were the first one to have it but it was transferred to Belo Horizonte because was easier for the international public be there. And one of my uncles, who still living there, joked about it saying, “Valadares wanted give a “pum” bigger than the bum”. As it was to small to have such importance.
     The road was constructed for safety reasons because the transportation of sensitive materials by sea could be intercepted by German submarines. But also served to Americans learn about the natural riches Minas Gerais had to offer on that side of the State. For some decades after it the exploration of noble wood was kept until its almost extinction.
     Governador Valadares City became known as City of Millsaw. And such riches was sent abroad in the cheapiest price ever. A preco de banana (By the price of banana) as Brazilians use to say. The people at the time didn’t really knew how it was been cheated. Men repeated History, like the native Brazilians had gave up their forests for peddlery. But the city was inflated with people in a velocity rarely saw in History. From 5.000 in 1,940 it became a stronghood for more than 300,000 at 1,970s. Was the fastes growth in Brazil then.
     So the war ended in August of 1,945 with the first ever atomic attacks against people. More than a quarter of million people was killed in two stricks against Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Now we need to do a meditation about it. It is important because later I want give some answer to the questioning, Why the people outside hate Americans? So I don’t think the question pass on by such simploton asking. But it pile up among hundreds of reasons. And two of them I will present now.
     Firstly, since after the end of the WWII United States government have been deceiving itself. In Brazil the people use to say that when somebody make a mistake, “Nao explica porque complica” (Don’t try to explain because you make it worse). All historical records have been written or spoken explaining that, The deployment of the two atomic bombs was carefully considered and it was done only because otherwise the corporal fight would cost millions of lives.
     Yes! It would be possible if Japanese people was kept unawared about what Americans had at hand. But the usual procedure when you are struggling with someone supposed in a inferior position is try to send a message of warning before do the shot to kill. In every movie you see the sheriffs giving a shot through the air before be treacherously attacked by the bad guys and only then they do the final action. In this case become unexplainable why the bombs were deploied before the warning.
     I am not talking about panphlets launched by airplanes. Since the Japonese didn’t knew what Americans had at hand and the atomic bomb was unknown to everybody else except for Americans themselves, a bomb could be deploied in a less letal place, at least less to the knowledge even of Americans, such as the Mount Fiji as a clear and comprehensive warning. It would melt the eternal snow and would send a terrific message without been necessarily terrorizing.
     What our government have been saying since then, that was necessary to avoid the worse, is been accepted by the American public as a reasonable sacrifice to end the war but we have to admit it, what appear to be reasonable to some can be totally barbaric to others. So the idea of good Samarithan that Americans have from themselves may be not acceptable to them who are not American.
     Usually, in the movies and in the American media we have these kind of selfishness on to think that we are trying to do the best to us and the world. And some of us feel like offended when one outsider say, it is the opposite. Sometimes we used the gruesome images after the war of the guetoes for propaganda of our self given title of liberators but we forget that, inside home the Americans was responsible for one kind of apartheid and even today its effects are been felt.
     So, I must repeat that, Devagar com o andor porque o santo eh de barro (Slow down the stand because the saint is cast of clay). If we don’t do so the image of arrongant that the world got from Americans will never fade away. And it is dipply important to save the country from the crisis we are living on now and is fundamental for our children have a future to be proud of. When we advance more on the issue of the present book I will clear up it in more details.
     Yet from these period we also have a failled attemp of Henry Ford to produce latex in the Amazon Basin. A big amount of land at the Para State was given to his Brazilian subsidiary Ford Company. He planned to extract natural latex from the Amazonian tree, Seringueira. For that the company invested and founded two cities, Fordlandia and Belterra. But the Americans didn’t had any experience on agricultural technics for such challenging enviroment.
    Since its begining at 1,927 the project was doomed to fail. At its end in 1,945 the technology to produce tires from synthetic latex, based in petroleum, was available and Henry Ford II decided to end the project. The Brazilian government indemnified the Ford Group for the constructions and plantations and ended these wishful thinking of Henry Ford.
     Before I go to the issue I need to talk about some happening in my life, about twenty years ago. This revelation will be chocking to some sensitive souls but I proposed myself to say just the truth. So I can’t walk away from it.
     I remember how shocking were the explosion of the Space Shuttle Challenger. It was happen in January 28, 1,986, when I lived in Brazil and hadn’t intention to come in to United States. The death of the others astronauts was already a sad lost but the death of the teacher Christa MacAuliffe doubled the sadness. She were sent to the mission because it was supposed to raised the children’s interests for sciences. And the explosion otherwise ended in a set back to these intention.
     But what gave me more surprise about it came months or some years later. I don’t remember exactly. We was having a meeting as always we do in family. For occasion of every holiday, members of the family which lived in others cities such as Paracatu, Belo Horizonte, Brasilia, Governador Valadares and others, use to gather at our birth place, Virginopolis. And our meetings are always noisy and feastful.
     Sometimes, those meetings gather more than 100 close relatives. And if is done in times like Carnival and holidays of the end of the year the people have no time to talk to everybody and can’t even see the less close relatives. It looks like one of my uncles defined one time. He said: “We have two pleasures in our meetings. One to see you again and another for see you going back to your place.”
     But the shocking part of my narration happened when some female cousin mentioned the accident saying how sad it was. And one of our male cousins immediately rebuked her saying that: “I laugh, laugh and laugh. And even today as you was remembering and now I can’t restrain myself from give good laughs!” And he start giggling in a frenetic way. “But, – our female cousin remembered him – they was human beings!” The male cousin, incapable of restrain all the giggle argumented, “I know, I know, but was Americans!”
     Everyone in the room was looking at each other in disbelieve. Nobody wanted to take any further word about it. Somebody managed to move away from the subject. And the American reader could ask, The guy is crazy or a radical leftist or yet from some extreme right side of politics? And I can guarantee to anyone, he is just a regular guy, good behavior, not formally linked to any stream of politics although having his own opinions, polite and warming personality.
     And it is something that make our puzzle much more difficult to decipher. One thing I can assure everyone is that, he was never in direct contact to Americans others than Brazilian naturalized or some American born from Brazilian immigrants. So his hatred didn’t came from any bad direct action against himself. It must came from the roll of informations that he gathered along his own History of life. But what puzzles is that, his roll of informations wasn’t different from what the others present knew. I think his reaction was linked to some individual difference in processing informations.
     Everyone of us had disagreements with American policies in some issues. But it is absolutely normal and acceptable. Even Americans from birth, through many generations, must have some or many disagreement between themselves and it is salutary because the disagreements creates awareness of differences. And to be civilized is to have the ability of conciliate the differences. And, is know the time for concessions and the time for stop any kind of abuse.
     The reaction of our male cousin exceeded everything in our domain. To characterize it as jealousy is the same as to give a diagnosis without even see the patient or know his or her condition. But what I will talk in these chapter may give us some idea of what happened in our common History that made a small percentage of Brazilians and peoples from the rest of the world loose all the respect for United States and Americans alike. Lets try to explain something though.
     Just after the WWII the world was amazed for everything United States was doing. The reconstruction of Europe through the Marshal Plan, how it managed to administer Japan and put it back on its own feet. When the others industrialized countries was trying to regain its normal way of life, the American big corporations multiplied its subsidiaries around the world apparently bring development to intermediary countries. The end of that war and the quick development of the worldwide economy sent a great wave of optimism never saw before.
     Brazilians were contaminated by these optimism. For the enjoyment of the opposition to the dictatorship of Getulio Vargas he were deprived from the power and exiled on his farm at his birth place in the Rio Grande do Sul State. Jose Linhares, who is one of the offspring from the kings of Portugal, acted as president until the elections came and it is when Eurico Gaspar Dutra were elected. The motto of his administration was: “To administer is to construct roads”.
     It was based on the American example but also was missunderstood in Brazil. From there on Brazilian administrations focused only in the construction of roadways even for long distance transport of any merchandise. Along the next 40 years after the WWII or so some of the railroad and waterways were disactivated. It made the industry of transportation in Brazil one of the most dangerous and expensive in the world. Some of the Brazilian products are the cheapest on its begining and become hard to sale at the ports. But those are consequences which are felt even today and it is an issue for other part of my narration.
     The industry of cinema in United States was consumed in Brazil like the most essential product. It was so influential that Brazilians tried to copy and even made some productions that was some kind of likeness of its image. The main actors in Hollywood was seen like gods. Much more idolized than any superstar of today.
     These love for the American culture generated, some time later, the saying from a Brazilian politician, “What is good for United States is good to Brazil.” I can’t say for sure who said it because are too much catch phrases around the History and usually it is created by somebody else until a politician take it as his or her own. But it became so inappropriate at the income time that I think nobody wanted to assume its creation.
     After the administration of Eurico Gaspar Dutra Brazilians were up to elect their new president and ended in a no surprise election of the old dictator now presented as democratic. Getulio Vargas managed to come back. Now he was wrapt in a nationalistic form. The country became divided into two main factions. The conservatives these time aligned themselves with United States and by defending a totally opened market to American interests they were called by the name of “Entreguistas” which means Hand Overs.
     This administration of Getulio Vargas was clearly monopolistic of Brazilian natural resources and his biggest deed on it was the creation of Petrobras Company. It is a State run company of petroleum, now one of the biggest in the world on its genre. By the truth, the creation have a long History before the creation and Getulio Vargas was never in it before his second administration.
     A group of nationalists, many with the military background, created a commission for study and deliver the issue. It had a massive approuval from the population which were gathered in a campaign called “O Petroleo eh Nosso”, or The Petroleum is Our. These motto even came from other person but were incorporated as from Vargas himself. So the Petrobras was created on his watch.
     And he took advantage from the nationalistic populism of the time to also create the Eletrobras, now another gigantic company, with the intention of monopolize the exploration of the immense hydroelectric potential in Brazil. Hydroelectrics are the main source of electric energy in Brazil thanks to the abundance of rivers and waterfalls.
     Just to remember, I told before that, during his dictatorship Getulio Vargas has sent the writer Jose Bento Monteiro Lobato to his dungeons exactly for the criticism of Lobato because the dictatorship didn’t explore the petroleum and let not one else to explore. And the author was one of the main nationalists leaders then.
     For the others readers not Brazilians, Monteiro Lobato was a prolific author, comparable to Walt Disney. Older than the American personality and been a Brazilian writer, he didn’t have the same opportunity to show to the world his production. After his death the Brazilian television produced shows with his characters and made awsome points among the children spectators. I was more moved to read his books than watch it on tv.
      Now-a-days his production had been censured because some prejudicial contents. We need to address it in a cautious interpretation because he wrote in a time that the prejudice wasn’t conscious. The same revisionism have been taken here in United States against the work of Mark Twain. The use of some words that became chacterized as prejudicial now was taken as regular in their times. The people from older times just believed in that, some people was really superior to others by birth and thought it was natural and was determined by God. They were totally wrong in their assumptions but it doesn’t mean that they did it by pure malice.
     I got some genealogical sequence for Monteiro Lobato. See it now.
1,882 Jose Bento Monteiro Lobato – Maria Pureza de Castro da Natividade
         Jose Bento Marcondes Lobato – Olimpia Augusta Monteiro
         Maria Antonia Marcondes Machado – Jose dos Reis Lobato
         Clara Francisca do Amaral – Jose Machado da Silva
         Ana Isabel de Andrade – Domingos Marcondes do Amaral
         Bernardina Correia de Freitas – Luis Fernandes da Costa
         Sebastiao Ferreira Albernaz – Isabel de Castilho*
         Sebastiao de Freitas Cardoso – Isabel de Faria Albernaz
         Sebastiao de Freitas – Maria Fragoso
         Antonio Pedroso de Freitas – Clara Parente
         Antonio Rodrigues de Alvarenga – Ana Ribeiro
     From these point we can get back to the genealogical sequence for Jose Oswald de Andrade Souza. Antonio Rodrigues de Alvarenga and Ana Ribeiro are also parents for Francisco de Alvarenga who appear marriaged to Luzia Leme on Souza’s sequence.
     But the second administration of Getulio Dorneles Vargas ended in a tragic way. His nationalistic positions lead to a fearsome opposition from the “Entreguistas” (Hand Overs). Those was clearly supported by American interests represented by the big corporations willing to take advantages from the Brazilian market. And those interests was utterly defended by the jornalist Carlos Frederico Werneck de Lacerda. The criticism from Lacerda lead to a outrageous reaction from the bodyguard of Vargas who plot to kill the jornalist. Mistakenly the Major Rubens Vaz was killed in a fact known as “Assassination at the Toneleros Street”.
     Cornered by those facts, Vargas committed suicide and left a Testament Letter that just point out the external intervention on Brazilian interests. He didn’t identified anyone but was clear on what he was talking about. In reallity, his second administration was not going so well and he wasn’t able to do it under extreme pression.
     I may be criticized back in Brazil for those words about Getulio Vargas. Recently I watched a show at the Book Channel and an historian was talking about his book about president Abraham Lincoln. He was saying that, most of the historians in United States whom deal with the life of our ex-president live in the Church of Lincoln. What he meant is that, they idolize the figure of Lincoln, seen only what wanna see, not Lincoln as a man subjected to make terrible mistakes but as a idol without defects.
     In Brazil the same thing is happen with the admirers of Getulio Vargas. The same is happen to those who love too much the ex-presidents Juscelino Kubitschek, Tancredo Neves (who, thanks God, never got in the Office), Fernando Henrique Cardoso and now, the most recent, Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva. All of them did serious mistakes while in the Office but the churchs around them will never believe on it or, at least, won’t to admit it in public.
     Just after the suicide of Getulio Vargas Brazil had its righteous president and his vice, Joao Fernandes Campos Cafe Filho. But his bad health prevented him to be in power long enough. His successor Carlos Coimbra da Luz had the shortest period in power ever, only four days, maybe two, depend on the literature we look at. The next, Nereu de Oliveira Ramos managed to be the successor until the election and the next president, Juscelino Kubitschek de Oliveira took the oath. In a short time of 2 years Brazil had 5 presidents 1,954 to 1,956.
     Lets post genealogical sequences for two of them.
1,894 Carlos Coimbra da Luz – Maria Jose Rezende Dantas (first wife)
1,860 Alberto Gomes Ribeiro da Luz – Augusta Cesarina de Assis Coimbra
1,833 Mariana Brandina Gomes Ribeiro – Antonio Maximo Ribeiro da Luz
1,797 Rita de Cassia Gomes – Antonio Joaquim Gomes
1,761 Bernardino Teixeira de Toledo – Manuela da Silva
         Maria Rosa de Toledo – Manuel Teixeira Ribeiro
         Branca de Toledo – Francisco Xavier da Silva
         Maria Pedroso – 1,674 Joao de Toledo Piza Castelhanos*
         Francisco Felix Correia – Ana Ferreira de Melo
         Andreza de Castilho – Belchior Felix Perestrelo
         Guiomar de Alvarenga – Francisco Alvares Correia
         Manuel Rodrigues de Alvarenga – Guiomar de Castilho
         Mecia Monteiro – Baltazar de Alvarenga
     The last couple is also parents for Antonio Rodrigues de Alvarenga who marriaged to Ana Ribeiro and are ancestors to Monteiro Lobato, Oswald de Andrade, Friar Saint Galvao and many others more.
1,888 Nereu de Oliveira Ramos – Beatriz Paranhos Pederneiras
1,870 Teresa Fiuza de Carvalho – Vital Jose de Oliveira Ramos Junior
         Maria Francisca Quirino dos Santos – Joaquim Fiuza de Carvalho Junior
         Maria Francisca de Paula Camargo – Joaquim Quirino dos Santos
1,790 Francisco de Paula Camargo – Damiana Alexandrina da Silva Marques
         Francisco de Paula Camargo – Petronilha Clara Rodrigues do Amaral
         Inacia Maria de Camargo Lima – Goncalo de Sousa Rodrigues
         Fernando Lopes de Camargo – Maria de Lima Serqueira
         Fernando de Camargo Ortiz – Joana Lopes
         Mariana do Prado – Fernao de Camargo, the Tiger
         Filipa do Prado – Juan de Santa Maria
1,590 Pedro Leme – Helena do Prado
1,568 Leonor Leme – Bras Esteves
         Pedro Leme – Luzia Fernandes
     Pedro Leme with another wife, Izabel Paes, is greatgrandfather for the “Bandeirante” Fernao Dias Pais Leme. With Luzia Fernandes he also is ancestor for the maestro, Antonio Carlos Brasileiro de Almeida Jobim or Tom Jobim for short.
     What is interesting since now is observe that, as I theorized before, we are often going back to the same ancestors. One factor interfere with my previsions. Since we don’t have a good data from the majority of our ancestors, is natural that the few lineages yet identified by historians will appear on most of the genealogical sequences. It is not because few couple were able to generate a ruge number of famous offsprings.
     If we had a complete data of all of our ancestors, what was supposed to happen is that, inumerous other couples shoud appear equally sharing the ancestorship to most of us. And most the Portuguese population that lived in Portugal 500 years ago was supposed to share the ancestorship of most Brazilians of today. But unfortunately we don’t have a good data and we will need to wait until the next 800 years or so to come for the population living in that time, having a better data, to realize that it is absolutely true.
     The upheaval and optimism that invaded the 25 years after the WWII belong not only to Brazilian History. The facts from those year are shaping our lives even today with its consequences. I would like to point out some that are particularly influential to what is happening today. The end of the WWII was nothing but the begining of what is going on over here today. The best fact of our History from that time was the Independence of India, in 1,947.
     For many years the spiritual leader of India, Mahatma Ghandi, headed a non violence movement against the English colonialism. Despite of the violent actions that the emperial forces took in the attempt to provoke more violence and have any excuse to shut up the voice of freedom, he was able to take control of the situation and the people followed his example not responding violence with more violence. Many died by the English violence but their sacrifice conquered freedom for their countrypeople.
     Unfortunately some of his followers for the Independence wasn’t as “saint” as he was and let some tensions motivated by differences in religious beliefs divided the great India. India then were separated on itself and two other possessions at East and West which became Pakistan. Later on the East part became Bangladesh. Anyways, Gandhi didn’t knew this second division since he was assassinated not long after the Indian Independence.
     From 1,947 on the Communist Party in China took over the power on mainland. Although the last battle between the Chinese Nationalists and Communists were done in 1,949. The Nationalist leader, Chiang Kai Shek, fled from mainland and established a new China in the Formosa Island (Taiwan). Mao Zedong was the Communist leader and reigned over the people until his death.
     The other remarkable fact from the time was the creation of the State of Israel. It became a nation in 1,948 and is the worse mistake done by the politicians from that time, since its consequences are been reverberating until now and promises to go on just like a time clock atomic bomb over our heads, until it explodes or people create good sense.
     I don’t wanna talk about these issue right now. I can just anticipate some of my feelings about the creation of the State of Israel. It is a clear act of violence, inhumane and colonialist. It is comparable to the Cruzades. Nothing justifies such creation. The existence of some nation called Israel in the past doesn’t justifies what in modern times is also called Israel. Two of them are totally distinct things and have not way to link them as continuity of each other, except for the violence and prejudice.
     By writing the previous paragraph I do acknowledge that some would say I am some kind of anti-Jew or have any kind of anti-Jewish faith feelings. For long time I have been observing that everytime somebody criticizes any wrongdoing by the Zionists or something involving the Jewish faith, immediately after the comment be aired by any kind of media, the author of such is execrated as he or she could be nothing but a Nazist.
     The same tactic were used by American media just after the 9/11/2001 terrorist attacks. Any observation about American wrongdoing in the world in that particular moment was classified as anti-American. The American media used the motto, “Everybody else hated us because the world is jealous about the American success” for protect United States from more damage. But what it did was even worse because the motivation for the criticism of outsiders were poorly evaluated and it only directed the Bush adminstration to do more wrongdoings and it brought us to the confusion that we are in our days.
     Another important issue that we need to define since now is that, frequently we mistakenly generalize things instead of specify them with precision. For example, is common you see in the media the phrase, The Americans decided go to war. Or, All Jew are Zionist. We must remember that, every population have many different point of view on the same issue. It is why when some part of the media say that, everyone else hates Americans, it is misleading its public.
    The worse case of generalization is in the Christian Bible. Particularly in the writings attributed to Paul and John. They mention many and many times Jews as killers of Jesus or doing something bad. In a better reading of the whole text you can perceive that, some Jews conspired to kill Jesus and some Jew, even Paul himself on his youth, had a bad interpretation about the teachings from Jesus. When the writers employed the word Jew to identify those who made the wrongdoing they mislead the future Christians to think the whole Jewish community did it. I am not anti any way of thinking unless the way of thinking lead to injustice against any and each human being.
     What I think is that, the Holocaust was happen in Europe and is not justifiable to transfer what was happen in one place to another. The Earth was plenty of places more friendly and less populated. What were done in Palestine is like Brazilians express in their saying: “Despir um santo para vestir outro.” (To take off the clothes from one saint to dress another.) I know that, at the time had better solution than create an State of Israel in that spot. But was the interest of colonial potences to have its colony around there.
     Later I want to get back to the issue. I think the speech that Benjamin Netanyahu wasted in 2,011 at United Nations (UN) will be an excellent material to work on to explain my points of views. I can use what he said and give all of what is behind his words. What should be not that much of surprise since inadvertently Nikolas Sarcozy called him a liar and Barack Obama seem not have different opinion about him.
     From that time we got the Cold War. I define the Cold War as a tremendous irresponsibility from United States and Soviet Union which was playing monopoly with the other nations. The two of them abused its excessive militar power into try to make from the other nations its own likeness. They did it not respecting the laws and the right of others nations to determine themselves way of life. When I point out United States and Soviet Union as perpetrators of evil I didn’t meant Americans and Russians but only some people on their administrations.
     I will soon be back to these issue. And in a minor scale what influenced our today’s lives are the Wars in Korea and Vietnam. The liberation of African nations from the European Colonialism is also important chapter of our History and some nations gainned its freedoms only after 1,970. Two of them are Mozambique and Angola, our Africans sisters nations that emancipated from Portugal.
     Some critical moments we had with the assassinations of John F. Kennedy and Martim Luther King Junior. Let continue our description to see how those events fit on the relationship between United States and Latino America, specially, Brazil.
     The next president to assume the power in Brazil was doctor Juscelino Kubitschek who was greatgrandson of a Czech Roma (Gypsy) immigrant in Brazil. He became orfan from his father when he was two years old. His mother Julia Kubitschek managed to raise the family giving lodge to female students in her house. They lived in Diamantina City, Minas Gerais, which one had good high schools, what was comparable to college bachelorship of today. Some of my grandaunties lodged at the family house there.
     After surpass poverty he became a doctor and politician. At the video, he appear as mayor of Belo Horizonte and his partnership with the archtect Oscar Niemeyer gave new looks to then new capital of the Minas Gerais State.
     The 104 years old archtect Oscar Niemeyer still alive and actively working in his projects. He even have been using the Twitter to express his point of view about life and politics of today. I think his good spirited humor is preventing him to have an expected body aging.
     Juscelino’s administration was characterized as of great optimism. His youth was vibrant and his government lasted from 1,956 to 1,961. He was a lucky man. Brazil had have its worst defeat ever in soccer, in 1,950, been upset 2 to 1 by Uruguay at World Cup at the final match at the Maracana Stadium in Rio de Janeiro. Brazil had never been champion and everybody knows that, soccer is in Brazilian veins. In 1,958 the Brazilian team became champion for the first time.
     President Kubitschek gave a new orientation and new capital to Brazil. The most known of his deeds from his presidency is the construction of Brasilia. It was a long time idea because the capital Rio de Janeiro was to exposed to possible alien invasion. But nobody else had the courage to do it before. Every politician before him had to much concern about to anger politicians interests centered in the old capital. And Brasilia became a State of Art with the participation of Oscar Niemeyer and Lucio Costa on its planning.
     As always, nobody is perfect. Despite of the name of his maternal grandmother be Maria Joaquina Coelho we don’t have more information about his ancestry from this side. We can’t say or deny that he is descendant from the kings but his wife, Sarah Luisa Gomes de Lemos, was. He left the Office as the most prestigious president Brazil ever had.
     Although he mention in his memoir his cousins Coelho from Virginopolis, not everyone sympathized with him. Some conservative disliked him even because he was to “mulherengo” (a cheater on his wife). I can’t say for sure it is true but he loved balls and dances, which made easy to him be with female companions.
     The worst part ever of the Brazilian History begins just after the end of the Kubitschek administration. Maybe is also the worst of the World History too. The president who was elected  was Janio da Silva Quadros. And the Brazilian law had a particularity that lead to a difficult situation. The people could independently vote for president and vice-president. So the elected president could have his elected vice from the opposite party. And the elected vice was Mr. Joao Belchior Marques Goulart who was a good person.
     What was the matter is that, the elected president represented the worse case of conservativism there. And he was elected by a massive amount of votes. But he wasn’t satisfied with it. He wanted absolute power and seven months later he renounced to the position expecting the people would bring him back as a new dictator. Some military personnel thought it different and boarded him in an airplane and sent him exiled to Europe. Even so the extreme conservative didn’t wanted Joao Goulart as president. The Speaker of the House, Ranieri Mazzilli, was called to assume his place until things was calm down for the righteous successor be crowned.
     That was the time that Americans did their worst on interventionism. The CIA, the Secretary of State and even the Presidency team up with the most conservative part of Brazilian society to make Brazil ungovernable. The conspirators had an entire building occupied as headquarter, mentored by Golbery do Couto e Silva. They used pamphlets which was sent by mail to whole country with deceiving propaganda. They had access to the main newspaper and got help from influential intellectuals such as Rachel de Queiroz and Rubens da Fonseca.
     The governor of Rio de Janeiro, Carlos Lacerda, who had conspired against the second administration of Getulio Vargas, together with Jose de Magalhaes Pinto, governor of Minas Gerais and Adhemar Pereira de Barros, governor of Sao Paulo, which one got the motto for his campaign “he steals but he gets things done”, were conspirators among them. They were looking for personal advantages. Lacerda and Barros didn’t live long after the plot. Later on Magalhaes Pinto tried to run against the general Joao Batista de Oliveira Figueiredo in a congressional election and was defeated. Seems like that the militars conspirators used cleverness against them.
     Big corporations such as Exxon and others which already operated in Brazil were called or voluntarily gave financial support to the conspiracy. The basic propaganda was make appear that the country was about to be taken by communists. Communist could be anyone who didn’t comply with their ideas. At the time the Catholics was more than 90% of the population and most of the Catholic clergy helped to spread the worse ideas about communism.
     And here one detail about those conspiracies that helped totalitarians from the right wing of politics. When the dictator Getulio Vargas took the power and Rachel de Queiroz was imprisioned by criticize his administration, the allegation was that she was communist. When came her time to be conspirator amongst the new plot, the adversaries were communists. These was the motto to anyone who wanted grab the power in Brazil. Communism was so feared that the people didn’t mind to be under the totalitarian power of anyone else. The people wasn’t awared that totalitarism is a bad thing no matter who’s in power.
     So, in 1,964 Brazil got its coup d’etat and the militars took the power for themselves. With the fall of Joao Goulart the speaker of the house, Ranieri Mazzilli had another time of provisory president. He was used for the conspirators take time to decided who they would chose to put in the place. And the chosen one was the marshal Humberto de Alencar Castelo Branco.
     He died in a aircraft “accident” in 1,967 just after he left the power. But what is believed is that, he was part of a group that thought the conspiracy should end and the power had to be restored to civilians. Then some of the others leaders, more young, wanted to keep it for long and so they lead a coup d’etat from inside in the first one. The suspicion is that, the accident was provoked by the rival group. And they stood in power for 22 years all together.
     In these case, both side of the rivalry was descendant of the kings of Portugal. Lets post examples for Joao Goulart and for the conspirator Castelo Branco.
1,918 Joao Belchior Marques Goulart – Maria Teresa Fontela
1,881 Vicente Rodrigues Goulart – Vicentina Marques
1,849 Maria dos Santos Loureiro – Belchior Rodrigues Goulart
1,804 Antonio dos Santos Loureiro – Maria Pereira do Nascimento
1,778 Maria Eufrasia Lopes – Joaquim dos Santos Loureiro
1,754 Helena Eufrasia Pereira – Antonio Jose Lopes
1,730 Mariana Antonia de Bettencourt – Manuel Antonio de Bettencourt
1,687 Manuel Machado Ribeiro – Teresa de Bettencourt
1,660 Maria da Conceicao de Melo – Joao Batista Espinola*
1,620 Pedro Machado de Sousa – Ana de Melo e Gusmao*
         Manuel Pedro Machado Ribeiro – Maria Espinola da Veiga de Mendonca
         Filipa de Sousa – Pedro Machado Ribeiro
         Manuel de Sousa Neto – Catarina Goncalves de Antona
         Maria Fogaca de Sousa – Andre Goncalves Neto, Capitao-mor da Praia
1,430 Diogo Sousa Cid – unknown wife
1,410 Cid de Sousa – Leonor Fogaca
1,370 Goncalo Anes de Sousa Chichorro – unknown wife
1,341 Martim Afonso de Sousa – Maria de Briteiros*
1,320 Vasco Martins de Sousa Chichorro – Ines Dias Manoel
1,280 Martim Afonso Chichorro II – D. Aldonca Anes de Briteiros
1,250 Martim Afonso Chichorro – Ines Lourenco de Valadares (or de Sousa)
1,210 D. Afonso III, king of Portugal – Madragana (Mor Afonso)
     I repeated part of the sequence yet present for other personalities. Was just to make easier for the readers.
1,900 Humberto de Alencar Castelo Branco – Argentina Viana
1,861 Candido Borges Castelo Branco – Antonieta de Alencar Gurgel
         Beatriz Virginia da Silva Castelo Branco – Francisco Borges de Carvalho
         Silvestre Jose da Cunha Castelo Branco – Porcina Isabel Pereira da Silva
         Marcelino Jose da Cunha Castelo Branco – Maria Florencia Castelo Branco
         Francisco da Cunha e Silva Castelo Branco – Ana Rosa Pereira Teresa do Lago
         D. Clara da Cunha e Silva Castelo Branco – Manuel Carvalho de Almeida
         D. Francisco de Castelo-Branco – Maria Eugenia de Mesquita
1,580 D. Antonio de Castelo-Branco da Cunha – Maria da Silva*
1,540 D. Pedro de Castelo-Branco – Francisca Calvo
1,500 Maria de Briteiros da Cunha – D. Antonio de Castelo-Branco*
1,470 Mateus da Cunha – D. Leonor de Menezes*
1,450 Joao Alvares da Cunha – Catarina de Sequeira
1,430 Artur da Cunha – Leonor de Sousa*
1,400 Joao Alvares da Cunha – Mecia de Lemos
1,371 Alvaro da Cunha – Beatriz de Melo
1,345 Joao Lourenco da Cunha – D. Leonor Teles de Menezes*
1,320 D. Maria Goncalves de Sousa – Martim Lourenco da Cunha*
1,280 Maria Afonso Chichorro – D. Goncalo Anes de Briteiros
1,250 Martim Afonso Chichorro – Ines Lourenco de Valadares (or de Sousa)
1,210 D. Afonso III, king of Portugal – Madragana (Mor Afonso)
     Martim Lourenco da Cunha were the 1st lord of Pombeiro and all of his descendants in the present sequence inherited the title, until 1,580 D. Antonio de Castelo-Branco da Cunha.
     About the presence of big corporations in Brazil and elsewhere under United States influence we need to add what it was used for in that tragic decades. We have a chapter in History which could be named by New Colonialism. Presidents like Juscelino Kubitschek welcome those corporations expecting their help to modernize the country. But they didn’t anticipated the Ponzi Scheme they were importing from industrialized countries.
     What was happen was that, the big corporations installed in the satellite nations with many incentives from its hosts began to pay to the employees a local salary which could be classified as common there. And to its employees on the Metropolis nation the salaries became unrealistic higher. To make it easy to understand let give an example.
     The Ford Company in Brazil would pay a Brazilian worker US$ 1.00/hour and US$ 10.00/hour for the same position and same productivity to American workers. Like that, in the end of the year the Ford Company in United States would report expressive loss of money. Otherwise, the Ford Company in Brazil would report an expressive gain. So it was the alleged reason that so much money was transferred from Brazil to United States for a long period.
     We today need to know informations like these one for better understand what is happening in the world now. Remember that, there are thousands of big corporations from the industrialized nations that operated in such system. So the prosperity of rich nations in that period of time was in part artificially created through a Ponzi Scheme of money transfer.
     The higher gain of workers fed the markets in that centralized scheme. These excess of money helped the technological progress centralized in the industrialized nations. And the scheme worked in a bad way in two directions. Firstly tranferring monetary valuables and secondly cutting off the investments that could help the emerging economies to also do well.
     The other way of transfer more money to the industrialized countries were giving loans to the exploited countries. We need to acknowledge the cruelty with the scheme worked. The money which were unjustly transferred from the poor countries became superavit in the industrialized ones. And they took the same money to give loans to the poorest ones that latter had to pay high interests. And these situation was what fuelled the political debates from the 60s through the 90s in the second and third world nations.
     If someone reading these writing didn’t know nothing about it maybe now can understand why capitalism and capitalists are not seen as solution to some part of the people in the world. Some rather hate them. And we need to understand that the hatred that the United States inspire to some may be wrongly directed to the whole people as well. We can say that the American people wasn’t awared of everything and it can’t be accountable to all wrongdoing by its government and the big corporations. It is true.
     But we also must acknowledge that, the government and the big corporations are our representants before the world. They works like our diplomatic representatives. Then what they do will be interpreted as what we ourselves did. And to worsening the situation all Americans from since our grandparents generation took advantages from the situation in one or another way.
     I am not saying they did it conciously but by not been interesting on what was happening outside the country, like a fish that sees only the worm and not the hook, they were fished and sold. Now we got this problem of to be hated for something that we didn’t do and not even were told about it. Some unconcious hypocrites use to say it, It is just business. But it is not. It is just a sample of robbery.
     I remember when I was young in Brazil and 9 out 10 strikes lead by the Unions of workers at metallurgic companies (as all companies which works with metal components is called by in Brazil) was done for equalization of salaries to those paid outside the country. At that time surges a leader from the metallurgic workers named Luiz Inacio (Lula) da Silva. His History of life is totally tied to such period of Brazilian History.
     Since long time ago the Northeast Region in Brazil had a terrible problem. Like it is happen in Ethiopia and others parts of the globe the dry season could extend for around 5 years in a role. Every time it happenned, thousands could die, move to the coastal area or simple migrate to what there is known as South. Usually to Sao Paulo State which is in the Brazilian Southeast. Despite of the poverty it brought to the common people they usually kept going back when the rain returned. It was like magic because with water the good soil is able to bring enough food for more than one year to the families storages on each havest.
     The problem is not in the nature. The problem was caused by the men in local governments whom wasn’t interested in use technics that take advantage from the nature itself because in the times that rains the water is enough to be collected for be used in the dry season. But old local political elites used to construct reservoirs and let it in the “Colonel’s” control and they used the public facilities as their own. And the reservoirs was never enough to the use of the whole population.
     In occasions of long dry seasons the poor people from Northeastern part of Brazil was driven like cattle herds to the south. In one of those times Lula’s mother brought the whole family to Sao Paulo State and they went to stay. Millions of Northeasterns did the same just like part of the population of Minas Gerais State did before them.
     At the time of the dictatorship after 1,964 this kind of migration was reinforced with stimulus from the federal government. We have to understand it to understand the military mind. Militars gets a centralized structure in their culture. It works for make their goals. But they horrible sins when they try to impose their way of life to a whole country. It just doesn’t works.
     And then the Brazilian dictatorship decided to centralize the development of the country on certain number of cities. Sao Paulo were the one that got the most and the cities around it were inflated with migrants from the rest of Brazil. The system was applied not because of its logistics for the good of the nation but only to take a easy control over the political dissidence. They new that the thousands of small cities around the Brazilian territory wouldn’t produce any strong resistence to them. Otherwise they new how to coopt the countriside elites which was more interested in keep their status quo than defend democracy.
     Brazil after 1,964 rapidly became like a military headquarter. Politically had two parties but just one way of thinking. They imposed some laws over the Constitution restricting certain opinions and casting it as crime. Nobody had the right of free opinion unless it was the same as their. When someone expressed different opinion was censured, imprisioned or banned from the country.
     United States was entirely involved in the process. It offerred logistic and monetary help. The most hideous example of it were the creation of the School of Americas. Initially it operated in Panama and now it is inland United States. The lessons from that school was how to operate the machine of repression against the civil rights movement in countries under dictatorship, specially those in Latino America. The classes included sections of how torture to obtain information from dissident militants. In other words is something like what the Soviets did with their dissidents inside its helm. The same was thought by Americans to Latino Americans dictatorshis.
     When I was child in Brazil we not even knew something wrong was going on there. Living in a countriside area in the 1,960s and 70s didn’t matter much if you was or not under a dictatorship. The Brazilian society was itself some kind of dictatorship. Parents could spank hard their children as they pleased. Wasn’t a way of educate them. It was a way from the conservative culture to make them be submissive to everything adults wanted. I don’t blame my parents and other ancestors to behave like that because we hadn’t a society based in information but rather in tradition.
     And some parents justified their behavior saying, “I am doing it to you to prevent you fall in the hands of the police which can do lots worse than me.” And it was entirely true, I mean, in the part of do worse. And the police actions was promptly backed by the government and the conservative society. Like that, we was raised in fear. And it appear to reflect negatively in our creativity.
     Living in the interior of the country the information you could got was mostly from the radios, televisions and newspapers. Every and each one closed watched by official censors. The owners themselves in that time wasn’t worried about it. They rather complied with it in exchange for financial stimulus for their businesses. And some constructed huge companies through such auspicious opportunity.
     Since everything was censured the only way of persuit happiness in Brazil was hear music. Even music was closed watched by censors but they not ever have the brains for to detect everything was been transmitted through it. Many musicians used their productions to send the message of sadness that Brazil was wrapped in. Names like Chico Buarque de Holanda, Milton Nascimento, Fernando Brant, Luiz Gonzaga Junior, Elis Regina, Gilberto Gil, Caetano Veloso, Sergio Ricardo, Geraldo Vandre are linked to these kind of music. Others like Tom Jobim, Vinicius de Morais, Elomar, Ary Barroso, Alceu Valenca, Raimundo Fagner, Luiz Gonzaga, Dorival Caymmi, Toquinho, Rita Lee and many more are linked to the good Brazilian music not direct involved in political militancy.
     The ones that were more militant sometimes was presented with an one way passage to the exterior for a forced vacation that could extend for months or years. Usually it would come some time after the launching of a record disc and, later on, the censors figure out what really some nuances of the musics meant. But at the time of the censure the people already had it in mind. I will post two more examples of genealogical lineages to show that music is also in our blood.
1,927 Antonio Carlos Brasileiro de Almeida Jobim (Tom Jobim) – Thereza Otero Hermanny
1,910 Nilza Brasileiro de Almeida – Jorge de Oliveira Jobim
1,874 Azor Brasileiro de Almeida – Emilia Aurora Pereira da Silva
1,850 Manuel Jose de Almeida Leme – Maria Umbelina de Almeida
1,825 Francisco de Almeida Pires – Maria de Camargo*
1,770 Manuel Jose de Almeida Leme – Maria da Anunciacao Arruda*
1,715 Jose de Almeida Leme – Maria Egipciaca de Moura
1,690 Fernando de Almeida Leme – Andreza de Almeida Leite
1,630 Francisco de Almeida Cabral – Maria de Caceres
         Luis Dias Leme – Ana Cabral
         Antao Leme – unknown wife
         Mateus Leme – Antonia de Chaves
1,568 Leonor Leme – Bras Esteves
         Pedro Leme – Luzia Fernandes
     The last couple is already in many other genealogical sequences yet presented as for Oswald de Andrade for example. Pedro Leme also marriaged to Izabel Paes and they are greatgrandparents for the “Bandeirante” Fernao Dias Pais Leme. Tom Jobim himself is direct descendant from Fernao Dias. See chapter 10.
1,944 Francisco (Chico) Buarque de Holanda – Maria Paixao Severo da Costa (Marieta Severo)
1,910 Maria Amelia Cesario Alvim – Sergio Buarque de Holanda*
1,880 Francisco Cesario Alvim – Maria do Carmo Carvalho*
1,839 Jose Cesario de Faria Alvim Filho – Amelia Calado de Miranda
         Jose Cesario de Faria Alvim – Teresa Januario Carneiro
         Ana Angelica Souto Maior Alvim – Joaquim Jose de Faria Lana
         Francisco Xavier de Barros Sousa e Alvim – Maria Felizarda Souto Maior
         Doroteia Luisa de Sa Sotomayor – Manuel de Barros e Sousa*
         Francisco de Abreu Felgueiras – Maria de Antas Cerqueira
         Mariana de Sa Sotomaior – Francisco de Abreu Felgueiras*
1,565 Isabel de Araujo de Azevedo – Goncalo de Antas de Sa
1,535 Ana Nunes Bezerra – Francisco da Costa Taveira
1,490 Froilos de Araujo de Azevedo – Justa Amorim
1,470 Fernao Velho de Araujo – Ana Nunes Bezerra
         Isabel Coelho de Azevedo – Tristao de Araujo
1,435 Goncalo Coelho, 3rd lord of Felgueiras – unknown wife
1,420 Martim Coelho, 2nd lord – Joana de Azevedo
1,370 Fernao Coelho, 1st lord – Catarina de Freitas*
     I brough the lineage to this point because it is easier to link the dots with other personalities already presented. Just to remember, Fernao Coelho was greatgrandson of Estevao Coelho and Maria Mendes Petite, also ancestors of the Portuguese and Brazilian royal families. And Catarina de Freitas is multiple times offspring of the Iberian Peninsula royal families. Chico Buarque also comes from the lineage “de la Cerda” which he shares with Fernao Dias Pais Leme, Tiradentes, Saint Friar Galvao and others.
     I want point out one particularity from this lineage. At the chapter 11 I mentioned that our cousins Silvia Amelia and Theodoro Hungria da Silva Machado, both marriaged to personalities from the Brazilian royal family, was at least two times descendants from Fernao Coelho and Catarina de Freitas but I didn’t show how. Lets though take advantage of the lineage above to show the link.
1,839 Jose Cesario de Faria Alvim Filho – Amelia Calado de Miranda
1,876 Silvia de Miranda Faria Alvim – Afranio Camorim Jacauba de Otingi e Melo Franco
1,904 Sylvia Amelia de Melo Franco – Mucio Emilio de Senna (*)
1,930 Sylvia Emilia de Mello Franco Senna* – Paulo Argemiro Hungria da Silva Machado
     Those are the parents for Silvia Amelia and Theodoro. So the greatgrandparents for Chico Buarque are greatgreatgrandparents for our cousins too. And their ancestry goes direct to Fernao and Catarina. Our cousin Mucio Emilio de Senna (*) is son of our famous cousin, professor Nelson Coelho de Senna, who is greatgreatgrandson of ours ancestors Jose Coelho de Magalhaes and Eugenia Rodrigues da Rocha. The sign (*) is for indicate that I haven’t yet removed the doubt if our ancestor Jose Coelho de Magalhaes is the same nobleman at the site portugal or not. If so, it is the other way our cousins are offspring of Fernao Coelho and Catarina de Freitas.
     Music also was a factor of to soften the hatred against the American government and big corporations for its wrongdoings at Latino America. Some musicians like Joan Baez and Bob Dylan was the sign that had Americans others than those who was taking advantage from the poor countries weaknesses. Other people from other countries like Mercedes Sosa, from Argentina, and Bob Marley, from Jamaica, and John Lennon was also accountable for the goodness of what we heard.
     At the time in Brazil all the major radios played only international music. And those musicians were almost banned from it. Only at the end of the 70s we got some FM stations that starts playing exclusively Brazilian music. And those were the ones that got our attention. I think the others stations felt the opportunity and also start mixing international and national productions.
     Strangely was that, after I came to United States my sister who yet lived in Florida told me that, she didn’t understand why so many people liked Joan Baez back in Brazil while the people that she was in contact with in Florida didn’t even heard about her. Immedialitely I went to a store specialized in records and found some of her discs. I was looking for her Joan Baez European Tour Album that I grew up hearing. But this specific one I didn’t find. Ok, at least wasn’t just my imagination.
     When president Bill Clinton visited Brazil he mentioned he liked Brazilian music. And I was amazed about the claim of some Americans that say they know Brazilian music. One reason I start hearing PBS Radios here was because it was the only ones that gave some openning for some Brazilian and others countries musics. Otherwise, anybody in Brazil know something about American music even because it is imposed by record companies. Anyways, since the end of the dictatorship looks like the good musicians had died or lost their imagination to produce good music in Brazil. Like here their are now producing only commercial ones.
     To grow up in a dictatorship is not at all a pleasant thing. First of all you are deceived by the official propaganda. The government is presented as doing great things and never doing wrong others, not even by mistake. They use the natural nationalistic feeling of the people to try to put you against anyone who don’t comply with their decisions. Until you get more mature and starts to rationalize some happenings you are totally unawared that you are nothing more than a peace for their bargain.
     At least we grow up with television and even in a censured programation you start to fishing something like, Why in our country we can’t vote for have our governor or president if in free countries it happens? Why the “bad guys” took the American ambassador as hostage and exchanged his freedom by a list of unknown people that was sent to exile? If United States is a frendly country, why its diplomat?
     And the dictatorship in Brazil was an explicit case of megalomania. Everything it did was big. The biggest bridge over sea in the world at the time. A more than 8 miles bridge linking Rio de Janeiro to its neighbor Niteroi. The biggest hydroelectric in the world. A binational monster between Brazil and Paraguay to produce 11 million Kilowatts. The biggest ever rain forest’s motor road, which goes parallel to the Amazon River as the river itself wasn’t a natural way of transportation. The rain forest was taken as enemy of our development and its destruction was supplied with funds from international corporations such as the World Bank.
     What they didn’t said as clear as they presented their deeds was what the people had to pass through to pay the loans in the next decades. They burned our future to keep themselves in power. When the last dictator was about to go away he said that, “You will miss us one day and will ask for we come back.” He knew the time clock bomb they was leaving over our heads and thought that the fabricated development they created for a short time would be remembered, as the hard times wasn’t in consequence of it and it wasn’t linked to each other. Thanks to God, just a minority had miss the military craziness.
     Another burden they left over the shoulder of the people was the attachment of the Brazilian economy to the one of United States. The attachment was so close that more than 50% of the Brazilian commercial budget was linked to US. The popular saying at the time was that, United States couldn’t get a cold without Brazil have a pneumonia. Or, in a better humoristic way: “O Brasil eh nosso mas quem USA sou EEUU.” Here is a mixing of languages and the mean is that: Brazil is our but who makes use of it is United States.
     And one way to cheer up the nationalistic feeling from the common people was to present the numbers of the Commercial Balance between the two countries. It was clear favorable to Brazil and the people believed that it was good because had not any idea how the scheme worked. The scheme was simple, Brazil sent millions of tons of raw material to United States and received back fenished products.
     I better make a comparison to clarify it. Lets say that, from each million tons of iron Brazil exported, it received the equivalent to 100,000 tons in cars for a price close to the million tons. What was shown was the amount of money involved and nothing was told about what was done with the others 900,000 tons of iron. So what appeared to people’s eyes a great success was just another Ponzi Scheme. With the rest of the raw material United States could produce thousands of cars what made the balance to tend in its favor.
     The attachment between the both economies brought Brazil to its knees more than one time. One of those was at the 70s, with the first crisis of the petroleum. Brazil wasn’t prepared for anything, had not monetary reserves and was totally depedent on it. The clever solution was to substitute gasoline by alcohol. It was a good idea but not before any research and tests.
     Brazil is the largest producer of sugar cane and used it to produce sugar plus its needs of alcohol. To give a solution to the problem would be a simple question of to plant more sugarcane and produce more alcohol. And they starts adding alcohol to the gasoline and producing cars moved by alcohol. Soon the consumer start to notice that, the cars moved by alcohol didn’t work well when was cold. And the alcohol rusted all metalic parts, not only the ones in direct contact with the product.
     What would be a case of a historic lawsuit in everywhere else in the world the Brazilian consumers just had nowhere to ask for help. The population that had cars just swallowed it in silence. The whole Brazilian pack of cars was rusted. Only later the scientists figure out that a better kind of steel was needed. And it is why we have the technology flex of today. Thanks to Brazilian consumer sacrifice of be a guinea pig for the day.
     Another thing about economics in time of dictatorship. I must remember the saying from one of the ministers of economy that time. “We need to make bigger the economic cake first and share it later with the population.” In his conception the country’s economy had to generate rich people first and those would invest on industrialization for then employ more people and pay better salaries. As Brazilians say, “Ele queria colocar o carro na frente dos bois”. (He was trying to put the car before the bovines). The saying is a reference on the old way of transportation in Brazil that used cars pulled by bovines.
     Even today I never got my share. And anticipating something that I have to talk later, this type of vision is too similar to the one of the Republicans here in United States now. They hope that giving brakes on taxations for the rich it will help the economy. I can’t show through my writings how much laughs it provoke in me. And it is not pleasant. Is like laugh with all the ribs broken and in swelling pain.
     If we went back to the 60s and 70s in Brazil we could identify Brazil as the China of the time. Not exact like China is today but a Brazil acting like China. Was a country of intense growth and its population been sold to the international market. The minimum wage which in Brazil is called by minimum salary started from low and going to lower. The motto was to put everybody to work but at the end of the month the salary was a deception. Yes, it is another characteristic of Brazilian economy, you are paid by month not by week as it is happen in United States.
     The currency also was artificially manipulated so the workers could goes by. In a modern economy you need to control the inflation. In that kind of economy inflation was used as tool of collect money from the people’s pockets and transfer it to the government interests. In my life back in Brazil I learned to live along with more than five differents currencies. We had Cruzeiro, Cruzado and now is Real. In between those always had some intermediary called by New anyone of those. Some periods we lived with three digits inflation on a single month.
     And, as I mentioned before, the metalurgical workers fought for equalize their salaries to those that was paid in the industrialized countries. But it would work only for laborers of those kind of industry. And they represented just a small fraction of the population. I don’t know who got first the idea. But some start to migrate to industrialized countries and it was another way of equalize the salaries. Maybe it began with the exiled but probably was before and some people did it just by intuition and not as part of any organization.
     In one of our books of genealogy we have the registration of a marriage of our cousin Adail Coelho Neto to Neuza Kinzo Coelho in 1,970. Their children Paula and Alexandre was born in United States. And they wasn’t the first case. In that time and long after, the Brazilian currency was so depreciated that one could come, work for two or three years, go back and start his own business. Some was able even to buy an entire farm. And it was the advertisement for others take a chance.
     Around 70s and 80s the reference for most of Brazilian migration was Governador Valadares City. It is called by Valadares for short. And the number of migrated citizens from there was so great and the money they sent was so visible that the city became known as Valadolares. Later on I will be back to these issue because most of the migration didn’t really came from citizens born at the city. It was too young to have so many people born there.
     As I mentioned before, around 1,940 it had around 5,000 inhabitants and arount 1,970 was around 300,000. Most of the population had been born elsewhere and moved to there, attracted by the new opportunities that the rich soil around about and the easier way of transportation that the Rio-Bahia road had to offer. Just remembering, it was the road constructed by Americans and Brazilians at the time of the WWII.
     The armed resistence to the dictatorship was a total failure. It was easily defeated since just a small number of fighters had the spirit to try it. Mainly those fighter was linked to the Communist Party but mostly was people too young to take the best decision.
     A bigger number were represented by intellectuals and workers. Those was also persecuted like their pens and ideas was guns. The excessive force that today is considered abominable in that time was used without any restriction. Many intellectuals as the jornalists Paiva and Herzog went the prision and never came back alive. Like them we had some thousands of “casualities” if we add the arbritary emprisionment without death.
     Despite of the horrors Brazilian never lost their sense of humor. The dictatorship used a gingle music for advertisement that start with, “This is a country that goes ahead”. And a band of clowns chanted it walking backward. And they got a month of suspention. Another did the same but scornly laughing at the end of the phrase. Got six months vacation in Europe.
     Brazilian have one saying that goes like that, “Quem nao tem cao caca com gato”, which means Who don’t have a dog hunt with the cat. Some comedian prolonged the saying adding, “Who don’t have cat hunt with the rat, and who don’t have rat hunt with act.” Act or ato in portuguese is the same as Act, Bill or Law. The dictatorship had imposed laws that was called by the numbers from Act 1 to 5. The worst of it was the  Act number 5 which were largely used to punish the dissidents.
     The dictatorship was in trouble with the criticism and launched an add on to called to manipulated the patriotic feelings from the people saying, “Brasil, ame-o ou deixe-o.” (Brazil, love it or leave) The only one newspaper that was in circulation and was openly critic to the government stamped on its front page the next day, “The last one to go please shut off the lights of the airport.”
     About that newspaper, it was called Pasquim. Pasquim in Portuguese language could be translated as tabloid although with never serious contents. The founders choose the name because felt that anyways it would be the name that the advertisers pro-government would call it to diminish its importance. So they took a short cut anticipating what would be any intention from the government and it worked since in the begining the censors didn’t paid great attention on them. Later on some of issues were apprehended by its disturbing contents to the dictatorship itself.
     The 70s decade were the time that South America got the worst of its dictatorships. Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay and Uruguay team up to elaborated a club of assassinations and tortures called Operation Condor. They helped each other on eliminate their political disaffections. At the time the American government cover up its eyes to say that if I don’t see is because wasn’t happen. It worked until it came to happen under Washington’s helm.
     A plot involving the Chilean secret service, Cuban exiles and even CIA killed Orlando Letelier at Sheridan Circle in Washington DC. They used a remote control bomb. The timid response from Washington came only because Letelier’s assistant Ronni Moffit, who was American, also were killed. Orlando Letelier was the Chilean voice preaching in the American Government Desert what everybody knew in South America that dictatorship was a bad cause to everyone, even American government not acknowledging it and been part of it.
     Orlando Letelier was just one from the list of assassinations and tortures promoted by the Operation Condor. The ex-president of Brazil, Joao Goulart also was poisonned at the City of Mercedes, Argentina, while in exile. Although it can’t be confirmed today because wasn’t done any autopsy in his body. The ex-president Juscelino Kubitschek also died in a suspicious car accident in Brazil. I doubt both of them represented any danger to anyone and their deaths are the testimony against any type of draconian government.
     As I mentioned before, the involviment of the American government on the internal affairs of South American countries also produced victims from its side. The ambassador Charles Burke Elbrick was kidnapped by the group Revolutionary Movement 8th October (MR-8) in Brazil for 78 hours. Later freed in exchange for 15 political dissidents.
     The CIA agent Dan Mitrione didn’t had the same luck. He was kidnapped by the leftist group Tupamaro in Uruguay and in a sequence of unfortunate events ended killed. He is accused of taught torture classes to the political policies from those South American countries. The Brazilian dictators even honored him with his name given to a street in Rio de Janeiro. Honor later suspended by the civil elected officials that wasn’t up to let his obscure past be any stimulus to future adventurers.
     Here we can point out one contradiction from the American Government that is a great stimulus to the culture of hating Americans at the world outside United States. Not mentioning the interventions and responsibilities for the dissimination of torture and dictatorships. Recently, the American Government tried to imput the charge on Iranian’s shoulders for conspire to kill an ambassador from Saudi Arabia also in Washington, not regards for any Americans that could be killed along.
     I think, none outside of Washington and Pentagon was up to take the plot as true. Since the fabrication of proof that Saddam Hussein had weapons of mass destruction at hand, prior to the invasion of that country, everybody in the world is with “a foot behind”, as Brazilians use to say, over anything coming from the American government mouth.
     The killing of Orlando Letelier didn’t cause the same reaction of ultrageous feelings that the possibility of the killing of the Saudi ambassador appear to cause. Augusto Pinochet, the Chilean dictator, who ordered many other assassinations, never got in any trouble with the American Government. And these kind of cynicism is greatly accountable to cheer up the hatred for whatsoever Americans do.
     Not so long ago the representative from the Green Party in Brazil, Mr. Fernando Gabeira were denied entry in United States. Hes visa was asked because his work as representative and the answer was postponed until the expiration of the motivation of the voyage. What was at stake was that, Gabeira was one of the militants who kidnapped the ambassador Elbrick. Where is the cynicism? Just try to make a list of people that never got denied a visa and did things much worse than him. I am not defending what he did. I am just pointing out the incoherence in the American government attitude.
     The dictatorship got its final blowout thanks to the boldness of the Archbishop of Sao Paulo, Dom Paulo Evaristo Arns, and many friends such as the Presbiterian, Jaime Wright and the Friar Beto. They did research and later published a book called, Brazil: Nunca Mais or Brazil, Never Again. They took the testimony of survivors of the political dungeons and compared it with the archives from the Militar High Court (Superior Tribunal Militar) and proved all the charges against the torturers from 1,961 to 1,979.
     After the publication everybody who had any doubt about what many already knew got the feeling of be betraied. The majority of the Brazilian people had been deceived for back up the coup d’etat in 1,964 believing that it was the only way to avoid a totalitarian government. At the end they discovered that they got what they least wanted. I saw it in the face of my mother when she read the book. And she agreed. Never, never again.
     The end of the dictatorship in Brazil was market by two big movements. One is called “Anestia Ja” (Amnesty Now). This movement had its roots on the intention from the dictators party to create a law that should be approved by the majority they hold in the Congress which gave amnesty to whatsoever crimes they done. The opposition felt that the law was about to be approved and then included the oppositors to the dictatorship too. So nobody would be left behind. Both side ended swallowing the amnesty of each other. But it proved to be effective to the pacification of the country.
     The second one was the “Diretas Ja” (Directs Now) movement. The dictatorship party wanted to keep the system of indirect elections for president. But millions of people were mobilized in favor of the popular vote in the presidential elections. The movement were fatally woonded when part of the leaders were coopted to go through congressional vote by an accord between the dictatorship party and some part of the opposition. They named Tancredo de Almeida Neves as president and Jose Sarney as his vice.
     I have three moments in my life that I got the presentiment that good things couldn’t come from some decisions. One of those was in the day that Tancredo Neves announced Jose Sarney as his vice. I got so angry about that I cried out to friends that was watching tv in our apartment at the University, This stupid old man thinks that he can’t die?! He’s election came and long before the day of his installation he was dead. And we got an extension of the dictatorship for more five years with his vice.
     The other two presentiments were in the day that president Bush annouced the War against Iraq and some hours before president Obama annouced the assassination of Osama Bin Laden. But those are issues for later.
     One curiosity is that, the vice and later president Jose Sarney have ancestors that signed Rodrigues Coelho. Coincidently those are names also linked to our ancestors. But we don’t have enough data to say that, both families come from the same source of recent ancestors. What appear to be is that, the signature from his family come from a earlier migration and ours is from a later migration from Portugal. If they had any link it could be prior to 1,650.
     Coincidently I was just contacted by one of my cousins who sent me this address, Anibal Rodrigues Coelho is one of ours another closest relatives from the great family. Unfortunately the text at the address is only in Portuguese language. It have not political intention. Casa Grande (Great House) is his non profit organization for help people in needy to which he dedicated his life. But in his interview about his History he literally said that,
     “Through it I struggled to brought libraries to the cities from the outskirts of the Federal District (is how the DC area is called in Brazil). My involviment with the association and with the community service brought me four imprisonments because, at the time, it was taken as communist activity. … The general idea is that, more ignorant the people become more easy become to dominate it. And we wanted to promote a fair citizenship, bringing knowledge to the population, etcetera”. He wasn’t talking about his non profit organization but about his work and militancy as Librarian.
     And it is what dictatorship is all about. The next paragraph he mention what I told before, how illiteracy were used to dominate the poor Brazilian people and during the dictatorship it wasn’t an exception. The goal of the dictatorship wasn’t to keep the illiteracy, its main goal was to control what information it would allow the population have.
     Here I need to mention a contrast on conceptions about what is right and what is wrong in life. My maternal grandaddy, Jose Coelho Junior, the Juca Coelho, was a person that fought his intire life for the communitarians causes. Life in the countryside goes around some communtary references such as, churchs, schools, hospitals, maternities, courts and city hall. Grandfather was politician but never ran any elective position. He only gave support to others who was elected.
    Probably, he had a minor participation on the construction of the main church in Virginopolis but was involved on the instalation of the high school, at the constructions of the hospital and maternity, and thanks to him the city became center of a county having its own court. When the coup d’etat came he was 72 years old. And he gave his support to the cause thinking that the communists could take the power.
     The fear that grandaddy had about the communists wasn’t necessarily because their way of share riches or even to get a repressive government. His fear was the atheism and he could give his life if need for the Catholicism. On it he was completely radical.
     As soon he became 84 years old he had a stroke which made him half handicapped. Like that we were called to serve as his male nurses or helpers on everything he wanted to do when not on bed. He had some Alzheimerist moments alternated by concious ones. And at one of this moments he would try to convince us that, because we were in favor of the democratization of Brazil, we had to be communists. And such discussions became historical in the family.
     On one of those he challenged me to travel to Soviet Union to practice there “my communism”. I was saying to him that I had nothing to do at Soviet Union because as I was against the Brazilian dictatorship I also didn’t agreed with the soviet totalitarism. But he wont understand my logic and mistooke our support for the democracy as it was an approuval to totalitarism, and mainly to that one that came from the atheism communist. In some moment of the discussion he started screeming on me: “Had to deliver death to the people who is conspiring. Such communists. Our militars are been worth of nothing. If don’t kill, Brazil will be brought to a mess!”
     I though I could call his conscience arguing, Ok grandaddy, you is in favor to kill even your grandchildren? But he won’t hear any voice of reason. “Communist is more worth when dead! I don’t forgive nobody.” I tried to appease him: Gradaddy, what reason you would give me to justify to kill? And he yelled at me, “Because it is the law in Brazil!” I took a long breath and calmly whispered what I had to say, Then everything is all right grandaddy! At Soviet Union they are doing nothing wrong with their dissidents. It is because in there they also have their laws.
     Imprisoned to his wheel chair and taking notice that his point of view was lost he didn’t nothing but cry and said, “What is worth is that, I am close to die! But you all will repent.” In truth the life is always like that, doesn’t matter what choice we take, when the difficulty times come we get the doubt if we took the best decisions in our past. We got inumerous opportunities of difficulties in Brazil after the dictatorship. But on each and everyone of those moments my certitude goes always like that, Correct the direction, never turn back to that negative option.
     The problems in the human relationship is the absolutism from some people. Grandaddy Juca was always absolutist. What he believed had to be true to all. We can’t deny and need to thanks for his services as community worker in our city. But if he was young and had done the same that he had done many years ago, at the time of the dictatorship, he would be at risk of be one out of the numerous cases of arbitrary imprisonments that populate our History.
     The problem with absolutists is that, they are to much sure that what they wanna do will be the best to all or, at least, for the majority. Their certitude is so confident that it impede them to see the others points of view. It is for sure, Joseph Stalin, Mao Zedong, Adolph Hitler, Osama Bin Laden, George W. Bush and many more had the absolute certitude that they were given the best from themselves to the world. The defect on them is not perceive how much they are mistaken and that, the world have a different idea of what is good for itself.
     By thinking that the world refuse what is good to itself the absolutist try to impose to the world what is not good even for himself. Was totally comprehensible that our grandfather, on his 87 years old and sufferring Alzheimer, mistaken defense of democracy as it was be a communist. But the same, coming from the dictatorship leaders, demonstrated a much much worse illness. In Brazil we got a much worse macarthism than its American original.
     And here I see a close similitude in the conception of those who accuses president Obama of to have a socialist agenda. Those just don’t want we the people to have the same access to conditions that they think are restrict to the privileged. So to accuse president Obama of have a socialistic agenda is one way to exploit the fear that the commoners have for socialism at the same time hiding their real intentions on to segragate the people.
     Lets post though some genealogical sequence for the elected and not inaugurated president Tancredo de Almeida Neves. His ancestry is like the Brazilians describe as, “Feijao com arroz” or Rice n’beans. It means too common.
1,910 Tancredo de Almeida Neves – Risoleta Guimaraes Tolentino
1,881 Antonina Homem de Almeida – Francisco de Paula Neves*
1,848 Mariana Candida Kapler – Antonio Homem de Almeida
1,821 Mariana Candida de Jesus – Francisco Kapler
1,795 Maria Madalena da Silva – Joao da Silva Pereira Gomes
         Manuel Ferreira da Silva – Mariana Moreira de Sousa
1,747 Maria Cleofa Bueno – Jose Ferreira da Silva
         Maria Cleofa Bueno – Joao Goncalves de Melo
         Rosa Maria Bueno de Moraes – Antonio de Moura
         Lourenco Correia Pires – Catarina Bueno do Prado
         Manuel Joao de Oliveira – Francisca de Lira de Moraes
         Isabel Pais – Marcos Mendes de Oliveira
         Maria Leme – Manuel Joao Branco
         Fernando Dias Pais Leme* – Lucrecia Leme*
     From this point we can go back to the chapter 10 and verify the genealogical sequence for the “Bandeirante” Fernao Dias Pais Leme posted there. Fernando and Lucrecia are his paternal grandparents. I verified only the maternal side of Tancredo Neves because I thought the dates before the names would help in some way, rather than his paternal side which was without dates.
     The brutality of the dictatorship in Brazil is shown in an ultrageous event. One concert in favor of the democratization and pacificantion of the country, with a famous singer, was set up. A bomb exploded nearby. It was been prepared by two military servants to provoke confusion among the public but the bomb went off unexpectedly on the lap of one of the perpetrators. If they was successful on their attack they could caused many deaths and injured thousands. What they really wanted to do is not yet clarified to the public until today.
     But anything that they did to stop the wave of democratization didn’t worked. And the others South American coutries also entered in the same wave. In it we got some help from the industrialized countries. They were afraid that a recrudescence on the dictatorship would bring to any uncontrolable disorder and it would cause losses on their investiments. So, long before had Arab Spring we had the South American Spring.
     The 1,990s was the real begining of democratization in Brazil. We had the first presidential election through popular vote after 30 years. But although it was considered fair we got the interference from interests others than democracy. The elected president, Fernando Collor de Mello ended impeached for corruption. His successor and vice, Itamar Franco finished his term.
     Itamar Franco inherited a country in a situation of “Terra arrasada” or levelled land. And he was trying to make alliances with whoever would help him. I didn’t like his way of administration because he was ex-governator for the Minas Gerais State and was more conservative than I wanted.
     Although I wasn’t representative of nothing I tried to contact some friends who could contact the Workers Party for not leave him alone because his administration would fall in the conservative hands. But the Workers Party refused to do it and the conservatives fill in all spaces of the government. Later on Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva, the eternal president of the Worker Party acknowledged the mistake.
     Presidente Itamar Franco gave the place of Minister of Economy to the sociologist Fernando Henrique Cardoso who once had been exiled in United States and taught classes at Harvard. A group of economists, including Andre Pinheiro Lara Resende, had made a plan, based on the corrections on many others that was tried before in Brazil, for a new currency and for stabilize the economy. The plan worked well after be implanted by Itamar Franco and the Minister of Economy got the credits.
     In the wave of optimism that came after the establishment of the plan, called Real, and is now the name of the Brazilian currency, Fernando Henrique Cardoso was easily elected president. But his administration is characterized by extremely conservativism and submission to the international monetary institutions. By not giving flexibility to the comparison between the Real and other currencies his administration made the Brazilian industry loose its competitivity and almost broke the country again.
     The Cardoso administration have two other deeds that characterize its government. One was that, by the Brazilian law the presidents couldn’t be reelected in the period immediately after their terms of four years. Then he bought from the Congress an amendment on his own behalf to be reelected. And he privatized many of public institutions obeying the conservative mandate of minimal State. He even privatized one of the biggest companies of mineralogy in the world, Cia Vale do Rio Doce or Sweet River Valley Company which was born from the riches of Minas Gerais State. He was up to privatize the Petrobras also but it was too much, even for the pacific Brazilian people.
     His conservative measures can be easily measured by the migration of Brazilians to the exterior. I migrated just after he be elected at the first time and each year a greater number of Brazilians was coming. It appeared to be a non stop tendency that would left Brazil empty. And the migrants wasn’t only from classes less favored. People that owned businesses was braking down. Many friends that had migrated before and began their businesses in Brazil start to come back. Here I have to note that, I migrated by choice not because the performance from that administration.
     After three frustrating attempts to be elected president the resilient Northeastern and unionist Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva got the position. He took advantage from the possibility of be reelected, thanks to his predecessor, and had two administrations. At the end of his second term he helped to elect the now “presidenta”, Dilma Rousseff.
     Lula, as we call him since he was a unionist, was illiterated as his oppositors tried to stamp his unconventional literacy. He did elementary schooling in a regular basis and was trained to be a metalurgic worker. Later on he also did the high school through a charter school. Most of all he learned from life. And always had good brains around him.
     For that he start to make fun from his oppositors when his administration began to prove right, saying in all speech he did, “Never before in this country it was done…” What he was saying is simple, not other presidency had done so much in a so short period of time. And it is kind of true. But is far from be enough.
     These is our question of to be or not to be. Even if a person been judged as good never can let the feeling of accomplishment take over, in reason of be able of reach a superior level in relationship to others. If we think we did the best that we could do, we should immediately leave our places in favor of others for that they upgrade what we did. Nobody is perfect. Always will be space to make it better. Everything that we do now will be obsolete in a short period of time.
     I remember in 1,979 when I was kicked from my first job in my life. He was a unionist star and his militancy always got him in trouble with the dictatorship. Many times he were imprisioned but was just a waste of time for the bad guys because it just increased his popularity. And one day I was called in the office of some kind of psychologist. At the time the businesses used one nor to help people with problem but to detect “signs of rebellion”. Do a good job wasn’t so important since Brazil was plenty of unemploied willing for any vacancy of bad paid positions.
     I don’t remember if in our interview I did or he did mentioned Lula. And I made some remarks like that, We need more people like Lula to make this country work for everybody. And I saw in his eyes some disbelief and maybe anger. “Do you think he will be the solution?” He asked. Not, but he is the beginning. I answered. And I openly said other things that was just foolishness but nothing that could cause any harm. But soon they put some another guy to be trainned by me and one month later I was history in that enterprise. Its name was Picchionni, Corretora de Valores, and some years later closed its doors for bad administration.
     As president, Lula did what is most obvious in any place else of the world. Brazil had around 170 millions inhabitants and more than half was out of the market. It was what everybody, from the most doctorated to the least like me, was preaching since long time before. But the conservatives kept insisting in favoring the privileged ones expecting, or just saying it, they would do something for the poor people. But the truth is that, the rich until some level try to create jobs because more jobs represent more profit to them.
     In the upper level it doesn’t work well because they starts to gambling in the stocks and spending the money with superfluous. I am not saying that everybody do the same but in Brazil it is most true. And in Brazil the stocks pay one of the highest interests in the world. It was true since the time of the dictatorship and were largely used by the administration of Fernando H. Cardoso to transfer riches to a few percentage of the population. And even the administration Lula wasn’t totally able to introduce more fairness to the rest of the people.
     One good image to describe the problem is that, some billionaires prefer to invest 50 millions on himself house than help the poor get his first house of 100,000. And look how many houses for poor people 50 millions could buy! And I am not talking about give away money I am talking about pay a better salary to those that work hard.
     What Lula did in Brazil is something like Franklin D. Roosevelt did in his Big Deal Plan. He just gradualy raised the minimum wage and waited for the results. He also included in the market millions that was out. Also increased the stimulus to poor families that was keeping their children in schools. It was a great problem in Brazil before because historically too much children drop out schools to help their parents to get along with their needs. Lula himself had been victimized by this.
     Lula felt on his own skin the problem that poor people was submitted around the country. He understood that poor people also had the right of have 5 meals in daily basis. And poor people have also the right of to dress well and even could get their own cars. Historically in Brazil was like what is the saying, “Poor people sale their lunch to buy the dinner.” Since the dictatorship began selling the people’s interests in the international markets the motto became pay little wages to sale more. And the minimum wage was always unfairly deprived.
     Those measurements taken by Lula I myself defended since I wrote my second book in 1,977. I was 19 years old without any economics knowledge but with an heart for fairness and compassion.
     As Brazilians use to say, Lula have been the “pe-de-coelho” or rabbit’s foot of Brazil. While he went office in 2002 soon Brazil conquered its 5th title as Soccer World Cup Champion. Not other good news could elevated the Brazilian optimism than these one. Ok, I am exaggerating a little.
     In his administration Brazil became selfsufficient in sources of energy, thanks to new investments in production of oil and biofuels, including alcohol from sugarcane. Was in his term that a mega oil deposit were found and it will soon put Brazil as exporter of petroleum. Wasn’t without reason president Obama said Lula was the guy. He left the office after the appointments for the next Soccer World Cup Championship (2,014) and, after London, next 2,016 Summer Olimpics Games.
     Sure. I am just making an abbreviation of what some presidents did for Brazil and they didn’t do just what I am saying they done. I am just characterizing their accomplishments.
     The most recent president(a) in Brazil is also the first female to take the first office in the country. Dilma Vana Rousseff is daughter of an immigrant from Bulgaria named Pedro Rousseff. Her mother, Dilma Jane da Silva is from Resende City, Rio de Janeiro State. The couple raised the family in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State capital, where Dilma Vana was born.
     At the “Anos de Chumbo” or Lead’s Years she became an active militant against the dictatorship. And she was captured, tortured and served three years in the prison. Is too earlier to characterized her administration because she was inaugurated in January first, 2,011. But looks like she will do continuity to the work of Lula. And it mean good news to United States but not so good as it could be if the past hadn’t its toll to pay for.
     I am mentioning it because United States could hope for a better partner from Brazil in this time of crisis. The problem is that, United States never asked for any forgiveness for its terribles deeds against the Brazilian people during the dictatorship there. It even didn’t acknowledged what were done. Now, many of the politician who are in power there were the same persons that sufferred the most from the interventionism.
     Even if those politicians don’t have hard feelings one thing they can’t help themselves to have, which is the lack of trust in United States policies. The acknowledgement and the asking for forgiveness could be the first step toward the construction of a new era of trusting. And a better alliance would only come if based in trust on each other.
     The acting from the last Bush administration can be accountable for great losses in the relationship between the two nations. His arrogance in making wars through lies must have put Brazilian politicians in a defense mode that reflected in economic losses for United States. What worry such politicians is the belief in that, When Americans don’t get what they want through diplomatic means they just take it from the others.
     And surely, the actions from the administration of the second president Bush did show it as truthful. And it must plaied a role when the administration Lula in Brazil opposed to a project that could give to United States a base to launch spaceships from there. Just for the reader know, the launching of spaceships around the equatorial line is much less expensive than other tropical or subtropical places. And Americans wanted the base as it was its own territory without sharing technologies.
     Certainly, nobody wantes give such trusting reception to Americans. Nobody wantes to give any excuse to American interventions in the future.
     Another blowout of American diplomacy lately were the lost of a multibillionaire contract with the Brazilian government to provide airships to its Army. Even the administration Obama been perceived as more friendly nobody knows what will come next. And nothing better than watch the Republican Party debates to take notice of what the world worries about United States are. So everytime any government have to decide if it will do business with Americans they will remember what were done before and will avoid to do it anytime they have a more trustfull supplier.
     They will not deliberately excludes United States from every business because the country is perceived as important to the world community but while United States do not works on its image as a good and essential partner it will suffer the erosion on its relationships and it maybe will drive to its demise as dominant economy in the world in a short term. It is not because the world hates United States but because United States is long making the same mistakes the others dead empires did before.


I wanna to show in these chapter something about the settlement of the European population at a particular area from the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. We know from the fossil records that Minas Gerais State is inhabited by indigenous people, at least, from 10.500 years ago. And to decipher how Brazil was first discovered by human being is a mystery far away from be solved. To have answers about it must be a project for a life long quest of many researchers.

The big problem is that, looks like Brazilian researchers don’t get the financial means to get the job done. And the country acelerated development can compromise the existent and unknown archeological sites. It can be considered a lucky charm the find of the skeleton of Luzia, at a cave in the city of Santa Luzia. From more than 10.000 years ago we can say for sure that, she was not the first dweller in Minas Gerais and, decisively, not the first Brazilian.

Minas Gerais is a continental state, and don’t have shores. The Atlantic Ocean is more than an hundred miles away from its borders. And Santa Luzia City is much more distant from the borders in opposite side of the Ocean. In between the Ocean and Santa Luzia City have another sea. A sea of mountains, once covered by a thick rain forest. Having not passage way between the two points in its shortest distance.

Many rivers that come from Minas Gerais State goes to the Atlantic Ocean through the Doce River Basin but they are just a sequence of rapids in the mountains. Otherwise, Santa Luzia is located in a plateau that marks the end of the coastal rough terrain and a smooth central plains. And the rivers from there on tend to take northwest direction. The big one around is the Velhas River (Old Females River) that goes by the smooth terrain until be united to the Sao Francisco River.

The Sao Francisco River is born in Minas Gerais and collect waters there caring it for more than one thousand miles through north direction. After that it abruptly change direction to east going to meet the Atlantic Ocean. At the point when it change direction it is at the heart of the Northeast Region of Brazil. Not far way from the south of the Piaui State. And there is where the Serra da Capivara National Park is.

Serra da Capivara and Pedra Furada archelogical sites are the places where the professor Niede Guidon and her team found inumerous clues suggesting that the inhabitation of human being in Americas is much earlier than Clovis Sites. The find is yet in dispute but what others finds around the world is suggesting is that, the assumptions from the earlier XX century about Americas first colonizations are not true. If any one want learn more about the issue, can take a quickly look at the address. The internet is plenty of informations about it.

As I said before, Luzia, the fossil, looks more like native Australian. And the mystery how human being appeared in the opposite side of South America Pacific shores maybe will be not longer such as mysterious. Nobody knows although if Luzia’s family were extinct or left to us some of their genetical material. What appear is that, native Americans have in their mytocondrial DNA some components that have not match to others. Then it could be it.

What appear to happen was that, from 10.000 years ago we got a bigger number from Asian population conquering the landscape. The Minas Gerais State was partially inhabited by their descendants when the European invaded Americas. And many common diseases unintentionally brough with them dizimated more than 90% of native Americans.

If simple diseases such as common cold could do it over a population of some thousands of year migrated from Asia, it could be much more devastating to population isolated by tens of thousands of years. The first Asians that first set foot in Americas had to be resistants to some kind of diseases that could easily kill the first inhabitants. So the survivors could be too few and their DNA too little to leave signatures for about the next 10.000 thousands years.

The idea of Minas Gerais State as a Paradise don’t come from me. One of our old cousins, professor Dermeval Jose Pimenta, who was born in 1,893 and died in 1.990 and wrote the book, A Mata do Pecanha, sua Historia e sua Gente, gave such idea. From the page 31 I will try to translate some exerpt.

“At the next day, after 10 miles of voyage, he passed the night at the Luiz Mota’s farm, sited at the borders of the Araras Stream, next to Sao Pedro do Suacui Village, where the soils are from an extrarodinary fertility. Couldn’t say it was really a farm. His hosts was two poor men. One of them had travelled around the world. Was Portuguese, had been in Angola, and came in to live the rest of his days at the Woods of Pecanha.

During the voyage from Prince’s Village (Serro City) to Pecanha, he noticed a most curious fact, at these path, taken in proportion, had the bigger quantity of Europeans than any other place in Brazil that he had been on. To what attribute such coming in of Portuguese people to the Mata do Pecanha? Lets take his own words to explain,

“There is a moment that those who err around the world as a continuous playing from their desire end feeling the needy for rest and solitude; some told them about the woods, and that they could have vaste lands and live in tranquility protected against poverty; to renounce to the prior plans; and the dangerous adventurers, settling down at the land, becoming useful citizen.”

Those observations are totally true.

In all of the Pecanhas Region, Sao Joao Evangelista, Sao Jose do Jacuri, Sao Pedro do Suacui, Sao Sebastiao dos Correntes (or now Sabinopolis City) and Sao Miguel de Guanhaes (Guanhaes City), the Portugueses, penetrating the woods, took posse of great extensions of lands, where they raised their families, constructed farms, installed sugarcane mills, planted edible grains, and lived with tranquility. The ones who were not marriaged got together with the indigenous people, raising families that today populate great part of that region.

He mention at the page 32, “When the exceeding sex bring them insomnia, they swallow an worm, that they dried out without taken the umbilical line. These worm is the “bicho da taquara” (caterpillar which live inside the species of bamboo called taquara). The indians used to eat such worms from which they extracted a kind of exquisitely fine fat, useful to cooking. When dried and converted in powder, was applied on open wounds for quickly healing. Although, when they ate the dried worms, without taken the umbilical line, they went to a kind of static sleeping that lasted for many days. After wake up the indians spoke about wonderful dreams, where they saw sparklings forests and ate delicious fruits. The head of the worm shall be not ate because is considered a powerful venon. The Portuguese considered such food as a precious delicacy.”

And he kept going at the page 32, “He had come to the Rio Vermelho Town that had about 50 little houses only. He admired its agreable looks in contrast to the landscape around about. The town had a great climate and was healthful. He found there many octogenarians and even people as old as ninety, one hundred and twenty and height as well as one hundred and thirty and two years old.”

Our cousin was talking about the voyage done by the French scientist Auguste de Saint-Hilaire who travelled to Minas Gerais State in the years of 1,816 to 1.817. And it was Minas Gerais State the land of the miners (mineiros). But the Paradise wasn’t there to everybody. He also narrates more about the life the indians were subdued to then.

“After he visited the Indians Reservations at the around about of the town and recorded their habits and customs, he speaks about the lustful of the Pecanha’s Indians. Saying even that, “becoming tired of their voluptuousness, renounced the life and hanged themselves on any tree from the woods.””

These opinion shown by the French scientist Saint-Hilaire is probably wrong and such behavior from the indigenous people still happen among tribes in areas like the Mato Grosso do Sul State. And the cause can be related to stress caused by the feeling of lost Paradise. We can open our minds and see what could past through the Indians minds just after the European invaded the lands where they were its solely lords. Our cousin Dermeval Jose Pimenta give us some clues on his narration at the page 48, when he talks about the patriarch of the Vieira Braga Family. He says,

“The French scientist Auguste Saint-Hilaire, when in 1,817 visited the then District of Santo Antonio do Pecanha, were hosted at a poor residence by Januario Vieira Braga, the commander of the Headquarter, installed at 1,807, about 4 miles away from the settlement. The commander, then yet suptuagenarian, born at 1,747, was a daring and valiant “mateiro” (someone who knows the secrets of the forests, – scout). Since the age of 14 years old he went the woods to fight the ferocious tribes of Indians named Botocudos. He fought them but was not inhumane, always hoping for to obtain informations about possible mineral riches at the region.

Is said that, one artifice used to hunt Indians constituted on to hid themselves in the woods, scouting their movements. At night after a long day of hunting and good food, the Indians left their arms in a deposit. Then, the old Januario with his companions, in secret, cut off the ropes of their archs, desarming them. When they waked up felt themselves without defense. The ones who resisted was killed and the tame and women was brought for work and to learn the catechism from the Catholic Church.”

What wasn’t mentioned by cousin Dermeval is that, the work that he refer to was slavery. The same was done to the African people that was considered in first place a merchandise before human being. So what would many of us do if a extraterristrial civilization take the Earth as it was their own and not ours and make us as slaves after kill all our resistents relatives? The answer probably will be strickling disturbing to many of us!

The revisionists could say that, cousin Dermeval was a man of prejudice by his observation that the old commander Januario was not inhumane treating the Indians like that. Again we must remember the time it were written. The book was published in 1,966 and had been written before these date. Martim Luther King Jr were assassinated in 1,968 and the Civil Rights Movement was at its apex at the time. It mean that our History was in a kind of limbo state between the new and the old understanding of life.

In Brazil the old generations really believed that to take the Indians from their old ways of life and Christianize them was the best they could do for them. The old generations didn’t recognized the Indians rights to the land and thought themselves ways of exploit it was the best thing to do. It was a series of unfortunate conceptions that the old generations really believed on. Although thinking they was giving all to goodness.

At these point we need to make up our mind about what are our conceptions in relationship to the others. We can’t assume that the good we are plan to do to others will always be really the best for them. When we assume that, we are mistakenly taken what appear the best for us as it is the good to others. Resuming it, we would try to do good to ourselves and not to others. Is just our selfness interfering with our understand of life and our will. We better hear first what the others think is good for themselves and do all of us to understand their point-of-view.

By the way, talking about our cousin Dermeval, his grandmother was the Brazilian native Francelina Catarina de Souza. He mention it at the page 212 of the book but don’t say the name of her tribe. She probably could be linked to the tribes Monoxos or Malalis the only others but the Botocudos that was in the area. But it is not any assurance of truth because he mentioned his grandfather had proposed her from her mother and they apparently lived isolated.

Like that having indigenous blood in a, at least, proportion of one quarter he probably wouldn’t have any racial prejudice. He just didn’t understood that the resistent Indians wasn’t any more bad than the insistent whites who wanted take from them all they had in life. Not only their material posses and knowledges but even their freedom that should be sacred to all of us.

After these brief introduction to these chapter I like to talk about the formation of our family. I mean the big fat family that come from the city once called Vila do Principe (Prince’s Village) and now have the name of Serro City. It had an immense territory in which some entire states from United States or Brazil could fit in and sparing good portion of its lands.

Serro City is located at Center Northeast of the Minas Gerais State. Was its fifth constituted village. Was set up in 1,714 under the administration of Antonio de Albuquerque Coelho de Carvalho, the Pacifier. It came about in the begining of the Minas Gerais Gold Rush which sprout from 1,698 until 1,750 when starts die out. It is on the line of mountains called Serra do Espinhaco (Big Spine Sierra) which goes from south to north in the state.

In these chapter I am going back in time. When I begun writing it said that I would try to put things in a chronological order. And I did it around about History and now I want go back just to explain our genealogical formation. At least at the point we have data in our hands.

We have to understand a little bit of geography also. The basics is that, Brazil got all the tropical shores of oriental South America, which is touched by just one ocean, the Atlantic. At the whole shore line is a strait chunk of plain lands. Not far way from the sea most of the terrain abruptely gain altitude forming what is called by Serra Geral (General Sierra). It is sighted from the sea and in the Southeast and South Brazil sometimes is called by the name of Muralha (Great Wall).

As most of the higher altitutes occur at these point and some parts of the mainland are down, many rivers tend go to mainland direction until it turns south, as the Paraguay River do, or north, like the Sao Francisco River, until they encounter their way to sea. In Minas Gerais such tendency doesn’t works so well. The Doce River broke the General Sierra in two. It goes from south to north until the Governador Valadares City where turns to the sea passing through the Espirito Santo State.

And that river made on its course some plains with much down altitude than its around about. On the Valley around Governador Valadares City we got a hot and humid climate. And as we enter in mainland direction we need practically to escalate as in stairways. On top of it we have the Espinhaco Sierra. Where all the gold once stood.

The Doce River Valley were a natural barrier to explore the mainland because its hot humid climate was a easy place to unknown diseases in colonial times. And many lost their lives trying to conquer it. Among them I already mentioned Agostinho Barbalho Bezerra the son of Luis Barbalho Bezerra, the Brazilian hero at the chapter of Dutchs Invasions around 1,640s. I believe that some people born in Brazil and linked to Dutchs at the time must have migrated to New York State which was also another Dutch colony.

Vila do Principe, now Serro City, was composed by the town with the name and a series of town born at the time of the Gold Cycle. The main ones was Conceicao do Mato Dentro, Tejuco which is now Diamantina, the district of Sao Jose de Taponhoacanga which now is part of Alvorada de Minas City, also Gouvea (Gouveia) and dozens more.

Around 1,750 the easy gold start to end and the local officials sent expeditions in radial directions to try to find more. Some where found at a plateau where later gave origin to the Santo Antonio do Pecanha Village. Now it is Pecanha City. Another place was called by the long name of, Vila de Nossa Senhora do Bom Sucesso das Minas Novas do Aracuai or, Our Lady of Good Success of the New Minas of the Aracuai Village. Now is just Minas Novas (New Mines). Those were not the last places where the gold or diamonds were found but since then the production was down. The gold of Minas Novas had been found since 1,727.

Was then that a new kind of colonization began. A wave of newcomers start mingling with the established population and entered the woods sinking lands to farm. Until 1,807 these tendency is blocked by the presence of the Botocudos Tribe which dominated southeast area of Serro, from Pecanha City to Doce River Valley. The governor of the State ordered the establishment of a fortification in Pecanha from where milicias dominated the Indians opening the immense new area to farmers.

Just after new settlements starts to be established. Among them, Sao Sebastiao dos Correntes, now Sabinopolis, and Sao Miguel e Almas, now Guanhaes. The settlements stood belonging to Serro City until 1,840 when the Village of Conceicao do Mato Dentro where created taking a good chunk of land. Sao Miguel e Almas even became part of Conceicao do Mato Dentro for about 18 years when it returned to Serro. Just for, some years later, 1,875, be emancipated as independent village among with Rio Doce, which was another name used by Pecanha before it took the name definitively.

After 140 years of its creation Serro City start to be broken apart in many big chunks of lands which now reduced its own territory to a small size city at Minas Gerais State. It count only 20,000 inhabitants in contrast to others cities that once were its towns like, Governador Valadares (255,000), Guanhaes (30,000), Itabira (105,000), Itambacuri (22,000), Minas Novas (30,000), Montes Claros (355,000), Nanuque (40,000), Pecanha (17,000), Sabinopolis (15,000), Sao Joao Evangelista (15,000), Teofilo Otoni (133,000), Virginopolis (10.000). These small number of old belonging to Serro count more than 1 million inhabitants but it probably count another million on more than 200 others cities also with roots on it.

I am not considering four sisters like cities, Coronel Fabriciano (103,000), Ipatinga (225,000), Joao Monlevade (71,000) and Timoteo (77.000). I am unsure if those ones once were part of Serro. Anyways its raising began at earlier XX century and their demographic explosion came after 1,950 and was caused by the installation of two big steel industries, Acesita and Usiminas. Between 1,961 and 1,964 our cousin Dermeval Jose Pimenta were president elected for the Acesita and later gave help on the foundation of Usiminas.

That’s for sure not everybody come from the same family but looking at our genealogical books we can detect a clear pattern in the formation of these part of the Brazilian population. First a relatively small population settle down in the towns around the Vila do Principe. The population on those towns increased through two or three generations by local birth and arriving of newcomers, specially from Portuguese origins.

The second fase came with the dispersion of the initial population which colonized new towns in a medium distance from the initial settlements. Those new towns were generally formed by groups of relatives who had born at the initial towns. Each new town received genetical contributions from many others and, in many times, also from others settlements from the south of the State. Sometimes newcomers from Portugal also participated in these proccess. And each generation gave a step further until the whole area were populated.

We can see it also through the genealogy of the cities. Serro City were divided in many little cities with a big territories. Later those big territories were divided into others cities and so on. Example of it, the southeast of Serro territory were divided into Guanhaes and Pecanha. Later Guanhaes gave birth to Acucena, Braunas, Dores de Guanhaes, Senhora do Porto and Virginopolis. In 1,962 the Virginopolis territory was divided into more 5 cities which are Divinolandia de Minas, Gonzaga, Santa Efigenia de Minas, Sardoa and Sao Geraldo da Piedade. And each older city gave birth to others. Pecanha was the one which became mother to Governador Valadares.

The families also got the same faith. One example of it is the Coelho family. The name is just a reference because our ancestor Jose Coelho de Magalhaes came from Portugal. He marriaged in 1,779 to Eugenia Rodrigues Rocha who already had ancestors living at the Serro’s dominion. Their children migrated and founded the town of Sao Miguel e Almas (Guanhaes). Their grandchildren founded the town of Virginopolis. Their greatgrandchildren also participated on the foundation of the towns beyond. And finally many generations united to form the city of Governador Valadares and also spread around a great number of cities from Brazil and abroad.

Others families took alternative directions but usually meet at the same end. On each city not everybody migrated to the next. Those who stood still for many generations now got an entire city as close relatives. And also share ancestors with the populations of others cities. I want to be more specific showing it through some lines in our ancestry later.

From the recent Census 2010 we can take good idea how the population is moving. If we take the numbers of 1,960 there will be 27,000 inhabitants in Virginopolis City. A respectable size on the time and even today. Now the city count only 10,530. But if we add to it the populations from, Divinolandia de Minas (7,013), Gonzaga (5,903), Santa Efigenia de Minas (4,573), Sardoa (5,588) and Sao Geraldo da Piedade (4,389) we find 38,016 on its original territory. Guanhaes on its original territory should have around 100,000 inhabitants. And Serro City the millions that we talk about before.

Anyways what we can observe is that, most of the small cities in the Minas States are losing population on every census. And the major cities are gaining it. Some small cities are adding, at least from 2,000 to 2,010. But I think these unexpected gaining can be linked to the economic crisis of 2,008 and so on. The region was the biggest exporter of migrants to the industrialized countries and it is getting a set back because the crisis, and also because Brazil is in a cycle of economic expansion.

Historically, Governador Valadares were the main destination from Serro City region for decades. It began at the begining of the XX century when the railroad linking it to Belo Horizonte and Vitoria, Espirito Santo State capital, in 1,910. Later on came the Rio-Bahia Road what accelerated its development. Before it the area was in great part taken by the Atlantic Forest. The population began to taken down the forest and make it into pastures.

The good soils under the forests gave pastures so rich that the farmers could put the bovines there and just wait for the time to come back and sale it to slaughter mills. And the farmers from a extensive area, even from the south of the Bahia State, had their houses in Governador Valadares where they raised their families. As its population grow bigger the commerce also attracted more people.

So isn’t that amaze I told about 300,000 inhabitants in that city around the year 1,970 and now it have only 255,475. It can be explained by two events. Was believed that in the apex of the Brazilian migration to the exterior Governador Valadares had sent abroad 50,000 from its population. And also the city old territory was shared with new cities. As the city was totally dependent on the meat market and commerce it became to vulnerable to the humors of the Brazilian economy with its ups and downs.

In contrast, the four cities of Coronel Fabriciano, Ipatinga, Joao Monlevade and Timoteo that are nearby began its development based on industrialization. And from the begining until now the population is steadly growing. From 2,000 to 2,010, Ipatinga alone gainned population a little bigger than the size of the whole city of Virginopolis. In the same period, Virginopolis lost something around 4% of its dwellers.

But the star of the time is Montes Claros City. It increased from 307,000 to 355,000 in the last ten years. It is called the North of Minas Gerais State Capital, title once belonging to Serro City. At the same period Serro decreased its population from 21,012 to 20,810. It is two tendencies long observed.

Well, lets take to the issue genealogy. Only recently I aknowledged that the genealogy around the old territory of Serro City had more records than I was awared of. I know we have some data in the old registers of birth, death, marriages, etcetera. But what a didn’t new is we already had some books written around it. The books don’t add the whole population but units some data from families that once were dominant around about.

Before, I had notice about some of them. But I never got into it until my father presented me with the book, Genealogical Tree of Coelho’s Family (Arvore Genealogica da Familia Coelho) written by his niece and our cousin, Ivania Batista Coelho. I already knew some of the contents in the book because most people was known to me. It is about the descendence of Jose Coelho de Magalhaes and Eugenia Rodrigues da Rocha. He was a migrant from Portugal, born around 1,750 and marriaged in the domain of Conceicao do Mato Dentro City.

They had five children, Jose Jr, Joao, Antonio, Felix and Clara Maria. Only Jose and Joao marriaged and the family bought some farms around where, with others pioneers, they founded the town of Sao Miguel e Almas. Saint Michael was the devotion saint of Jose Coelho de Magalhaes Junior, also known as Jose Coelho da Rocha. Jose was marriaged to Luiza Maria do Espirito Santo at the city of Conceicao do Mato Dentro and their four first children was born there and they had another four in Sao Miguel (Guanhaes).

Then the family began to split with part staying in Guanhaes and another part going to the town, founded by them and other pioneers, of Nossa Senhora do Patrocinio de Guanhaes, that later became Virginopolis. These last foundation came in 1,858 and I was born 100 years later at the same place. Several generations had pass on and the offspring from the initial couple was counted then in the number of thousands.

The book isn’t completed. It was written in 1,979 and several of relatives wasn’t registered in it because some didn’t sent the data in time and others had lost the contact. If thousands was there other equal number fail to do so. But we had a good idea about them because is our tradition to talk about it in our meetings around the fire.

Our uncle Joao Coelho de Magalhaes marriaged to their cousin Bebiana Lourenca de Araujo. They had six children but most of them moved to Diamantina City. Our cousin Ivania recorded only part of his genealogy, basically the ones who marriaged to the descendence of his brother Jose. And she took special care on leave to us how does our kinship with professor Nelson Coelho de Senna and Dr. Innocente Soares Leao.

Both of them edited books about our genealogy. Professor Senna authored “Algumas Notas Genealogicas” (Some Genealogical Notes). These book where published in 1,939 in Sao Paulo. Dr Soares Leao authored the book, “Notas Historicas Sobre Guanhaes” (Historical Notes About Guanhaes). It came to be in 1,967 at Belo Horizonte City. As both of them are direct descendants of uncle Joao I think they must gave us more insights about his descendence and it is probably why our cousin Ivania didn’t copied their notes as whole.

I yet mentioned our cousin Dermeval Jose Pimenta and his book, A Mata do Pecanha, sua Historia e sua Gente (The Pecanha’s Wood, its History and its People). It was published in 1,966 at Belo Horizonte City. He also didn’t took much care about the Coelho Family probably because the others had done it before. He just opened some window to our greatgreatgrandfather Antonio Rodrigues Coelho who was the youngest child of Jose and Luiza Maria. Antonio marriaged to Maria Marcolina Borges do Amaral who was professor’s Dermeval close relative and through her the Coelho and Pimenta families became united. But it is effective through our common ancestors from the families Pereira do Amaral and Borges Monteiro.

Professor Dermeval also mentions the Archives of the Leutenant Luiz Antonio Pinto. Pinto was born at the city of Caete, Minas Gerais, in 1,841. And worked as editor for a newspaper at Serro City. While working he also did a series of genealogical records that assembled data from inumerous families. His work is deposited at the Arquivo Publico Mineiro (Minas State Public Archives – APM in Belo Horizonte). Through internet I am informed that he got data for Coelho, Pinto, Rocha, just to mention only some of many families that I am interested on. He died at 1,924 for we get the idea how precious his data will be to any researcher on Serronean genealogy.

Another important literature on these issue is the book, Genealogias e Biografias de Serranos e Diamantinenses (Genealogies and Biographies of Serroneans and Diamantineans). The author is another cousin of ours, Dr. Luiz Eugenio Pimenta Mourao. The book was edited in 1,952 at Rio de Janeiro.

Unfortunately I never had the chance to take a look at such literature except for the works of cousins Ivania and Dermeval. But it is not all of it. The most known genealogist for Minas Gerais State was the father (Conego) Trindade. He was born in 1,883 and died in 1,962. He had good insights since he worked at the Archdiocese of Mariana City. Mariana was the first Diocese at the Minas Gerais State and all the data taken by the Catholic Church in the begining of its History was sent to there.

He is author of many works. One of those is, Velhos Troncos Mineiros (Old Trunks of Minas Gerais). It was published in 1,955 at Sao Paulo City. It is composed by three volumes in a total of 1,151 pages. He also published the book Genealogia da Zona do Carmo. It refer to genealogies around about the oldests cities of the State, Mariana and Ouro Preto. But it is more directed to his own kinship. Anyways, our families got so spreaded around the world that probably more than one million people can find some ancestor there. These book is at hand for free via internet and in one of its pages, titulo Gomes Candido, I found the ancestry and kinship of D. Emilia Gentil Gomes Candido de Senna, the wife of our cousin professor Nelson Coelho de Senna.

I got one more little of book. It is named, Arvore Genealogica da Familia de Jose Batista Coelho (Family Tree for Jose Batista Coelho). It is just a actualization for some part of our cousin Ivania work. It is about the descendence of my greatgrandfather Ze (Joe) Coelho. The authorship come from our aunt Ruth Coelho, who was his daughter, and her daughter Mariza Martins Coelho. The actualization goes until 1,996.

The notes about those books I am taking is to inform about its existence to anyone who will be interested on do research after my work. I don’t know if I will get the chance to examine such material and the answer to it is, possibly not. Is to much work and I would need time and money. Two luxurious itens that I don’t think I will have shortly. The genealogies from the books of cousins Ivania and Dermeval are already published at the sites, and (partially).

To end the list of documentation we could use to complete the most possible our Family Tree, I know we have registrations from our ancestors at the cities of Serro, Guanhaes, Conceicao do Mato Dentro, Itabira, Congonhas do Campo, Ouro Preto and Mariana. From there on we probably would find something in all the colonial cities at Brazilian Shores, from Sao Paulo to Ceara States. From there on we will have to cross the Atlantic back to Portugal and Africa.

I will now try to show something about the genealogical formation of our big fat family. Starting from a genealogical sequence that can be united to the family of the Brazilian hero, Luiz Barbalho Bezerra. I will take help from informations found at the site – Portugal together with we found at the book of The Pecanha’s Wood. Cousin Dermeval informed that he founded his data at a file from the Colegio Brasileiro de Genealogia (Brazilian Genealogy College) at Rio de Janeiro City. Lets post it though.

Afonso Carreiro – unknown partner
1,380 Joao Carreiro – Isabel de Torres
1,410 Pedro Carreiro – unknown partner
1,440 Joao Carreiro – unknown partiner
1,470 Catarina Anes Carreiro – Joao Rodrigues
1,500 Francisco Carreiro – Alda Lourenco Rodrigues Salema (01)
1,525 Manuel Carreiro – Joana Rodrigues Valente (02)
1,550 Pedro Carreiro Salema – Maria Nunes de Andrade
1,575 Maria Furtado – 1,590 Luiz Barbalho Bezerra (03)
Jeronimo Barbalho Bezerra – Izabel Pedreira
Unknown child – unknown partner (04)
1,668 Pascoa Barbalho – Pedro da Costa
Maria da Costa Barbalho – Manoel Aguiar
Manoel Vaz Barbalho – Josefa Pimenta de Souza (05)
1,738 Isidora Maria da Encarnacao – Antonio Francisco de Carvalho (06)
1,779 Boaventura Jose Pimenta – Maria Balbina de Santana (07)
1,821 Modesto Jose Pimenta – Ermelinda Querubina Pereira do Amaral (08)
1,853 Cornelio Jose Pimenta – Josefina Carvalho de Souza (09)
1,893 Dermeval Jose Pimenta – Lucia Pinheiro Pimenta (10)

These is the genealogy presented by our cousin Dermeval Jose Pimenta. The genealogy he knew began at Luiz(s) Barbalho Bezerra and he didn’t knew the name of his wife so from that point on I took from The site inform us that 1,380 Joao Carreiro died in 1,449 at the Battle of Alfarrobeira. Cornelio Jose Pimenta is one of the pioneers that founded the city of Sao Joao Evangelista which also was called by the name of Pecanha’s Wood. And,

(01) Alda Lourenco Rodrigues Salema, was daughter of
Rodrigo Afonso de Tavora – Cristina Goncalves Salema

(02) Joana Rodrigues Valente, was daughter of
Fernao Valente – Isabel Goncalves Ribeiro

(03) Luiz(s) Barbalho Bezerra, was son of
1,570 Antonio Barbalho Bezerra – 1,572 Camila Bezerra

(04) These is one point of weakness on the study done by cousin Dermeval. He don’t mention exactly where he found that D. Pascoa Barbalho was grandaughter of Jeronimo and Izabel. He mentioned just generally the filecards that belongs to the Brazilian College of Genealogy (CBG – in Portuguese language). And on the cards are the informations about where the informations are found. So I would have to go to Rio de Janeiro to verify it.

(05) Josefa Pimenta de Souza got her own genealogical sequence. She as well her husband had been born at where today is the Rio de Janeiro State. Her father was a well established person at Rio de Janeiro City and had two lawful wives. Even so, he had Josefa with a unknown partner although he raised her in his own house together with his others offsprings. Josefa and Manoel Vaz Barbalho moved to the a town called Milho Verde (Green Corn – been Green in a sense of New) which still part of the Serro City and is where they got marriaged to each ohter.

The Family name Jose Pimenta was given to the grandsons of Josefa as an homage to her. And since then it stood for many generations. We got the data of her ancestry,

1,716 Josefa Pimenta de Souza – Manoel Vaz Barbalho
1,691 Belchior Pimenta de Carvalho – unknown partner
Belchior Pimenta de Carvalho – 1,677 Francisca de Almeida
1,622 Maria de Andrade – 1,610 Manoel Pimenta de Carvalho
Belchior de Andrade – Maria Cardoso

1,677 Francisca de Almeida was daughter of, Amaro de Aguiar and Francisca de Almeida. The family was from Rio de Janeiro exept for Manoel Pimenta de Carvalho who cousin Dermeval said was born in Vila Vicosa, Alentejo, Portugal. He went Brazil around 1,640 when he marriaged to Maria de Andrade.

(06) Professor Dermeval said that he looked for more data about the children of Josefa Pimenta and Manoel Vaz Barbalho but found only Isidora Maria da Encarnacao. Here we can verify some tradition from the time in Portuguese genealogy. The children was Christianized and get just a first name. Later on they themselves would choose a last and middle name for themselves. Usually women adopted names that remembered their Catholic faith. Like Isidora have chosen Maria da Encarnacao (Mary of Incarnation).

Men sometimes could choose names from their ancestry rather than their father’s. Usually, their others names starts to be shown at their marriage certificates. But it only make the work of genealogy more difficult to do. Sometimes it make hard to make a Family Tree since you don’t have all the data in just one place because the population at the time was always moving from town to town, looking for better opportunities.

The husband of Isidora, Antonio Francisco de Carvalho, was a Portuguese captain born at Vila dos Colares, Patriarchate of Lisbon. He was son of Antonio Leal and D. Maria Francisca. For some time he was the administrator of the Holy Places at the County of Serro City.

(07) I will start these section with another genealogical sequence. It is about what professor Dermeval called by Borges Monteiro Trunk.

1,807 Maria Balbina de Santana – Boaventura Jose Pimenta
1,777 Antonio Borges Monteiro Jr. – Maria Madalena de Santana (11)
1,751 Antonio Borges Monteiro – Maria de Souza Fiuza (12)
Caettano Borges – Joana Monteiro (13)
Manoel Borges – Izabel Rodrigues

(13) Joana Monteiro was daughter of Estevao Rodrigues and Maria Monteiro. These family was formed at the city of Seia which one count with many towns. Antonio Borges Monteiro was born at the Town of Pinhancos. And only his grandmother, Maria Monteiro, was from a different place called, Almeida Village. Seia is in the District (State) of Guarda.

Antonio Borges Monteiro moved to Brasil where he marriaged to Maria de Souza Fiuza. They had three children, Antonio Jr., Noroteia and Joao Borges Monteiro. Our ancestor Maria died and he marriaged to Margarida Maria do Rosario who had been born in Serro City. From these second matrimony he fathered, Maria (1,786), Margarida (1,787), Manoel (1,789), Jose (1,791), Ana (1,793), Umbelino (1,794), Francisco (1,796) and Isidro (1,796). Francisco and Isidro was twins.

Margarida Maria do Rosario – 1,751 Antonio Borges Monteiro
Domingos Lourenco Seixas – Maria Caetana de Pinho
Joao Lourenco – Maria Gomes

Domingos Lourenco Seixas had been born at Marco de Canaveses, a place around about the Porto City, Portugal. His wife, Maria Caetana de Pinho was daughter of Joao Simoes Santiago and Madalena de Pinho.

Antonio Borges Monteiro also sent two of his sons, Umbelino and Isidro, to live at the Rio de Janeiro City. Later on Umbelino moved to the city of Iguacu where he left descendence. Uncle Isidro stood in Rio de Janeiro. One of his sons, named after himself, studied advocacy and became the sheriff of the town between 1,857 and 1,860. He is also ancestor for Eduardo Pellew Wilson, born in 1,964, who is the second Count of Wilson.

(12) Maria de Souza Fiuza – Antonio Borges Monteiro
Joao de Sousa Azevedo – Doroteia Barbosa Fiuza (14)
Manuel de Sousa Azevedo – Anna Coelho

We found that is there a reference indicating Vila Nova do Norte (North New Village) as the birth place for Joao de Sousa Azevedo. He is Portuguese born but now there is no place with such name. There are two Vilas Novas in the region of Porto City. It could be one of those. What could be the link is the last name Coelho on his mother. The Coelho Family have close ties with the region. But have another Vila Nova at the Terceira Island, Azores Islands. And the Family Coelho was there when Portuguese people began populate it. So I don’t want do anymore speculation.

(14) Doroteia Barbosa Fiuza was daughter of Domingos Barbosa Moreira and Teresa de Jesus. She had been born at Sao Goncalo do Rio das Pedras. The town still part of Serro City and Domingos Barbosa is the name of its founder, in 1,789. Could be our ancestor or his offspring. It stands next do Diamantina City and the District of Milho Verde that belongs to Serro City. It is new even to me who got informations from the sites, and

Before, I said that was many Pokahontas like stories in Brazilian culture. And in one of those is said that, a French sailman lived at the Bahia State shores with the indians. The Portuguese people came and he was forced to enter the land with his indigenous partner. He fathered a child and died. Later on also the mother of the child died and a Portuguese person took and raised him. The child became a cowboy and farmer.

Around his farm he founded a town and it came to be Tabaiana. These town was part of Bahia State until de year of 1,823 when part of the North of the State emancipated to give birth to which today is the Sergipe State. Later the town was renamed Itabiaiana as it is even today.

It is why at the page 248 our cousin said about Teresa de Jesus, “Brazilian, born in Tabaiana, Bahia State”. It really was at the time. Another interesting information is that, the ancestor Domingos Barbosa Moreira was Portuguese and Sargento-Mor (Sargent-Major) which could mean some person of noble origin. If the tale is true maybe we are descendants of these Pokahontas like story because Teresa de Jesus could be offspring of the farmer founder of Tabaiana.

(11) The parents for Maria Madalena de Santana was Jose Vicente de Miranda and Ana Maria da Encarnacao.

(08) Ermelinda Querubina Pereira do Amaral – Modesto Jose Pimenta. Here we got another interesting genealogical sequence. It is about the Saga where many families such as Pereira do Amaral, Borges Monteiro, Coelho de Magalhaes, Pimenta, Barbalho, Nunes Coelho, Carvalho, Oliveira, Lott and so many more began to conquer the Southeast of Serro City, populate it and now their descendence spreaded around the whole Brazilian territory and the world.

1,827 Ermelinda Querubina Pereira do Amaral – Modesto Jose Pimenta
1,791 Malaquias Pereira do Amaral – Ana Maria de Jesus (15)
Miguel Pereira do Amaral – Francisca Angelica da Encarnacao (16)
Manuel Pereira – Maria de Benevides

The patriarchs Manuel Pereira and Maria de Benevides lived at the Sao Miguel Island which is also part of the Azores Islands and since the end of the 1,300s colonized by Portuguese and Dutch peoples. The only child we are aware of been born from them is Miguel who around the year 1,760 moved to Minas Gerais State. He first went to the town of Congonhas do Campo which was where the richest and powerful had their houses. It is not so far from Ouro Preto and Mariana cities, repectively, the second and first state capitals. He marriaged there but our records show that his son Malaquias was born at Conceicao do Mato Dentro, suggesting they moved after.

(16) Francisca Angelica da Encarnacao was daughter of Francisco Jose Barbosa Fruao and Ana Maria de Jesus. He was a native from Portugal, from Barcelos, Barcelos. Supposedly his wife was from Congonhas do campo.

(15) Ana Maria de Jesus, wife of Malaquias, was daughter of Antonio Coelho de Almeida and another Ana Maria de Jesus. So we got three ancestors with the same name. And the composition of their names doesn’t indicates nothing about their families. The combination is such as, Ana is the name of the supposed grandmother of Jesus; Maria is the name of his mother; and “de Jesus” means something like, belonging to Jesus. In Portuguese genealogy we have “de Jesus” as family name but it is probably derived from the tradition where people would adopt names attached to Catholic traditions. Then when the name appear in our ancestors we don’t know if it is from family or homage traditions.

The link between the Pimenta, Pereira do Amaral, Borges Monteiro and Coelho de Magalhaes is given to us through one marriage. It is represented by the next genealogical sequence.

1,777 Antonio Borges Monteiro Jr. – Maria Madalena de Santana
Maria Francelina Borges Monteiro – Daniel Pereira do Amaral
1,843 Maria Marcolina Borges do Amaral – Antonio Rodrigues Coelho
1,872 Joao Rodrigues Coelho – Olimpia Rosa Coelho do Amaral
1,893 Zulmira Coelho de Magalhaes – Trajano de Magalhaes Barbalho
1,924 Odila Barbalho Coelho – Eurico Batista Coelho
1,951 Ivania Batista Coelho

Here I decided to play around with our genealogy. These is one of the ways our cousin and author of one book of our genealogy is shown descendent of the three of the trunks. Maria Francelina was sister of Maria Balbina de Santana (07). And Daniel Pereira do Amaral was brother of Ermelinda Querubina Pereira do Amaral (08), two of the ancestors of professor Dermeval Jose Pimenta. Eurico Batista Coelho, father of Ivania, was son of Maria Carmelita Coelho, sister of Joao Rodrigues Coelho, and Simao Baptista Coelho was brother of Olimpia Rosa Coelho do Amaral. And such happen is not exception.

The linking between the families is also with Antonio Rodrigues Coelho. Lets put his ancestry to show it.

1,829 Antonio Rodrigues Coelho – Maria Marcolina Borges do Amaral
1,782 Jose Coelho da Rocha – Luiza Maria do Espirito Santo (17)
1,766 Eugenia Rodrigues Rocha – Jose Coelho de Magalhaes
Giuseppe Nicatsi da Rocha – Maria Rodrigues de Magalhaes Barbalho

Here we got an interesting end the line. The only information we have about our ancestor Giuseppe is that, he had ancestors from Italy and Portugal. I am not sure but their names was probably located by our cousin Dermeval Jose Pimenta after the publication of his book in 1,966.

In the page number 254 of his book, professor Dermeval give us some window on his doubts. The page starts with his ancestor Isidora Maria da Encarnacao, who was born in 1,738 and was daughter of Manoel Vaz Barbalho and Josefa Pimenta de Souza. He mention that he had only identified Isidora but suggests their other children could have received names like Pimenta Barbalho, Vaz Barbalho or Barbalho. He also point out that from the nine children of Isidora and Captain Antonio Francisco de Carvalho he had informations only about his ancestor Boaventura Jose Pimenta and his sister, Vitoriana Florinda de Athayde.

Since then I am suspitious about our ancestor Maria Rodrigues de Magalhaes Barbalho also be daughter of Manoel Vaz Barbalho and Josefa Pimenta de Souza. It came because Barbalho wasn’t a name too common around, so I wouldn’t expect it come from any variety of sources. Otherwise have the possibility of some Manoel Vaz Barbalho’s relatives be our ancestor instead.

The low frequency of the appearances of the name in Minas Gerais State could have a unexpected explanation. Jeronimo Barbalho Bezerra, son of the hero Luiz(s) Barbalho Bezerra, was hanged at the historical event called by “Revolta da Cachaca”, in 1,661. The Minas Gerais State families are long known as too much conservative. And to be known as descendant from a hanged man would appear to much shameful to bear to most of them. And until recently the event hadn’t been considered important to the Brazilian History.

Taking advantage from these point I also would suggest another mean to the signature Magalhaes Barbalho in our family. It appear after the marriaged of our ancestors Policarpo Barbalho and Genoveva (Vita) de Magalhaes. They had been marriaged to each other around 1,817 at Mariana City. And moved to Itabira City where they raised the family until their children, father Emygdio and Francisco Marcal de Magalhaes Barbalho went Guanhaes City.

Our tradition says that, Policarpo Barbalho had been born at the states of Ceara or Rio Grande do Norte before transfer himself to Minas Gerais State. Another tradition was passed to me when I was a child saying that, “Some of members of the Barbalho family stood at the Brazilian Northeast and two brothers moved to the South. One went Minas Gerais and another the Rio Grande do Sul State”. And these second suggestion have its similitude with the reality.

The brother of Jeronimo, Agostinho Barbalho Bezerra, who became governor of Rio de Janeiro for a short while, was presented by the kings of Portugal with the Santa Catarina Island. Today is where the state capital, Florianopolis, is located. At that time the Brazilian South wasn’t yet divided in three states and the Santa Catarina State didn’t exist. I am just speculating that his offsprings maybe live there and it explains the presence of the Barbalho Family at the Brazilian South.

And is possible our tradition be a little bit distorted and our ancestor Policarpo Barbalho be also descendent of Jeronimo Barbalho Bezerra, been born at Minas Gerais State and the suggestion of he been born at Brazilian Northeast be a mistake. If both of my theories are right I will be not much of amazed because things like that are supposed to happen all the time in human genealogy. But also I will be very concerned with the inequality on our genetical contents. We would be to much of a poultry bundle. Dangerously genetically uniform.

I will post a little sequence to demonstrate the linking between the families Barbalho and Coelho.

Policarpo Barbalho – Genoveva (Vita) de Magalhaes
1,824 Francisco Marcal de Magalhaes Barbalho – Eugenia Maria da Cruz (A)
1,854 Marcal de Magalhaes Barbalho – Ercila Coelho de Andrade (B)
1,890 Trajano de Magalhaes Barbalho – Zulmira Coelho de Magalhaes (C)

(A) Eugenia Maria da Cruz is daughter of the captain Jose Coelho da Rocha and Luiza Maria do Espirito Santo, the first dwellers of Guanhaes City. (B) The name Coelho for Ercila Coelho de Andrade have different origins and we don’t know it come from. The only one thing that we know is that, she was daughter of Joaquim Coelho de Andrade and Joaquina Umbelina da Fonseca. They came from Itabira and accordingly to our traditions the name Andrade is the same for the poet Carlos Drummond de Andrade. (C) Trajano (Cista) and Zulmira are grandparents for the author Ivania and myself.

We also are descendants of the one more child of captain Jose and Luiza Maria. Lets show it,

1,782 Jose Coelho da Rocha – Luiza Maria do Espirito Santo
1,822 Joao Baptista Coelho – Maria Honoria Nunes Coelho (D)
1,846 Joao Baptista Coelho Junior – Quiteria Rosa Pereira do Amaral (E)
1,876 Olimpia Rosa Coelho do Amaral – Joao Rodrigues Coelho
1,893 Zulmira Coelho de Magalhaes – Trajano de Magalhaes Barbalho

(E) Quiteria Rosa Pereira do Amaral was daughter of Joaquim Pereira do Amaral and Maria Rosa dos Santos Carvalhais. And we don’t have the data that could say if yes or not our ancestor Joaquim Pereira do Amaral is related to our others ancestors also Pereira do Amaral. She and our greatgreatgrandfather Joao Jr. had 11 children, Maria Rosa, Amelia Rosa (maiden), Olimpia Rosa (marriaged to Joao Rodrigues), Joao Neto (grandson), Simao (marriaged to aunt Carmelita), Julia (marriaged to uncle Benjamin 2nd), Jose, Evencio, Francisco Sobrinho (nephew), Salathiel and Amavel (not marriaged).

(D) Joao Coelho and Maria Honoria had 12 children. Joao Jr., Maria Honoria, Antonio Paulino (marriaged to aunt Julia Salles), Sebastiana (marriaged to Joaquim Nunes Coelho), Joaquim Bento, Anna Honoria (her daughter Marina marriaged to uncle Daniel), Emygdia Honoria, Antonia (marriaged to uncle Pedro de M. Barbalho), Virginia, Jose (greatgrandfather Joe Coelho marriaged to two sisters, greatgrandmother Maria Marcolina and aunt Virginia), Marcolina Honoria and Francisco.

Observation. The references to marriages includes only the ones who marriaged to first degree cousins and second degree cousin in the specific case of uncle Daniel and aunt Marina (Nenen).

(17) Luiza Maria do Espirito Santo was born at Corrego da Prata (Silver Stream), it is probably a farm name that was in Conceicao do Mato Dentro City. Today I am not sure. Her parents were Antonio Jose Moniz and Manuela do Espirito Santo. As we don’t know the names of her grandparents, we also have no idea if the name Espirito Santo (Holy Ghost) come as a last name from a Portuguese family which bears it or it is just a coincidence.

As I said before, more you know the genealogy of the families that colonized some region more confident you become on navigate along with others genealogies. Just using the links between them. One example in our family is that, I already said that our ancestor Jose Coelho da Rocha, also known as Jose Coelho de Magalhaes Filho had a brother with the name Joao Coelho de Magalhaes.

Our ancestor Jose had eight children. In order of birth they are, Jose Coelho da Rocha Neto, Maria Luiza Coelho, Francisca Eufrasia de Assis, Ana Maria de Jesus Coelho, Joao Baptista Coelho, Eugenia Maria da Cruz, Antonina (who died as child) and Antonio Rodrigues Coelho yet mentioned above. Joao Baptista Coelho who got the name because were born at the day the Catholic Church dedicated to Saint John, the Baptist, was marriaged to Maria Honoria Nunes Coelho. And she give us one link to the Nunes Coelho family, which Coelho in our knowledge is not the same. Lets put something about her genealogy.

Maria Honoria Nunes Coelho – 1,822 Joao Baptista Coelho
1,806 Clemente Nunes Coelho – unknown wife
Eusebio Nunes Coelho – Ana Pinto de Jesus
Manuel Nunes Coelho – unknown wife

The ancestors Eusebio Nunes Coelho and Ana Pinto de Jesus had, at least, four more sons, Joaquim, Francisco, Bento and Antonio. The son Joaquim Nunes Coelho marriaged to Francisca Eufrasia de Assis, also daughter of Jose and Luiza Maria. Francisco marriaged to Maria Augusta Cesarina de Carvalho. Her parents were Jose Carvalho da Fonseca and Senhorinha Rosa de Jesus. Senhorinha Rosa was daughter of our ancestor Antonio Borges Monteiro Junior and Maria Madalena de Santana. So she was sister of both, Maria Balbina and Maria Francelina that bring us back, respectively, to the families Pimenta through Boaventura Jose Pimenta and Pereira do Amaral through our ancestor, Daniel Pereira do Amaral.

(10) Lucia Pinheiro Pimenta – Dermeval Jose Pimenta. Lets anticipate a little something here because we have another known crossing link. Mrs Lucia Pinheiro was daughter of the Minas Gerais State ex-governor Joao Pinheiro da Silva. Joao Pinheiro as he is known was born at Serro City and was son of a Italian immigrant named Giuseppe Pignataro. Giuseppe did what was a custom at his time when the immigrants used to translate their names. Then in Brasil he became Jose Pinheiro (Pine Tree). To be a more authentic Brazilian he added the “da Silva” which is the most popular name there.

Dr. Joao Pinheiro also fathered Amanda de Barros Pinheiro who marriaged to Dr. Caio Nelson de Senna. Dr. Caio was son of our cousin, professor Nelson Coelho de Senna and D. Emilia Gentil Gomes Candido. So their offspring also became descendants of our ancestors Jose Coelho de Magalhaes and Eugenia Rodrigues Rocha, through our uncle Joao Coelho de Magalhaes. Dr. Joao Pinheiro da Silva died while in office as governador. And later on his son Israel Pinheiro da Silva was also governor of the Minas Gerais State.

(09) Josefina Carvalho de Souza – Cornelio Jose Pimenta. Those are the parents for cousin Dermeval Jose Pimenta. These marriage is interesting because units many genealogies from and for many towns around. First of all lets post a little genealogical lineage.

1,861 Josefina Carvalho de Souza – Cornelio Jose Pimenta
1,839 Manoel Carvalho de Souza – Francelina Catarina de Souza (indigenous origins)
Manoel de Carvalho – Rosa Maria (or Maria Rosa)

According to cousin Dermeval, Mr. Manoel de Carvalho came from the town of Gouveia which one is also next do Diamantina and Serro cities. He and his wife established themselves with farms around about where today is Sao Jose do Jacuri City. In there the family multiplied and pass on to other places such as Sao Jose dos Paulistas, Sao Joao Evangelista, Pecanha and others. He didn’t track his indigenous side but what we would expect is that they got kinship with the whole area through it.

He mentions also that, his greatgrandaddy Manoel was brother of Jose Carvalho da Fonseca. This one was marriaged to Senhorinha Rosa de Jesus, daughter of the ancestors Antonio Borges Monteiro Junior and Maria Madalena de Santana. Jose and Senhorinha moved to the neighborhood of the Ribeirao das Araras (Macaus Stream) at the Sao Pedro do Suacui City. They also multiplied their family there and their descendence passed on to places like Guanhaes, Sao Jose dos Paulistas, Sao Joao Evangelista, Canta Galo, Pecanha, Belo Horizonte and so on.

So, in all it is just an abbreviation of what we can got from the informations contained at the book of A Mata do Pecanha, sua Historia e sua Gente. I have a text in my blog under the address: that shows much more. Is in Portuguese language but the genealogical portion can be read without know the language. The data from the book is also published at the site

Just to complete some informations let post one more little genealogical sequence.

1,853 Cornelio Jose Pimenta – Josefina Carvalho de Souza
1,880 Etelvina Pimenta Brant – Pedro Ferreira de Andrade Brant
1,911 Moacir Pimenta Brant – Iolanda Raimunda da Rocha Brant
1,946 Fernando Rocha Brant

I posted these sequence only because I mentioned Fernando Brant before as one example of music producer that help us pass through the sad years when we were under the dictatorship in Brazil. His name doesn’t ring the bells without mention the name of his long time partner Milton Nascimento. Milton is a four times Grammy Awards winner. And I have one of his discs, from the Millennium collection, in which 10 out of 20 musics were done in partnership with our cousin.

Also I need post more two little genealogical sequences to identify how we are relatives of two genealogists on our family that I mentioned before. They are, respectively, authors of the books, “Genealogy and Biographies of Serroneans and Diamantineans” and “Historical Notes about Guanhaes”.

1,777 Antonio Borges Monteiro Junior – Maria Madalena de Santana
1,807 Maria Balbina de Santana – Boaventura Jose Pimenta
1,825 Francisco de Assis Pimenta – Francisca Augusta Pires
1,858 Josefina Ermelinda Pimenta – Joao Raimundo Mourao Junior
1,884 Luiz Eugenio Pimenta Mourao – Jeny Formiga

1,750(?) Jose Coelho de Magalhaes (*) – Eugenia Rodrigues Rocha
1,785 Joao Coelho de Magalhaes – Bebiana Lourenca de Araujo
1,828 Emilia Brasiliana Coelho – Jose Coelho da Rocha Ribeiro (Ze Querino)
1,855 Agueda (Gueda) Coelho – Innocente de Leao Freire
Innocente Soares Leao – Maria Carsalade Guimaraes Leao

I would mention also the leutenant Luiz Antonio Pinto as a probable cousin of our. He was born at the city of Caete and lived at Serro City. There are in his Archives the genealogy for the Pinto Family. Our ancestor Ana Pinto de Jesus was wife of Eusebio Nunes Coelho but we don’t have data from her ancestry. And I hadn’t have the opportunity to study his data which is deposited at the Arquivo Publico Mineiro, in Belo Horizonte.

Well, I myself could be posted too. But it would be a little hard because I am six times descendant from the couple Jose Coelho da Rocha and Luiza Maria do Espirito Santo. Three times from my mother’s side and three from my father’s. To make it simple, my father was Odon de Magalhaes Barbalho, brother of Odila Barbalho Coelho and uncle of Ivania Batista Coelho, who wrote our genealogy. By the way, she used my father’s notes and our greatgrandaddy’s, Joao Rodrigues Coelho, notes to write her book.

Just some considerations until I end these chapter. To have an idea how the population in the old Serro City territory were formed we can look some statistics of Sao Evangelista City. I numbered the list of first dweller presented by cousin Dermeval and I came with 104 families. More than 20 of the parents in the families I could identify immediately as our relatives. Mostly descendents of our ancestors Antonio Borges Monteiro and Miguel Pereira do Amaral.

There are a particularity at that city. Before have a town there, around 1,830s, the list of first dwellers point out the presence of the Portuguese couple, captain Ildefonso da Rocha Freitas and his wife D. Maria Coelho da Silveira. Cousin Dermeval mentions that they start one family named Coelho da Rocha. But as soon as the town was born in 1,875 the place were packed with people from the new and old towns once belonging to Serro City.

In other book not mentioned, that I didn’t had access to, authorshiped by Joselia Barroso Queiroz Lima, is a mention of a list of 15 first dwellers of Sabinopolis City. Five of them, Antonio Borges Monteiro, Antonio Borges Monteiro Junior, Malaquias Pereira do Amaral, Manoel Coelho de Almeida and Joao Pereira do Amaral are our ancestors or brothers of them. And we can’t deny the possibility of the others 10 be ours relatives because we don’t have our complete genealogy.

The town of Sao Miguel e Almas, later Guanhaes, start with the presence of captain Jose Coelho de Magalhaes Filho and his wife, Luiza Maria do Espirito Santo. With them was others head of families such as, Francisco de Souza Ferreira, Antonio de Oliveira Braga, Faustino Xavier Caldeira and Jose de Oliveira Rosa. As son of leutenant Jose Coelho de Magalhaes and Eugenia Rodrigues Rocha, captain Jose was also known as Jose Coelho da Rocha. Here are the coincidence of the same last name for the founders of Guanhaes and Sao Joao Evangelista, although without a known privious kinship between them.

Most children of captain Jose and Luiza Maria stood in the lands of Guanhaes but at the around about of where today is Virginopolis City. The names in the books for the founders of the town were: Felix Gomes de Brito, Jose Antonio da Fonseca, captain Figueiredo, leutenants Joao Baptista Coelho and Joaquim Nunes Coelho. Joao Baptista was son and Joaquim son-in-law of captain Jose and his wife Luiza Maria.

Although not pointed as first dwellers at the town, another daughter of the couple above, Eugenia Maria da Cruz, and her husband Francisco Marcal de Magalhaes Barbalho raised their family at the neighborhood and all their children moved to Virginopolis. They had 8 children, Emygdia, Petronilha, Pedro, Marcal, Quiteria, Candida, Julia (not marriaged) and Ambrosina. Pedro and Marcal kept the family name “de Magalhaes Barbalho” for their children. Because the others was women their children were named after their husbands that was, Nunes Coelho, Magalhaes Pacheco and Magalhaes.

The youngest son of captain Jose and Luiza Maria, Antonio Rodrigues Coelho, lived his whole life in Guanhaes City and there had 16 children. One, Benjamin 1st, died at young age. Two daughters, Julia Salles and Emidia Justiniana, was with other women not from his wife Maria Marcolina Borges do Amaral. With her he begot, Antonio Junior, Lindolpho, Altivo, Josephina, Maria Marcolina, Joao, Jose, Luiza, Angelina, Daniel, Virginia, Benjamin 2nd and Maria Carmelita.

Later on moved to Virginopolis, Maria Marcolina, Joao, Jose, Daniel, Virginia, Benjamin 2nd and Maria Carmelita. Except for Jose, they all marriaged to their cousins, descendants of Joao Baptista Coelho. Part of the children of Lindolpho and Altivo also moved to there and marriaged to cousins.

I will post two short sequences to give some idea on how the Coelho Family was formed.

1,782 Jose Coelho de Magalhaes Filho – Luiza Maria do Espirito Santo
1,818 Francisca Eufrasia de Assis – Joaquim Nunes Coelho
1,852 Miguel Nunes Coelho – Ambrosina de Magalhaes Barbalho
1,884 Bishop, D. Manoel Nunes Coelho, first bishop at Luz City, Minas Gerais.

1,782 Jose Coelho de Magalhaes Filho – Luiza Maria do Espirito Santo
1,824 Eugenia Maria da Cruz – Francisco Marcal de Magalhaes Barbalho
1,861 Ambrosina de Magalhaes Barbalho – Miguel Nunes Coelho
1,890 Notel Nunes Coelho – Maria Isabel Rodrigues
1,915 Monsenhor, Omar Nunes Coelho

Those sequences are useful to show a little about the composition of the Coelho Family at Virginopolis City. Our relatives Francisca Eufrasia de Assis and Joaquim Nunes Coelho had in there 9 children but Miguel. Eusebio (died as child), Joaquim Filho, Jose, Emygdio, Rita, Lino, Altino, Joao and Luiza. I am not sure but I think that the husbands of the sisters of aunt Ambrosina, Emygdia and Petronilha, marriaged to, respectively, Jose and Joao, sons of Francisca and Joaquim. The other son, Joaquim Filho, was for sure the husband of aunt Sebastiana Honoria Coelho, daughter of Joao Baptista Coelho and Maria Honoria Nunes Coelho. Aunt Ambrosina and Miguel later on moved to the town of Coroaci, Minas Gerais, where their younger kids were born.

One thing I need to clarify here is that, I am not presenting the History based on our big fat family because I think we are any kind of special beings. My limitations is on the fact that I have only the data from our family at hand. The presentation have just the opposite intention. If anyone who is not from our family, in Brazil or any place else, and do a similar study on their own genealogy, I am absolute sure that, he or she will have the impression that our saga is alike any other.

We may don’t have the data from others families but when we take the data from newcomers to the places where have any domain of traditional families what we see is that, soon the offspring of the newcomers, if not themselves, marriages to members of the traditional families and become part of the big fat family.

One particularity of the genealogy in Brazil is the absence of data to African and Indigenous descendance. But it doesn’t mean that we don’t have any degree of kinship with all. In our family for example we know that, the wife of leutenant Joao Baptista Coelho, Maria Honoria Nunes Coelho, was probably mulata (half-half black-white) because we know she had dark skin. Also the ones, like myself, who have ancestry on Candida de Magalhaes Barbalho and Joao Batista Magalhaes (our maternal-maternal greatgranparents) got another lineage from African ascendancy.

Even in their offspring of today often we have cousins with darkish looks. By Brazilian traditions in romantics accounts it is a good presentation card to be lovable. Anyways, what I mean is that, not matter if we know how or not, we are relatives of the whole population around.

We can present example of outsider becoming part of the family. In 1,812 was born in Exeter, England a man named Edward William Jacobson Lott. He went Brazil at young age and around 1,832 founded the company, The Candonga Gold Mining Ltd, at Guanhaes City to explore a late incidence of gold at his acquired farm named Candonga. He marriaged to a 16 years old girl named D. Maria Tereza da Silva Teixeira Caldeira Brant.

I don’t have her ancestry with me but they had children and soon after the last name Lott start to appear in our genealogy. One sister of our cousin and author, Dr. Innocente Soares Leao, Maria Eugenia, was marriaged to captain Gabriel da Silva Lott. And I have more close cousins that also bears the name. But I had to do more research to make sure that the Lott in our family come from the same source.

In 1,885 Mr. Lott moved to Caete City where he died in 1,900. To marriage his teenage wife he had to promises that their children should be raised on the Catholic beliefs. He was Anglican and kept his promise.

Well, to resume our chapter we can take recent images to give a better idea on what became the conquest and populating of Minas Gerais State and elsewhere. It was like the tsunamis. The first wave come and fill up the irregularities of the terrain. Next come the second and surfs over the first going farthering the fulfillment. And the waves kept coming until the initial energy that created it dissipates. It looks just like all migratory movements. The difference between migration and tsunamis is that, the first one construct something and the second one destroys.

The Serro City began to lose its capability of to influence the Minas Gerais and Brazilian politics while lost the majority of its old territory, what diminished considerably its population reflecting in a less number of ellectors.

Later on the find of iron deposits in Itabira City changed the project of construction of the Vitoria-Minas Rail Road, altered at Governador Valadares City site. At the initical project it should go to Serro and Diamantina cities before goes to Belo Horizonte City. The constructed road went direct to Itabira and Belo Horizonte cities.

The isolation of the region was done with the construction of the new capital of Brazil, Brasilia. The new capital turned aside to the Central Plateau good part of the governamental attention and internal migration in Brazil. Today, the Serro City Region is coming back from the isolation that was affected for one century long.

The main roads were paved with asphalt, the old project to link Brasilia to all states capitals by asphaltic roads now paved the linking between Brasilia and Vitoria and do exists projects for revitalizing the old paths of the Royal Road.

The region offers good options for radical sports, observation of nature and preserved History of the more than 300 years of the European colonization at the Minas Gerais State. Serro City and region got one of the most well preserved Colonial Patrimonies in Brazil.

Minas Gerais State is characterized also by its production of cheese that is called by the name Minas Cheese. When you went the state you soon learn that the famous Minas Cheese gets a more intimate definition there which is cheese from Serro City. These quality is the chesse that we and our ancestors made for centuries.

One last observation had to be made here. It is about the size of these family. We don’t have for sure the least idea. I have one contact who is offspring of Joaquina Bernarda da Silva de Abreu Castelo Branco Soutto-Mayor. The pompous name can be shorten to D. Joaquina do Pompeu. I already mentioned her as example of women that were ahead of their time. When the 15.000 people from the Portuguese courts came to Brazil, in 1,808, and Rio de Janeiro City was out of supplies. She was called and furnished all sort of merchandise from her farms that, when she died, had 40.000 bovines.

D. Joaquina was born in 1,752 and was marriaged at her young age of 12 years old. She had 10 children and her offspring, my contact, and her biographer, Dr. Deusdedit Pinto Ribeiro Campos, assembled data from her offspring which ones are in more than 70,000 people. Our ancestor, Antonio Borges Monteiro, who was born in 1,751, marriaged 11 years after her and fathered 11 children may have a similar number of offspring today.

But, like her family, she had many sibilings, aunties, uncles and many relatives that have different offspring today, our ancestor must have many relatives that are unknown to us. And we are not descendants of only one couple. Based on the default on our records, on the little of we got and the probabilities, I think we are not less than 1 million people just counting the descendants of our ancestors from the date around 1,750. And I am talking just about the ones who are alive. I think that, most of us have a similar number of close relatives.

Recently I took a ride from my car’s clinic while it was repaired. The American who was driving me home told about family and I said to him that I have 8 brothers and sisters. Amazed he said to me, “How fortunate you are!” And he was sincerily thinking how good would be if he also had so many close relatives. The ride ended before our talks. I think the situation is not like I have many relatives and he not.

What is happening now is that, after the baby boomers generation we made the option to have less kids to give them and us more material possessions. We know it also is the right decision because we live in a small planet with limited resourses. But the feeling of belong to a greater family don’t depend uniquily on how many brothers and sisters we have. If we went back in our genealogy and look at our ancestors and their offsprings we will see how greater our family is than what we think it is. If somebody opt for the feeling of belonging only to some close relatives, then his or her family will be smaller.

My feeling of belonging is bigger than my ancestors were. I don’t think my european looks give me my entire identity. Some ancestors in my family made the option for not pass on to us the ways that connect us to our Africans and Native Brazilians ancestors. And as it give me the feeling of part of identity lost I am trying to connect myself looking for our true identity.

Be part of a great family is not always a better thing than consider yourself in a small family. The good side is that, almost every day you have an anniversary to celebrate. Today is January 7, 2012. The day that my father would turn 90 years old. Often you got message of newborn. You go to a bigger number of marriages, graduations etcetera. And you is never alone to pass through your difficulties.

But it have also its bad side. You mourn more times in your life. You will be more concerned with the problems of others. You must give more from yourself to keep things going well. But, anyways, it is part of life. Be part of a greater family is better in consequence of the bad things that can be happen to you or to your relatives. It means that always when somebody is take down will be more people to cheers up the ones who will suffer more. Nobody is left behind.


I am kind of anxious to end this part of the book because it is less important and the decision of the Republican Party about who will be the candidate to challenge president Obama on the process of election 2012 is getting uglier. Yesterday morning the ex-speaker of the House, Gingrich, got rid of Mitt Romney exhaling his “pious baloney” over the Mitt’s saying that he didn’t tried the reelection here in Massachusetts because he had something else to do, and not have a career as politician. In my point of view Gingrich pointed out the real reason. Romney had a so conservative administration here and got the electorate so angry with him that he had no chance to be reelected. It was the same impression that I had at that time in what I was present but hadn’t the right to vote.

Rick Santorum continue to insists that United State need a Commander in Chief and not an Executive in Chief. These is not the answer. If a Commander in Chief was so essential Cuba, after 50 years with a Command in Chief, would be the best place in the world today. The biggest American Problem now is its economy. So should we call any economist to solve our problem?! How silly is such idea! They are the ones who in first place caused the problem. And it is valid not only for the economists and CEO’s alike. The problem was also caused by the people on the entrepreneurial field, like Mitt Romney himself, that was gambling with their money and our lives. Paraphrasing Mr. Gingrich, Santorum’s and Romney’s talks are nothing but “pious baloney”.

Mitt Romney is also furious with alleged cases of piracies made by the Chinese. Accordingly to him China have managed to invade the system through internet and is copying intellectual property of American businesses. He need to rethink he’s allegations because since long ago United States is not investing so well in education and as we are been not able to produce enough brains in our own universities we always used our attrative market to bring to United States the brains that are worked by educators abroad through expenses on other peoples. Maybe China is just playing with the Brazilian saying: “Ladrao que rouba de ladrao tem cem anos de perdao” (Thief who robe thief have one hundred years of pardon).

Okey, here I am. I could compare my History with Jesus History. Don’t be foolled by the comparison. I am not talking about his importance for our History now. I am just mentioning his birth as modest peasant, uneducated on issues that he told us about and not matter how hard he tried to do something good he ended dying in a, considered by his contemporaneous, shameful way. In some way I identify myself in an alike path. I don’t mean that, in sometime of the future I will be celebrated like him. I just mean that, my life had been a series of unfortunate events, that I always try to look on what good it can bring to humanity, obviously, not to myself right now. Lets though bring it on.

I was born on july 4, 1,958 in a small city called by the name of Virginopolis, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. My mother wanted my name be Washington, because of my date of birth. In Brazil most of the people is called by the first name. For that, because English people usually uses the last name as identification, many Brazilians start naming their children after the last name of personalities in English and American Histories. So the names Nelson, Washington, Hudson, Lincoln, Franklin, Jefferson, Madison, Adams, Johnson, Wilson, Kennedy and many more appears as first name in Brazilian genealogy.

The father Geraldo Brauwer who was about to baptize me thought was nonsense give me such name and my father said he already had registered me with the name Valquirio. The father, who had German origins, expressed his concerns saying it had less sense though. But he had not choice because I was already Valquirio.

The name come from the German Mythology Valkjrja, the she angels that collected the souls from the falling braves in the battles, to bring them to the Heavens. It inspired the composer Wagner. Then the letter o at the end had to be added because it is the Portuguese language way to make most names as male names. Usually, in our language the letter a is always female and the o, male. So is easy to switch as the convenience shows. Like in the names Antonia and Antonio.

When I was born, the city was about to enter on its longest depression. Probably the inhabitants didn’t knew that and they attention was driven to other fact. Brazil had been champion for the first time in the Soccer World Cup.

Despite of my memory be great and I remember some scenes of my life since I began to walk, what I have a better remembrance starts around my fifth anniversary. Yes, I remember one time tip-toeing, with my arms hitting the sky, and asking to be pick up to the arms of somebody that I don’t remember who. Also I remember my father, on his only one time that I witnessed it, firing fireworks at our backyard for the second championship on Soccer World Cup that Brazil won in 1,962.

After that came 1,963 and its sad end. Our grandma, Zulmira, my father’s mother, died from a long sufferring hearth condition. She was only 70 years old and our love for her was just a retribution to her kindness. She passed away on October 1, 1,963. And here in United States, just after, in November 22, from the same year, Mr. president Kennedy was assassinated.

The shocking notice had an effect as someone of our close relatives had died. The Brazilian people wasn’t awared politically of what was going on in the world. But I think our ancestors was waiting something more from the fact of president Kennedy be a Catholic person. I don’t know what illusion Brazilian people had that emanated from a Catholic president in United States but his death hit everybody in a bad way. I just felt the double sorrow for two people that was important on our lives. I can’t say I remember him but I was contaminated by the happiness with his administration and sorrow for his death that my older relatives felt.

At these time I was been awared of the place we lived in. Was a small city designed in a big X formed by its main streets. The plain lands hardly have space to pass through the mountains. The mountains produced streams from its bases which ones excavated trenchs along the plains. Like that, almost half of the houses, except some in the center, had its backyard ending at an stream. The other houses, on the opposite side of the street was part of the other half.

Most of the houses was old and decadent. Some, such as the one where my family was living in, served to our paternal greatgrandparents. The style was old colonial made by heavy wood with adobe walls. A think that except for the nails and a little something else on iron and ceramic all was made through local hardworkers. Even the roof was made out of roofing tiles. Generally the houses was old and enviromentally adequated since we was used to live among mouses, cockroachs, tarantulas and birds like swallows and owls. Sometimes we had bats but never snakes. We had chickens in our backyard, a dog and a cat. The last ones only throughout the 70s.

The house had a U shape with the open side directed to the backyard. It was separated in the middle by a single wall making two independent houses. In the other side lived our old aunt Phyloteia (Teteh), our grandpa’s sister; an younger one with blue eyes, a little bit crazy, named Vitoria, and a old black woman named Phylomena (Phyloh) from whom was said that, she had been slave but I am not so sure about it because she had to be more than 100 years old for it be true, and she was the oldest but the only one out of the three with working brains. In one of the roons lived also our, separated from his wife, cousin Hugo and two of his sons, Eustaquio and Ricardo.

In our side, with the birth of our youngest sister in 1,964, we became 9 children with the older been 12 years old. Adding our parents and two more helpers. Those was different people in a space of 2 or 3 years. We was 13 people under the same roof. Occasionally we got 1 or 2 more, when some sisters or brother of the helpers came in. It wasn’t an exception in the city. The houses were really crowded. But nobody had to much issue about it. Today the city must have tripled its number of houses and is not more populated than that time. It was the same in almost whole Brazil.

Our house is at the center of the city. Not the old one but another that we start living in at 1,978, constructed by my father in its place. In the old times, our neighborhood wasn’t very different from what we had in our home. The whole street where we use to live was almost inhabited only by our relatives. I mean, close ones. One exception was our most close neighbor on the left side who was the bread baker and came from a City of Caratinga. His wife was local and her last name was Carvalho, maybe have some link with our relatives but not direct to us.

I don’t think it will be necessary to mention everybody because it would become a telephone’s list. But another two aunties of my father, Olga and Biloca, lived there. One of his granduncle, Francisco Sobrinho (Seo Chiquinho), lived at the front house with his wife, Salome (Memeh). The number of relatives and the links was so greatly entangled that I discovered these particular kinship with them 40 years later when I start studying our genealogy. My father never called him uncle and mentioned him just by his nickname, so I never realized our close kinship.

Later, moved to the same house the stepmother of our maternal grandpa. Aunt Virginia, who was widow of our greatgrandpa Joe Coelho, lived with his three never marriaged children, Ignes, Tarcisio and Joao. With them our uncle Gamaliel (Gama) who was a complete brother of our grandpa Juca. On our right side neighbor, lived the widow, aunt Ceci, with her daughter, Aparecida (Cidinha) and her family. Aunt Ceci also was complete sister of our grandpa Juca. The sibilings from the first family was: Juca, Aquiles, Gama, Armando, Maria Marcolina and Ceci. The ones of the second was: Darcy, Josefina (Fina), Amandina, Bernardino, Noemi, Joao, Ignes, Tarcisio, Savio and Ruth. Aunt Ceci was widow of uncle Marcial, brother of our grandpa Trajano (Cista). At the same street also lived my mother’s maternal uncle Eliezer (Seo Lee).

In the rest of the houses, two was not occupied all the time by relatives of ours but the occupants have in their families relatives that was marriaged to some of our relatives. And as children at the school age we was colleagues of their children or partiners on sports. And the whole center was occupied by these mix of generations of the same family alternated by some non relatives. The pattern in proportion of relatives and non relatives would became opposite while we walked through the streets going in suburban directions.

But where ever we would go always had a house of some relative of ours. And those that we believed not be could in some way be our relatives because we don’t have a perfect data on the ancestry of all the population and not even of ourselves. As I mentioned before, we can’t exclude from it the ones who had African and native Brazilian origins because we also have ancestry on those origins.

Also the rural area was a reflex of the city. Since it was populated in the beginning by our ancestors, they took for them big chunks of lands. And as the generations came and goes the initial farms were divided between the heirs and became small farms. But the population became to big to keep dividing the lands, and then the generation of our parents began to look for somewhere else to go. Even before some had made these decision.

I got two examples of it that illustrate well the situation. The City of Governador Valadares have a list of pioneers. I think it count only the ones that moved to there and in some way brought some development to the place. If was not by these reason the pioneers had to began in years before 1,900 when yet had some population there. But the list start from 1,916 and on it is listed Sinval Rodrigues Coelho, my father’s maternal side uncle, marriaged to Maria (Maricas) Magalhaes, my mother’s maternal side aunt.

Another enlisted at the same year is Mr. Gil Pacheco de Magalhaes. He was marriaged to Maria Vieira, born in Ferros City. Mr. Pacheco was son of aunt Quiteria de M. Barbalho and Joaquim Pacheco Moreira. Aunt Quiteria was sister of Marcal, my father’s paternal side grandpa, and Candida, my mother’s maternal side grandma. We have others in the list from others years like, Antonio Rodrigues Coelho, uncle Sinval’s brother and Odilon de M. Barbalho, my father’s brother.

Even before that time women was supposed to follow their husbands no matter where they was going. And we have the case of aunt Emygdia Honoria who marriaged to Amaro de Souza Silva and left great descendence in various cities of the region. Also aunt Marcolina Honoria who marriaged to Demetrio Coelho de Oliveira and help populate Coroaci City. Aunts Emygdia and Marcolina was daughters of our greatgreatgrandparents, Joao B. Coelho and Maria Honoria Nunes Coelho.

Then came the 60s and along with it the demographic explosion on the bigger cities. Our family had experienced some of it before with some migration to Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo Cities. Later on came the time for Belo Horizonte also attract more migrants but as we saw in the video before,, in 1,948 the Minas Gerais capital had only 200,000 inhabitants. Basically these population was from the whole State. But I am also sure that a good part was from the Serro region, specially from our places. It was because the most populated areas of our State was South, Mata and Central. The South is next to Sao Paulo. The Mata is next to Rio de Janeiro. And the Central is on the opposite side to the two of the others big cities.

But at the time we got three other options from the 60s on. Governador Valadares, Ipatinga area and the Brazil’s new capital, Brasilia. And we start to see our aunts and uncles with their families go to those places. Year after year the History was the same. My father had 12 brothers and sisters who got marriaged. Three of them stood in Virginopolis as him did as well. Aunt Odette went Belo Horizonte. And all the other went Governador Valadares. Only uncle Otacilio stood in Virginopolis for long before go to Valadares.

The History of my mother side wasn’t so different, although only one of her sisters moved to Valadares. Aunt Camilla, who is marriaged to our cousin Jorge Nunes Coelho did it. The others dispersed to many places like, Uberlandia, Paracatu, Vitoria-ES, Rio de Janeiro, Belo Horizonte, Brasilia, Itabira, Sete Lagoas and Virginopolis.

We have at least two good sides from such dispersion. If the family was kept all together and all the children were raised side by side we would kept marriaging to each other as our older relatives did for about 100 years in the city. And our consanguinity is yet dangerously too similar to our possible descendants bear it. As family I think we are happy enough with each others so when most of us moved and marriaged to outsiders families it gave more chances to our offspring survive and pass on our genes. The other side was during our school vacations when dozens of us would meet at the city. It bring us so many good memories!

In 2,005, just after the earthquake and tsunami in Indonesia, I saw one lady been enterviewed at a news show. She was clearly upset with the world. And her anger was from the false impression that most people from the others countries hate Americans. As I mentioned before, it came from the polls after the terrorist attacks on september 11, 2,001. And the results were unidirectionally explored by our media. Maybe to justify whatsoever would come later. And her defense of our people was in that sense: “Look how we are a compassionate people! No other country in the world is doing so much for the victims of the tragedy.”

It is just because of missleadings like these that the other peoples accuses all Americans of arrogance. And I remember facts from my infancy that maybe can help the other Americans to understand the other side point of view. I remember me as a child eating some American cheese in our catechism class; having one time for week oat cereal at school breaks and was said that some dried milk which was distributed to the poor there had come from United States. Everything was charity and I don’t doubt it.

But the time proved that we didn’t really needed it. Our region was what in Brazil is called milk bacin. And also we could produce ourselves many kind of grains such as rice, corn, beans and even oat. What the people at the time hadn’t was a better technology because we had good lands and climate, and more than enough water which nature presented us.

We have to remember that, paraphrasing one American diplomat that served in Brazil sometimes later, “America don’t have friends, have interests.” We never knew what relationship such charity had with the support United States gave to the dictatorship in Brazil. And the charity and the dictatorship came at the same time. Coincidence? Maybe!

We got example of a different approaching. In 1,968 we got a new father in our parish. His name was Bernardo Odenkirchen and he was Dutch. And Netherlands have a law that mandates some percentage of gains from its trade with others countries be applied in those countries, in projects that are beneficial to the communities. And the citizens from that country are the ones that help the communities to have access to that money. No politics interferring.

Through these help we got a better hospital, maternity, asylum for poor and, naturally, a better care of our church buildings. But also some resources that made possible we got a technical school in a high school level. The goal was to teach knew agricultural and cattle raising techniques. With it and some assistence from a state agency the farmers started to produce more and have a better income. I can’t say that everything went smootly because the ups and downs in the Brazilian economy never let many people have a better opportunity. But these way was no doubtfull much better than pure charity.

So my conclusion is that, we can’t say “we are compassionate” when we give big donations to attenuate any tragedy. We are the richest country in the world and what we donate is from what is in excess to us. When tragedies occurs in poor countries some people there prove to be much better than us because they share all they have even when it will be necessary to them later.

If I keep writing every fact of my life I will have to write another book. Lets see just what is more important. I gonna try order the events by year. 1,966 I went school and was seven and half years old. Differently from here, our school years begins February. It is because at the south hemisphere the winter come in the middle and the summer in the end of the year. We hadn’t have preschools there. Our vacations was in July, middle year, and December through February, end of year.

Around that time the city acquired its first televisions. Not so many people had it. Was black and white. When was possible watch some, usually we would see old American productions such as Bonanza, The Three Stooges, I Love Lucy, Lost in Space, Land of the Giants, Tarzan and so on. From Brazilian production, mostly Soap Opera. The News Show worked as break time to us children most of the time. I even still have in mind the way the anchorman pronounced the name Lyndon B. Johnson, when the news was about United States.

Untill my father was able to buy our own used tv I would ask any of the others that had it in the city to watch some in their houses. We got ours around 1,968. And at these or the year before I had an accident while playing with my friend at the bakery of our neighbor. Mario, his name, was making bread’s dough in a electric machine. I was playing with a small piece of it when it felt off my hand and I tried to pick it up in the air. I just felt a little pull and immediately I moved instinctively my hand back. Mario called my name and shut off the machine. I didn’t understood why until I see the blood coming from my hand. It had cut off one third of my right tumb.

At first I was more calm than our neighbor family. The girls was crying and somebody brought me to the hospital. The city was without a medic person and I was sent to Guanhaes, where I was operated by Dr. Francisco who was kind a famous in the region. Maybe because he was the only one next to us. Recently I found his name in the cousin’s Dermeval book and discovered that he is our relative.

The wound was never such as big deal to my life. But the trauma, for long time, made me sad. Adding to it, I don’t remember if was after or before, I was run over by a car. The car didn’t exactly pass over me. Just gave me a hard push that made me turn around two times before seat at a side walk of the street in front my father’s house. I had to pay a new visit to the hospital but these time with less consequences. Anyways, those and others events added made me question for almost my whole life if I was intentionally put in the world through a kind of bad luck. Today, seeing how the world is going, I don’t feel so unluck at all. At least, I am not alone.

Also in 1,968 Martin Luther King Junior was assassinated here in United States. But the event appear have no effect in Brazil. I don’t remember any commotion around it. And I think it was because he was a non Catholic priest and because Civil Rights in Brazil wasn’t a big issue at that moment. Black people had been always left aside in our society but we hadn’t any segregational law saying, by the law, have anyone “more equal” than others. Brazil had a more like European system of law, more close to France, where “Liberte, egalite, fraternite” was the motto. The problem was that, law never worked well to poor people in Brazil.

If I hadn’t come to United States, Luther King would be no more than a illustrious unknown to me. Maybe not so because I am addicted to information. Occasionally I would see some article about his life and accomplishments. But only here in United States we can learn about his real dimension on the chapter of Civil Rights Movement. If the movement had a better connotation towards the combat of poverty in the world, he would be better known in Brazil because in there the prejudice is more directed to poor people, does not matter the collor of skin.

May 7, 1,969 came another commotion in our family. Our paternal grandpa died. He struggled for a little time with a kidney problem and didn’t restisted to it. He was a strong man and rarely got a cold. But he also was 79 years old. I think that what could be done for him was done. He were transported to Governador Valadares and from there to Belo Horizonte by helicopter. Something very unusual in that time. But medicine also wasn’t resourceful as today. I didn’t not even cry for his death. Only sometime later I felt his absense realizing that, I never knew him closely as others relatives.

Grandfather Cista, as he was known, had a life that could fill a good book. He started as employee when he was only ten years old. Later he became owner of transportation, farmer, had commercial houses and helped his sons starts business of their own. He just didn’t invest in his daughters because, at that time, women was supposed to stay home and marriages. A man on his position would guarantees good husbands to them. He was elected mayor of the city for two times. He probably was the richest man in the town when he died. But the riches at the time wasn’t expressed by money in the pocket. He was farm owner.

The list of his children and godmother Zulmira was, Oswaldo, Odette, Murillo, Odilon, Olimpia (died while child), Otacilio, Odon, Odila, Otto (Sinho), Oldack, Oneida, Otacilia, Ovidio and Ozanan.

1,969 also were the year for the first man walk on the moon. It was largely announced that would have a live transmition by tv. I waited until 9:00 pm and the speakers said it would be delayed. And the delaying became hard to bear. I said to myself, Ok, tomorrow will be reprised. I was woke up by some expression of admiration of uncle Murillo, my mother’s brother, in the main room. He was visiting us just for the occasion. Was after 12:00 am and I kept my word. Tomorrow! What I didn’t knew at the time was that, they already was seeing a reprise.

I was 11 years old when I visited the city of Governador Valadares for the first time. Was the biggest city I had been. Was much smaller than today but its population, for the same reason in Virginopolis, was bigger in proportion of buildings. I didn’t had any trouble learn the ways to walk it on its every corner. The city have two references points, the Doce River and the Ibituruna Peak. The Ibituruna appear to be an enormous mountain but is no much higher than our small peaks in Virginopolis. It come because Valadares is in the trench excavated by the river for millions of years.

It is also the reason Valadares have a real tropical climate and Virginopolis one almost temperated. The annual variation of temperatures for Virginopolis goes from rarely 30s to rarely 80s Fahrenheit. Even in the long summer that goes from September to March the temperature decline at night at the point that you can sleep well with no need for heavy blanket. Valadares rarely goes down 80s.

Scatered in Governador Valadares we had many houses of easy known family members. There we had 8 aunties and uncles, Camilla, Murillo (my father’s brother, not my mother’s, because we had two with the same name), Odilon, Odila, Otto, Oldack, Otacilia and Ovidio. Aunt Maricas, who was widow of uncle Sinval, and uncle Antonio Rodrigues Coelho was still living there since they were pioneers. I think uncles Wilson (Sao) and Gastao, aunt Maricas brothers, and Elgita, Nize, Omar, Conceicao, Joao and Olimpia, complete sibilings of uncle Antonio, was still there too but I didn’t paid visit to all. Also had a great list of cousins. Counting just those with direct Virginopolis ascendence.

At the time I didn’t knew that we were also close relatives of so many cities populations from around about Serro City. And, certainly, some was also living in Governador Valadares. Even not knowing it was impossible avoid occasional meetings with known relatives at the streets. In the days that we went the Aete Sport Club to refresh a little at the pools I got the impression that I was in Virginopolis, second version.

1,970 was an year of Soccer World Cup. It was in Mexico and Brazil start playing in Guadalajara. Every play day our house became a theater. Many relatives and friends. Brazil had seven plays and seven wins. We became three times champions. The first ones in History. And the dictatorship tried and probably achieved some prestige among the public opinion. It was the time when the gingle that had the phrase, “It is a country that goes ahead” and was mocked by comedians who had their show suspended.

Around 1,974 our stepgrandmother, Petrina, died. She was grandpa’s Juca second wife and the one that I knew. My mother’s mother had died in 1,940. She was only 44 years old. Grandma Davina was marriaged for 26 years and had 17 children. Three of them died while children. One was named Camilla and two Longinos. The Longino third were the one who lived and became my godfather among aunt Oneida, my father’s sister. The list of their names is, Maria Marcolina, Murillo, Fausto, Lucio, Merces, Martha, Judith, Longino, Camilla, Angela (Ju), Lia, Jose Fabiano, Lucinda and Maria Helena. The sibilings of grandma Davina was, Joao Magalhaes, Eliezer (Mr. Lee), Emydia (Miluca), Wilson (Sao), Getulio, Maria (Maricas), Candida e Gastao.

Grandma Petrina also was cousin from the Barbalho branch. She gave 5 more children to grandpa Juca. Davina, Maria Eugenia, Matilde, Eduardo and Cirano. She was an warmful person and everybody loved to be around her. Her younger son is just three years older than my oldest brother, Fernando. Our difference of ages with the second family was so tiny that we was more like cousins. After they aged enough to go to big cities they made our happiness when they came to visit.

Particularly Davina and Maria Eugenia whom would assembly at least one dozen of us to go to visit our uncles and aunts living in the countriside of the city. The farm were the grands Petrina and Juca lived also was great place to met. Unfortunately, Davina and Maro (as we called Maria Eugenia) are our losses to the cancer on their ages around 60s. Both of them was just getting their first grandchildren.

Grandma Petrina was daughter of Sinhah Gininha (Eugenia) and her sister, aunt Geralda, marriaged to uncle Bernardino, half brother of grandfather Juca. They had three more sisters, Maria, who was nun, Margarida (aunt Nen) and Cecilia. Aunt Cecilia marriaged to Friedrick Knipp. Or Fridirico as he was called. Was a German immigrant in Brazil and they left a big descendance.

In earlier 70s we also had two important events in Virginopolis. One that didn’t caused me good pleasure. Was the mentioned creation of the technical high school there. I always loved animals and plants but my plans was go to any place else to get a job and become independent. But I was only 15 years old and my father didn’t even asked if I had any other plan. And I became stucked in the city for more four years.

At the time the government dicided that, all high schools had to be a training place not more only for scientific studies. And we were obligated to do two years of basics and two of professional subjects. As it goes we lost one year in scientific contents, which should be fundamental to those who was interested to go to an university. We could try to enter to a university after complete three years but knowing that your chances would be smaller because you learned less. In Brazil, the admission to an university was made only through a big test called Vestibular. So I failed in my first one and lost one more year in high school.

Around 40 years ago also starts the Jabuticaba Festival in Virginopolis. Jabuticaba is a Brazilian fruit in many varieties. It is a midium size three, can be 30 feets high or more, with long, multiple, flexible and strong branches. Its cycle of life around the year began in the winter when all the leaves went down and the tree stay like that until start its floral shooting. The plant keeps it dorment until don’t come the rain. Immediately after, as a miracle, the whole tree is covered by its white flowers, exhaling a sweet and agreeable smell.

The blossom effect is so intense that the entire tree gain a snow covered looking. Even the trunk can be covered in flower, sometimes the roots that come out the lawn gets some flower. Bees start pollinating and its buzz sound dominates all day time. Soon the small rounded green fruit appear and start growing. As it gets a size of a jumbo grape the color goes changing to yellow and red stripes to a pitch black mirror outside. The process demands 40 days to accomplishs if the rain is enough.

Inside comes a white juicy pulp and three big seeds. We take just the pulp and discharge the rest. Comparing it with the best grape I ever had, it is many times better. From the fruit we can make wine, liquor, cachaca and jelly. Each one is the best of its kind. If one is able to climb the tree will have the best of the fruit. It is not good to be transported because is so delicated that soon starts to acidify. In question of hours it become useful only to produce alcoholic beverages.

We need to be careful with two things. Firstly when one starts eat it don’t want stop. It makes your kidneys work faster and you have to go sooner than later. Later on, when you need to go do the other business, it will come like you are constipated. But is not a big deal. The feces will just come hard but the defecation will be smootly. The problem is only when one eats many seeds. Is also good. To prevent the problem, one just have to eat some barks from the fruit itself. They are smooth.

Those that got water in their mouths can go to Brazil around November to get it. Don’t need go to Virginopolis. Sabara City which is also close to Belo Horizonte have its own festival and the tradition on have the fruit. The whole state produces the fruit which is native from there. Those who don’t have money to make such travel can have the fruit here in United States. It is not yet available to commerce but at the Florida State some “mireiros” planted the fruit in their backyards and are already taking it. They probably will no mind if somebody asks for try some. Is our cody of hospitality.

Well, what I also was thinking to talk about is the Festival that come from the fruit. It starts with two goals. One of them was to get some income to benefit the city’s social corporations. With the income, schools, hospital, maternity, asylum and more are assisted. The idea came from some teachers in Virginopolis and worked so well that almost all the cities around created their own festivals. What changes is the time and the motivations. Each city have its speciality such as orange, banana, sugarcane etcetera.

The other goal was to bring to the city its old residents and their families for the period. So the Festival of Jabuticaba became a family meeting. Outsiders are very welcome also but if one don’t have contact with someone around is difficult to find rooms at the hotels on the time. The city have just a couple and the cities around can serve as bases to ones that got their own means of transportation. Is there a camping area but is not comfortable. It works fine for young people. Even in the houses of dwellers it become overcrowded. It is just like you see a multitude of Brazilian anywhere else in the world. Is noisy and happy.

Around 1,976 I made my first trip to Belo Horizonte and knew a real big city. At least, was a place of about 2 million people not counting the cities from the Great BH. I don’t remember exactly the details because I did two trips related with the schooling program. One to the Exposition of Bovines in Barbacena City and another to Vicosa Federal University to take classes on its annual Farmers Week. On one of those I stood in Belo Horizonte where I met relatives.

Sports was always my favorite activity. And soccer was what every Brazilian play the best. I enjoyed voleyball and swim too. Since earlier ages I was goal keeper and kind of good one. My stature help me on that but I never was perfect. And because in Brazil the goal keeper was always blamed for everything wrong, I quited and start play on other positions. But one time our team was in need for a goal keeper and I was called to cooperate. I tried and in the practice I felt over the ball in a position that provoked a terrible dislocation of my shoulder. Since then I couldn’t play my favorite sports as I did before, and in many times that I went had accidents that brought me to hospitals. Even here in United States I sufferred dislocations for 2 or 3 times. Only recently I got a surgery that resolved the problem but I don’t play anymore.

In 1,977 were some year. I remember have an inspiration and start to write a book, before July came. These wasn’t my first one. When I was 13 I wrote another small brochure but lost it. I can’t classify my teen ages as happy ones. I was very timid and unable to talk fluentely. To read and write was like my defense where I exhaled my most profound concerns. Then I start writing the book not knowing what would come to the next page.

Each day I wrote a chapter which was a big accomplishment to me, since I hated to develop the given themes that would come from school’s homeworks. I felt very comfortable on write on the inspirations that came from nowhere but not from designated ones. I think the problem was that, I wasn’t good at the subject languages and without an inspiration was too hard to do it.

Before long the first part of the book was done and came July. I Think was that time we went to Barbacena City. And when I stood in Belo Horizonte I met with my cousins Hideraldo, already living in the city, and Jose Maria. And the three of us plan another adventure which were go to Paracatu City, where our aunt Maria Helena lived with her family. Paracatu is at the opposite side from Virginopolis of the state and next to Brasilia. After an while there our uncle Carlucio said that we was too close to Brasilia to not go there and since he paid our bus tickets nobody thought different.

Except for aunt Maria Helena because she was worried about send three teenages boys, I was the older and had just turned 19, to such dangerous adventure! Carlucio just made fun of her worries, “When the people there look at three big boys like these, they will get lost from their way.” And he wasn’t far from the truth. We were three six feet tall men with our backpacks and casually dressed. Somebody could mistaken us for gang killers that wasn’t so uncommon in Brazil at the time of the dictatorship. But we got there without any incident.

And then we met our relatives at that unusual city. It was already a 17 years old planned and constructed during the administration of president Kubistchek. Everything was different from what we knew before. I hadn’t have the impression that everything was beauty as others travellers in the family had said but was different with some places really well done. I think, my first impression was distorted by the fact that we were at Brazilian winter when everything was dry, even the air. The plants was too dried to offer a better looking.

As my brother Jesse already lived there we paid him a visit at the National University of Brasilia. More remarkable than the new buildings at the university was the presence of military people watching all student’s moves. Jesse recalled that, in a students strick some time before had a soldier there that they called Hulk, because the guy was so big and strong that he was able to take three students at a time and bring them to the police busses.

When I came back I fineshed my book. Before, I already had the idea to make the story goes on. But surely, the visits to the big cities helped me to bring more reality into it. The second part of the book was related to the opression that our people was sufferring and I used my wishful thinking to make my pages gets a good adventure. (Later on I read and realized the similitudes between my work and the book, “A Pal utcai fiuk” (The Paul’s Street Kids), authored by the Hungarian Ferenc Molnar).

In the third part I dreamed about solutions. Even today I don’t know how to explain how I had so many ideas. I think my book have something of Jules Verne in that. In there I see a humanity concerned with all of our problems and seeking for solutions to it. What pull us apart is forgoten and the goal is make life better to all. The waters are shared, the deserts are casted into gardens and even the moon is colonized. In some sense the book is too mature to have be written by a 19 years old kid, since the older lords of the world are unable to bring us peace.

1,977 were our prom and in 1,978 I went Belo Horizonte to live there. I shared one apartment with my sister Magda, three daughters of aunt Ruth, author of part of our genealogy, two other girls, friends of them and our cousin Joelzinho (little Joel). Also aunt’s Ruth son. My idea was work and study. And three months later was working on Picchioni that I mentioned before. But the salary was too small to be serious on the project of go on with my studies.

Anyway, I enjoyed to live in Belo Horizonte. It is at the center of the state and from there we had the opportunity to go to other cities in the weekends. Like that I knew places like Caraca College, Piedade Sierra and Ouro Preto, Sabara and Esmeraldas cities and others more.

When I went Belo Horizonte I tried to do the test to go to college but the most I did was be approved on its first phase. It were easy and the second phase was specifics. As I was trying to be an animals doctor had to prove more knowledge in biology and chemistry. The two tests appeared be easy to me but chemistry was totally about the issue organics. Just what we missed on High School because one year less on the scientific matters.

In our parent’s house we divided us in two groups, the five older and the four younger. In the matter of schooling we also have a bigger difference between the two groups. We five older went to school older and attended an a coercive system. Even the teachers could give us physical punishments for not pay attention or make any mistake that children often do. Learning hadn’t stimulus to us. Learning itself was a punishment for be young.

And it had its visible set back. The student that wasn’t approved in the tests had to repeat the year. Sometimes we had kids in their 15 years old going to the fourth grade. We don’t had many people with good grades. And most students dropped out before the conclusion of the fourth first grades.

The second group, the four younger, began with my baby brother, Ney. He is more than 2 years younger than me which was a long distance in that time. All four went pre-schooling and attended a different type of schooling. It was more stimulant. The basis of that type of schooling offerred more stimulus. And they were more sucessful in their grades.

I don’t blame totally the schooling for my set backs in life. My sister Magda had proved that with more effort we could do well. But I was kind of lazy. I was too quick on learn the lessons and do the works at school. It was enough to get good grades at the four first years. The problem began after those years. I studied just for the last hours before the tests. It was enough to get the minimum points to be approved. And it was only 50% of every test. Some disciplines I had no problem and scored high. But I accumulated deficiencies in math and language. Later on it made hard to me learn the mathematical parts of physics.

So, while I was in Belo Horizonte, my two younger brothers, Ney and Odon Jose, had already went the University of Vicosa which is a rural specialized school. Then I asked my father to let me go to there and do a course which is called pre-vestibular. It teachs the high school contents in preparation for the tests. As we had to chose what we would do in the university, before be in the university, my option were for zootechnitian. It works with nutrition, management and farming constructions. My choice had more to be with less competition than my own will.

I had no confidence in myself at that time. Before a person went to an university in Brazil the competition was so great and what you know about what you must know is so little that you imagine that, anyone need to be a genius to be approved in the tests. My real inclination was human medicine. But I was so timid that I became terrified only imagining what would I do to talk to patients, particularly women. Then I got the idea of do veterinary medicine. And had nobody to give me assistance on it to have a better choice.

So I ended doing option for a third interest because I was totally disoriented. In Brazil we don’t had the option of start first and chose later what we would do. Afterward I learned that I had to talk to the animal’s owners so be a timid person wasn’t reason to do the wrong choice. And with the time at school I loose almost all the timid personality that I had what would be the same if I had been successful trying human medicine. Human medicine wasn’t offerred at the University of Vicosa. But it was an experience that can be useful to others.

After I went the pre-vestibular and took some simulated tests, and comparing my results with the ones of others students, I start to get my confidence back. Although the wrong choice already was made. My deficiency on some parts of the main subjects that was chemistry and biology drove me to dedicated more time to it. And I studied for 6 months dedicated to what was more valuable to the specific test. Like that I had no trouble in be approved.

The tests occurred in number of one by year. I went the university without basis on math and I got in trouble with calculus. Then I looked for help think that the school would offer some suplemental assistance. The teacher that I talk to must thought that I was just making fool of myself since he was so surprised with my questioning! He just informed that we was supposed to know the basics to be in the university.

The first year there were hard and I got lessons that none want have. First of all we imagined that, because was so hard to be approved, the students in an university had to be geniuses. In contact with them I downgraded my spectations to a level of intelligence not above than the average in our population. The geniuses were there but was a few bunch of nerds.

Also my conception of teacher in an universitarian level was the people that knew their subject so well that they had to be good communicators of it in a way that everyone could quickly understand. Also thought that a good teacher would be interested in make disciple from their students on their subjects. It could work on everywhere else but Vicosa. Not everyone, but most of the teachers there don’t had any conception on teaching. Was well known the fact that they manipulated the tests in a way to reprove a percentage of each class. And they regarded as best the colleagues that reproved more. Was like they were competing between them and against the students.

In the years that I stood there I was inspired to wrote a theatrical piece in what is expressed our lives and attitudes in front of the many challenges in a studen’s kind of humor. It is a satiric piece that bears more a journal of talks between a group of friends that dwelled or had ties with the address, 38 apartment, block Pos-Graduated. The piece’s name is, Big 38, or a Bad Word not so Pornographic. The pornographic is a reference to our like slavery condition.

The next year I just took another test to exchange my professional orientation in the university. If I had to try through the internal process I could had to wait for a six months or more answer and could be denied. As I had attended to a pre-vestibular before and some classes of biology and chemistry inside the university the test became, as we say, “piece of cake” or as Brazilian do “mamao com acucar” (papaya n’ sugar). The competition was 15.2 students for position. A little more than 600 people trying 40 places. What was sad is that, was one less opportunity to all in the university. Unfortunately.

I am not praising myself on it. Be aproved in Vicosa wasn’t so hard after all because the university was some kind of away from the bigger cities and, beyond have less concurrents, I am in doubt about the level of education the students who got there had. Been a rural school a good part of the concurrents had coming from schools that had a less level like the one that I attended in Virginopolis. The concurrence was for others specialities in others places like the human medicine with more than 40 students for each place. When computer science began at that time we had 70, 80 students for each place.

It was 1,982. In a normal rate I would got my degree 4 and half years later. But I got in trouble with a extra curricular discipline. I tried to fix it using the normal ways, through de education department. I was denied in all levels. The utmost denying came from the Federal Counsel of Education. The people there didn’t knew how to read my records gave by our university unit. So they mistook my number of completed credits by the numbers of the departments where I attended some disciplines.

I would address them an appeal but my sister, Magda, who is a lawer, said it wouldn’t be worth to even try. As I was attending just one discipline for one intire year and was sure that would be aproved, their answer should be such as, “Yes, you are right, but since you already is aproved have no need to attend your request”. I was trying to create jurisprudence on behalf of those that could be involved in the similar situation in the future. But my sister wasn’t on my side on it.

I was aproved and got my degree one year after most of my contemporaneous did. 2,012 will be the 25th anniversary of my class. But my deception with everything happen in the university time demanded its toll. I really lost the mood on be a professional in that area. Another thing, my degree came in 1,987 and Brazil was on one of its lowest economics downs. Most of the new professional workers hadn’t where to be employed. The opportunities was always to take a lower position not linked to your career. Or, what is the best in Brazil, be aproved in a test to be employed by any branch of the government. But even the tests was suspended.

The same year that I went veterinary medicine, 1,982, coincided with the 90th anniversary of our grandaddy Juca. We, his grandsons studying in Vicosa, made a trip back to Virginopolis to meet with, at least, one hundred of his offsprings and more relatives others. He was born in June 12, 1,892. And later the June 12 became the equivalent to Valentine’s Day for Brazilians. At the year after he died around march but we were unable to do another adventure.

Grandaddy Juca is among the many people that give longevity to our family average. A good number of us goes to 80s. And some goes beyond it. Around the time of his death we had aunt Marina (Nenen) who got to 101. Record broken only in 2,008 by our cousin Mr. Gabriel Coelho de Oliveira. He was 103 years old when died. Our grandpa’s stepmother, aunt Virginia, and his brothers Achiles and Joao surpassed his mark or got close to it. His son Murillo died at 93 and daughter Merces is alive on her 91. My mother, Judith, is 86. Many of his generations such as aunts Edith, Maricas, Olga, Vita and others got close to 100.

I am already making the Portuguese version for these text and yesterday my brother Fernando sent a note saying that, our cousin Marilia de Magalhaes Barbalho died in the day before, January 28. She was born in March 26, 1,016. The same year of our uncle Murillo Coelho. Marilia were the midwife of Virginopolis for many years at the time that we rarely had a doctor there. Many of us came to life through the help of her hands. She was almost 96. Never got marriaged but helped raised three children, Luciano, Francisco and Nadyr. Francisco or Chiquinho is long living in United States. And Luciano also had a tour around here.

And I am not sure if had any other between them but before her the local midwife was Eugenia Nunes Coelho, commonly known as Sinhah Gininha. She was the mother for grammy Petrina. And also surpassed the barrier of 90 years old. I don’t have her data but I recall that, when I was in the third grade our school sent the third and fourth graders to represent it on her burial. These were a singular homage because I don’t remember anyone else that got such distinction there. It was 1,968 and she must be born around 1,875.

Our greatgrandmother Candida de Magalhaes Barbalho, from who I don’t have the date of death was born in 1,858 and died after the birth of my older sibilings, Fernando (1,952), Celeste (1,954) and Jesse (1.955). In 2,009 visiting relatives in Brazil we came to the farm called by the name, Fazenda do Seo Joao de Souza, that stand between the cities of Divinolandia de Minas and Gonzaga. In there we met Emidia, then 94, and Vita, 91 years old. With them was also Xisto, 80, and Diva, 76. They are grandchildren of aunt Emygdia and sibilings of professor Matosinhos Figueiredo. By their health at the time, today we can add three more year on their ages.

In 2,010 we had the rebirth in Heaven of aunts Olimpia (Olimpinha), born in 1,920, and Maria Jose (Zeze), born in 1,922. They were the last daughters alive of our greatgrandparents, Olimpia and Joao Rodrigues Coelho. The second family of grandaddy Joao still alive. As well our uncle Otavio Coelho de Magalhaes, who was born in 1,919 and is the widower of aunt Zeze. I will talk no more about it because I am not the one who know everything.

All of them had some genetical variety because came from mixture of races and lived most of their lives in a more natural way, not eating added substances in their food. I think eating jabuticaba have something to do it their longevity. They began their lives before the advance of medicine and had natural resistence to many diseases. Although most of them was children of parents that was close relatives between themselves it appear had not effect on their longevity. But I don’t think my generation will have the same faith because a great number of us are repeatedly offsprings of various marriages between close relatives. Maybe we will die at similar age they got but through modern medicine assistance, not by our natural pain free capability as they did.

I never was in the mood of repudiate what I learned in the university. I thought it was always useful in our lives. But in there I got two special lessons that now we can use in our lives. We had a teacher, if my memory is not failling me, who’s name is Patarroyo. He is a Bolivian. He had been famous unto us because he struck a break through on the researching for the malaria vaccine. Some said that soon he would be able to produce some vaccine for the disease.

One time in his class he asked us what to do to make us free from a disease. With our inexperience we was drove to think some kind of medication. And he said that, in my words, the right thing to do is eliminate the susceptibles to diseases. Immediately came in our minds the visible questioning shown in our foreheads. If we was thinking about animals it would be to much costly to anyone to bear. In human terms it was disgusting.

And he candid gave us the answer. Think vaccination. Everybody opened’ a big smile in sign of relief.

The second lesson came from a Portuguese teacher. And for these one I ask the reader to pay doubled attention to it because the meaning of it can be happening right now in United States. Not exactly in the same issue but later I will recall these story to explain some important thing else. I don’t remember the Portuguese teacher’s name because he wasn’t from our department. I think he belonged to the Department of Human Sciences. And we had a social studies subject, one time a week, each day ministered by a different teacher.

At the time we were amazed by the governamental disresgard for education in Brazil. It wasn’t new and we always knew it. Even reading now the book of our cousin Dermeval Jose Pimenta we got a glimpse on that. He mentions the professor Manoel Coelho de Moura Guimaraes, who was grandson of a Portuguese writer, Jose Coelho de Moura. The Coelho in their names have different origin than the others that I already told about. In the page 149 is mentioned that, “In 1,899, he moved to Sao Jose do Jacuri City, taking a position as teacher when the administration of governor Silviano Brandao, by economy, cut many schools.”

Professor Manoel was marriaged to our cousin Maria Francelina Pimenta, grandaughter of our aunt Maria Balbina Santana and her husband Boaventura Jose Pimenta. And their situation at the time clears shows to us how education was seen in Brazil by the administrators. In Brazil, education were always taken as expenses, never as investment. And what aggravated it more is that, basically the government institutions are the biggest providers on education there and the regular people have no financial means to go to private institutions. So Brazil got always stucked in a vicious cycle of ignorance, used by the rich to exploit the common people.

And what I was talking about is the information we got that, from 1,000 people that went schools in the elementary level only 17 got in universities. In these statistics nothing else is counted. We didn’t knew the number of those that never attended schooling, which was high, or the drop outs. And somebody had made the association from it to the definition of motor efficiency. The efficiency on motors is measured by how much in energy it requires to convert it in useful work. At the time the rate was 50/50. It mean 50% of efficiency.

And then our teacher called us to think in a different way. To us was obvious that 1,7% of efficiency in teaching was a totally failure. How could somebody think the scooling in Brazil would be efficient with such low rate? And he just said that, also in my words, imagine that, you are think that the schooling system in Brazil was conceived to make people educated. Then take it on opposite side. Imagine if the education in Brazil is made to make people ignorant. Then the efficiency rate will be 98,3%. Anyone of you know anything else with such efficiency?

It was sad but he was right. Our goals in our strikes was to elevate the efficiency of education in Brazil. And we got the idea that our work there was bigger than we previous thought because we was counting on that, the people on the administration was trying to do something in favor of our education but their were taking us down, efficiently. Sometime later we heard that the teacher was going back to Portugal, and I don’t recall the end of the story.

Even in Vicosa things became as issue of family. Some Virginopolitans had been students there. But in 1,978 our cousin Jose Maria was there to attend high school. Next year he and my brother Ney were aproved on the entering tests. In 1,980 were my brother Odon Jose and our cousin Hideraldo also time to take the try and be aproved. I and others tried too but don’t got it. In that year I did the pre-vestibular there and in 1,981, finally, got my first success. From there on others cousins did the same. From our family went there, Flavio Jason and his sisters Grazziella and Kira. Hideraldo’s sister, Maria do Socorro (Corrinha). Also came Geraldo Magno (Deia), Angelo and Iranelson (who is our cousin born in Governador Valadares).

Already was there professor Matosinhos de Souza Figueiredo, grandson of our greatgrandaunt Emygdia Honoria Coelho and her husband Amaro de Souza Silva. They are from the branch of the Coelho Family that multiplied at Virginopolis, Gonzaga, Divinolandia de Minas, Santa Efigenia, Sardoa and beyond.

From families not direct related to us we had the sisters Kedina and Atila. Later Kedina marriaged to our cousin Odilon, more known by his nickname Dill. The couple came to United States and stood here many years before went back to Brazil. I am not sure if they turn back to here but it is not problem because they are legalized. The sisters are from the Lucio Family and as far as I know, more than half of the Lucio Family is mixed with the Coelho Family. Also we had as contemporaneous our friend Geraldo (Lay) Ferreira. Unfortunately he past away years later, leaving behind an young family.

After I got my degree and tried to look an employement for about six months I ended back in Virginopolis City. My brothers who had got their degrees before was also there improvised as high school teachers and taking care of a small property that was in part inherited from our grandpa Trajano. Two thirds of it my father had acquired from his sibilings. Soon I took place in the farm with the others.

I don’t remember all the details but some 2 or 3 years later I was alone in the farm and doing classes at the high school in Virginopolis and also in Divinolandia de Minas. The two cities are just 8 miles apart from each other and I began even going there on pedals of a bicycle. Like that I had something to do from the 6:00 am to 10:00 pm.

And I start love been a teacher. My enthusiasm end affecting my students. I taught three different subjects, geography, chemistry and biology. Later on English language was offerred to me too but my honesty don’t let me take it. In my time of middle school we had French and English. But as the school was adopting a new program my class got four years of French and none of English. I got small notions in one year of high school and it was nothing. About the other three subjects I had entire confidence on myself.

More than do classes I tried to pass on to my students my experiences. I insisted with them to not study only to have good grades. In my opinion we had to seek knowledge. To learn because what you learn nobody can take from you. On each class it was the first lessons. And I watched each student up close. Many of them had difficulties on understand the subjects and I clear identified the reasons. They was all clever but some didn’t had a better schooling in their first years. And then I gave my help where I could.

I made the tests a little hard. Those that wasn’t getting good grades I didn’t let them down. I replaced the bad results with another chance for them. And they got the idea. I had experienced many times in my life that I also got bad grades. The problem was that I learned a lot from my mistakes, although what I learned from it was erased from my permanent records. My evaluation on my students had a good part on their behavior. If I saw a sign of interest on learn was more important than get things done on one time. And they understood me and most of them made me proud of them, getting better grades, not only in my subjects.

In that time we had some particularities going on in Brazilian education. I already said that, Brazilian politicians never took education as an investment for the future. And it can be shown through the fact that, since the law guaranteed that all high school had to have professional contents and one of those was train teachers for elementary level, all small city had a teacher’s training high school. And every time I went a new class it was my question to the students, Who of you want to be a teacher? Sometimes two, mostly one answered yes. And I thought with me, What a waste of money and talent!

The salaries for teachers was so low that almost everybody was trained to be a teacher and the last thing they wanted do was teach. One of my sisters said one time that, she was admired to see some of her contemporaneous as teachers because they were just the ones that was considered the worst students on her class. She noticed it after goes away and take another job.

Then I created a project that could involve around ten or more cities in the neighborhood. Each one could have a different subject to train the students. Professions that could be practiced locally. But some roads have to be constructed for all cities be directly connected. Through busses the students could be exchanged every day to study the subject they wanted best. So the children could choose their own city or go to other accordingly to their tendencies. In my mind they would be happier, would know better new people and would have less need to go away to a more negative enviroment like the big cities after graduation.

I posted the project to be presented in a teacher’s congress in Belo Horizonte. Because a strike that had been happen the congress were transferred to another city at the South of the State and I could never get there. Would be too costly to my small payment. I sent the written project and never were contacted about if had any reaction about it. In that I asked for the restoration of the scientific in three years and, only after, the students that wanted would do the two complemental years as technitians. For that those who wanted to follow up their careers in universities wouldn’t be disprepared and who wanted do only the level of technitian would lose nothing on get more knowledge.

In some way, nowadays it is been put in practice there. Not in a high school level anymore. Some professions can’t be practiced anymore in an high school level in Brazil, and now it is done in a faculty level. And the faculties are been multiplied. Even Virginopolis got its own. I came to United States just after the congress be realized.

Before I start give class I began date with Maria da Penha, also called by the nickname Penhinha (little Penha). She was from Santa Efigenia de Minas and went Virginopolis to work. She start living in my cousin’s house. Was 21 and I 31 years old. She didn’t completed high school and became my student for a little while. But the level of our schooling was more elevated than what she got on her city and never got to the end of it.

The bigger problem wasn’t exactly the level of schooling or lack of intelligence from her part. The number one problem in Brazil was the lack of stimulus to go to school. Penhinha on her job which didn’t demand much of schooling was able to make two thirds of what I was making as teacher. And I remember making US$ 130.00 by month. What it would buy to us? Maybe we could rent a little apartment and pay for what we would eat and nothing more.

I was there because was staying in my parents house and administrating our farm. It was another big deal to me. Our main product was milk. And my knowledge about it was enough to make our cows produce around 4 gallons a day without the use of expensive technologies. But for start I would need some capital that could not be from banks because the excessive costs in interests. The price of milk in Brazil is so low that nobody take loan to produce it. If you do you would never pay the bills and would lose everything.

What is good about the climate in Virginopolis and region is that, the temperatures never goes too up or too down making it ideal to cows to live outside doors. Even the plants used as food to it goes all the year green if you can water for only 4 months of dry season. Actually, by the truth, I was there for 1 month long, July 2,009, and we had at least one rain by week and my brother said he had green pasture for the whole year long.

Another thing was happening around 1,993. Since the years of 60s some people of our region went United States. Wasn’t a popular way of get out of poverty. In that time, as I said before, migration was intense to Governador Valadares, Belo Horizonte and Brasilia. One of our friends, Walter Passos, who even had been a singer in a weekly tv show in Belo Horizonte, under the nickname of Tony Passos, came to United States by himself. No longer some others, even his brothers, also came.

At 70s more and more people from the region learn about and also looked for be here. Governador Valadares became the center for the operation mass migration. Even United States installed a consulate there for a while. In the 80s, with the Brazilian economy in one of its worst times, the intensity became so noisy that that consulate was closed and the people of our region had to go to Rio de Janeiro to ask for visas. If someone was from Governador Valadares regional influence became hard to get it by the right way.

And the problem was the lack of criterion. Everyone knew someone who visa was denied. In our case were denied to our cousin Lincoln Lucio, who had been mayor of Virginopolis, was well established entrepreneur, he had children living here but his travel was to visit not to work. In other hand, his brother-in-law, Mucio Moreira, was a fun guy, had his own farm property but was entirely broken and came to work and got a visa.

As the Brazilian economic situation became desperate and the American consulate began to play like a visa was a lottery it opened the window for the trafickers. Soon everybody knew about somebody who knew the way to connect people with them. They provided false visas, false passaports and even circuits travels that put the migrant inside United States. More the police became able to detect the falsifications, more the trafickers job became sophisticated. And it also became more expensive. At least US$ 10,000.00 for person.

My girlfriend had many friends that got here before us. I probably knew much more people who was here but I didn’t even knew they had come. Was impossible somebody from our region don’t know anyone here. Even my sister Lola had come too. And Penhinha began ask me to give a try. In the begining I didn’t took it seriously. But analysing our situation I start open my mind. She had no future there unless I used my diploma to get a great job. In the case, her only opportunity would be a housewife.

We went to the Federal Police to issue our passaports and we sent it to a broker in Rio de Janeiro. In Brazil it is often the only way to get things done. You have to have some intermediary. My first intention was go to the consulate and ask for a immigration visa. But everybody knew that if in any case a person admitted the intention of migration was the guarantee for visa denial. It to me was craziness because if United States had a criterion form for legal migration, probably a lot less people would try to come under the fence.

Our visas were denied and we don’t get answer why. And I took it without hard feelings. I wasn’t really anxious to come and did a try as Penhinha wanted. And the Brazilian situation that was bad became worst. The president Fernando Collor had been kicked out from the office for corruption. His sucessor, Itamar Franco, inherited a country so badly damaged that he declared moratoria on to pay Brazilian international debits. And the international monetary houses retaliated imposing more burdens.

From there I anticipated that Brazil would lose one more decade on its economy. And the future was not promising. Our next president was Fernando H. Cardoso, who had said to us to forget everything he had wrote times before, when he was a teacher and exiled from the dictatorship. I knew his administration would be in the same terms that the Republicans are now proposing to United States. And it is why I am so worried about.

Long before I was a climate change believer. No. Not because any scientist had said it. When I wrote my second book in 1,977, when the evidences was yet undergrownd, I took the issue and put it as part of my work. And I got two evidences on the last years I lived in Brazil by my own experience. First our house needed some reform to do. And was winter and in my more than 30 years of life we never had rain at such season. What we had to reform was the roof of a lateral attachment used as service area.

Then we took the roof out and came a most impossible torrential rain. We was used to it in summer not in that time. I was in disbelief and my mother blamed me for the disaster. I said to myself, She is just angry for the moment but when the work be finished she will be happy. And I was right. The next winter we got a shower at the same time. And the day became colder. I witnessed small particles coming down like feathers in the midst of the water. It was been converted to liquid water when touched the warmer lawn. I thought it was hail but far different from what we had many times in summers of my life.

Anyways, these time I presented myself in the American Embassy, at Brasilia. It was much convenient to me. I knew that I had many cousins living in Rio de Janeiro but had no intimacy. And I didn’t knew the city. Otherwise, Brasilia is a place easy to know, I had been there for more than a month and, like in Belo Horizonte, was difficult walk on the streets and don’t see some of my friends or relatives. I have hundreds of relatives in Brasilia.

I decided go personally because had the sense that, my European looking could help in some way. And I was an young adult. Youth is always more attractive, until you get to know the person in some cases. And also I had maturity on my side. Maturity is what is attractive on older people. So I expected to reasoning with all the respect and make my case at the interview. And the only thing that went wrong was that, we was more than 6 months before the voyage which motivation was an honeymoon. As the visas that was been granted for tourism had only 6 months of validation I was invited to come back later. What I did in September and the voyage was planned to December.

We marriged December 5, and took the airplane in Belo Horizonte, December 13. December 14 we was in Miami. Three days later I was working in a farm, Imagination Farm, helping milk the cows. I was the only Brazilian in that sector of the company and all of my colleagues was Mexicans and Central Americans. I was amazed because I could understand their talkings and some of them couldn’t understand when I talk in Portuguese language. And the closest thing that I knew from Spanish language was hearing the old Cantinflas movies. Pedro, one of them, from El Salvador, said that I sounded like a nobleman. And I didn’t got it, if he was or not just making fun of me.

Around one month later I was able to pay for my own car. Was a US$ 500.00 Toyota with more than 10 years of use. Does a matter. It was running. In Brazil I would never got a car so cheap. Soon it got some problem and was fixed for almost the same price. We was enchanted to be able to have things that was hard to get in Brazil. My wife was been trained by my sister to be a housecleaner in American style and preparing some schedule for her. She also began to make some money.

One of the first orientation we got was to go to the Social Security Office to get a number. 18 year ago just some knew we could get one without problem. It wasn’t required to have a driver’s licence for example and most of Brazilian immigrants wasn’t awared about the importance of have one. And soon we learn one of its uses. My wife was having some nauseas and my sister oriented her to do the quick test. It was positive.

So, now we were three. And Penhinha might got pregnant in the same day that we got marriaged. In the days before she was so preoccupied with our marriage and the voyage that lost track of everything else. It was her first time away from family and from Brazil. She became in some way desperate. Before knew it was always crying for her family. I was in my place. Had some cousins and sister around. Not even the barrier of language botthered me. I was confident on learn it with the time.

The burden became so hard on her that I agreed with her to come to Massachusetts. I didn’t knew what we could find here but she had friends from her city in Brazil that was already living here. I didn’t minded to make friends with her friends. And my work at the farm was getting me some pain. Two by two months we had to shift day by night. I couldn’t have another job and the US$ 280.00/week that I was making before the discounts wasn’t enough in our new situation.

We were receptioned in Boston Logan Airport by her friend Valmir. He drove us to a house in Boston where lived a couple of Santa Efigenia de Minas, Natalicia (Taica) and Geraldo (Ladinho), with their twins girls, Stephanie and Jennifer, that turned one year old not long before and was starting to talk. Ladinho was Penhinha’s cousin and also mine, through differents ways. I didn’t knew how, but I was talking to his sister, Aparecida, in front of my father’s house one day and my father came and asked her about her family. And then he explained to her how we were related. I didn’t paid attention at the time.

Now I know that they are greatgrandchildren of aunt Emygdia Honoria Coelho. There we also met his sister called by the nickname Cotta (Socorro) and her husband Jose Maria who was known to me, from Virginopolis. Only years later I came to known that, his wife Taica is our doubled cousin too. She is two times descendant of aunt Emygdia.

Our final destination was the Town of Framingham, where we live since then. The weekend was to met some of Penhinha’s friends that was already here. The couple Shella and Siqueira became our mates in a studio at the Brookside Building. Siqueira is his last name and he is one of the few persons that I known only by that. As Ladinho, he also was policeman in Brazil. And there the military police is subordinated to the Army. They had many colleagues in the same situation. They abandoned their positions and any time that they would be back had to pay a penalty of prison. After that would be reincorporated. As most of the public servants in Brazil, they had lower payment and many took the risk to, at least, have a house for their own and start some small business that could complement their soldier’s payment.

Monday was the day. Valmir was the guy who have contacts and was manager in a firm of landscapping and another firm of office’s cleaning. I start working on two of them. Soon I was making around 70 hours work by week. It hardly gave me US$ 400.00/week. My wife began cleaning offices too. But I had my worries because the main job, landscapping, wouldn’t be a year long job. It stops in the winters for more than 4 months sometimes.

Anyways I was happy. For the studio we was paying only US$ 200.00 a month for rent. With others US$ 50.00/week, more or less, we paid what would come from the supermarket. I had to buy another car and our boss sold me an used to pay in small parcels. I broke my word and paid it sooner.

Everything was going well until the summer came. In the begining our first contact with the land was shocking because the cold. The threes looked like dead ones having not leaves. The parking lots had mountains of accumulated snow. 1,993-4 season had been one of the most accumulation then. We began the work sweeping sand from the parking lots and over the grass. These was one of the worst jobs that I ever done. Until July in that year we found ice under the sand used to help spread salt.

And then came the summer. Among our jobs we had to fix the asphalt. One weekend we was supposed to paint it with a asphaltic product. And my part on the job was protect the grass with a peace of wood. When someone else spreaded the product it touch my leg and I discovered that I had allergy to it because it start itch badly like was poison ivy. I couldn’t do that job and Valmir quickly arranged me to work with another guy. But he had a firm to small and I ended working only two or three days/week. Although was a better payment hourly.

Meanwhile, we start knowing Framingham better. And began to go to church. The Catholic Church had Brazilian Portuguese masses ministered by a Brazilian father. Father Roque Patuzzi. And then, to our surprise, I began to met again people who had been born in Virginopolis. Some had live in Governador Valadares before come to here. Soon I discovered that the majority of my fellow countrypeople which was outside Brazil was here. Dozens of them my close relatives.

Just to name some. Sandra, Delza, Marcio and Roberto from just one family and many times our cousins. Guilherme and Almir. Adriano and Andre. Marlene and her sons. Geraldo and Wilmar. Unfortunately, the last one died in Virginopolis last July from heart attack. Marcelo Batista. Leonardo, son of aunt Oneida. Kedina and Dill and Dill’s brothers. Ramon and Ruizinho. Those was some of them that was already here but soon we had others like, Nilma and Nilton, sibilings of Geraldo and Wilmar. Agnello who’s sister-in-law, Alice, was already here. The couple Dirceia and Carlos. I am mentioning only the ones that I was seen more often. And later on came cousins like, Rui, son of aunt Odette. Eonio, son of aunt Odila and brother of Ivania, the author of one of our genealogies. I will mention no more because I don’t want make a Yellow List out of it.

Two important things to mention from that time. I would invite the reader to check the page, and take a look on the annual variation of unemployment for United States. There we can see the rates declining from a peak, similar to today’s rates, on the 80s until a lowest point of 4.0% in 2,000. Even so, what got the attention of us immigrants was the question, How Americans got unemployed when we are easy working 60, 80 and even 120 hours/week? Yes. We knew many crazy ones working these much of hours. Because I knew my limitations, never tried such adventure.

I don’t blame the Americans for not take the jobs that we were taking. In Brazil we also left behind many jobs that was available to us. No legal job can humiliate a person but the payment for it can. I and many of others who came to here from Brazil, having a universitarian degree, didn’t feel ashamed of what we was doing because at the end we were been paid for in a reasonable wage. Nobody, at the time, was planning to live in here. Most of us was thinking it was for a short time before come back home. The only advantage that was seen on our payment was that, in Brazil it could give us a life of middle class. Here we was taking the poorest life but most of us had the illusion that the money they were sending home would buy them a royal life.

Even in the particular case that I confronted one time. Was cleaning a bathroom and somebody had defecated on the borders of the seat. Looks like the person had diarrhea and was so pressured that had no time to seat before do it. So I was the one who had to clean it! I wouldn’t never had such opportunity to do it in Brazil. My stomach almost turned inside out. Then I took a deep breath and did. And I thought it was just one more tax we had to pay for be so away from home. Anyways it didn’t made me inferior to nobody.

At that time I was the only voice in the desert preaching that it wasn’t time to go back to Brazil. My prevision was that, the situation would be much worse than the crisis that forced us out. I didn’t met our cousin Guilherme before he went back to Brazil. Although he made good investments and never returned to here. But I told it to others. They was already tired of too much hard work and miss to much our birth place and their relatives. Me too but I knew we had to do like I did to clean that bathroom. Take a deep breath and be patient. To those I only said, go but let an window open in your mind to return. And most people that went back to Brazil at that time tried to return and almost everybody returned.

Another interesting observation. I already mentioned that with US$ 50.00 we was able to fill up our weekly supermarket carrier. And now I mention it. As an office’s cleaner wasn’t so hard to collect around 250 recyclables cans and bottles which gave me US$ 12.50 weekly extra payment. With it I was able to fill up the whole gas tank of my car and run for an entire week. If I was doing the same job and collecting the same amount of cans and bottles today, it would be only for the safety of the planet. Now I need US$ 50.00 to fill up the same tank. And the price for each can or bottle still the same 5c.

Another interesting data is about the number of Brazilian around here. When we came in 1,994 we had some condominiuns totally taken by immigrants and most of them Brazilians. Brookside, Second Street, Weld Street, Lord Chesterfield and others was the most common places to Brazilians. Short time later a good half of the city was taken by immigrants, mostly Brazilians.

Some time before we came, the center of Framingham had been a disaster. A dormitory town once most inhabited by Italians and Portuguese immigrants in the past was in visible decadence. It had been a place for factories that had moved away. Buildings were abandoned. The neighborhood around the center was taken by drug dealers and the local people was afraid to walk there. Brazilian and latinos came because the rent was cheaper.

In 1,994 it wasn’t so depressing anymore. Had pockets of despair. Soon the presence in number became the good sign for some open their own business. The center became vibrant and it spreaded to the suburban areas. Some year after we came, Framingham became to much costly to newcomers and those, among some oldcomers, began to move to others places like Marlboro, Milfort, Ashland and, contradicting the tendency of look for cheaper dwells, Natick and Wellsley. Now is difficult to hear a name of a city in Massachusetts without have at least a mention of some immigrant living there.

Well, we settle for short time at Brookside. A studio wasn’t a best place for two couple to live. And we was expecting a third person in our family. My wife took the initiative to look for one apartment at the Second Street. I remember our cousin Wilmar been our translator for it. And we moved to there in July. Whatsoever the reason I wasn’t so comfortable with it because I don’t like to make expenses before the assurance of have how to pay. Anyways I complied with she had done. Although it would cost us more than double that we was paying before.

September 6, 1,994 we became parents for our first child. It was a new experience. I was afraid of no be able to have enough income but I was also young and not afraid of work. I had been working in a restaurant in Wellesley and making just US$ 165.00/week plus around US$ 125.00 as cleaner. My wife worked as cleaner until her last month of pregnancy. And then I heard that my cousin Guilherme was going back to Brazil and I would replace him in a factory. Name, Eastern Seaboard Packging INC or ESP.

I worked there for almost 10 years. And in my application had that stupid question. How much do you like to make? Everyone knew that you could put what you wanted but they would hire only if the payment was the minimum. And it was US$ 6.00/hour. These was my demise. But it was my only hope of pass through the winter been paid. In there was working my cousins Geraldo, Roberto and Almir. Soon Agnello and Nilton came together. Three other Brazilians worked there, Margareth, Eli and Fernando, who we called by the nickname of Gaucho because he was from the Rio Grande do Sul State, neighboring Uruguay and Argentina.

Other one, Francisco Salmem worked before in the unit in Holliston, where we were employed, but had accepted work in Florida. In the next summer he was back because his wife had trouble on to adapt to there. Roberto and Almir knew better English than us all. Almir worked there as a part time. And Roberto usually went the winters to Brazil. So only when Francisco came back we got a regular translator. He was our voice to the firm. An he and Guilherme are marriaged to sisters.

After the birth of our son, Penhinha began also do housecleaning with two schedule keepers. One was Edinha, a Eucharist Minister at the Saint Tarcisius Church. The other was Marilou, my cousin Adriano’s wife. And so we went to the immigrants routine. Wake up very earlier, leave the child in a baby sitter, go to work, went back, take a quickly shower, more work until be in the bed around 11 pm. My wife could come earlier to pick up our son and fix our food for the whole day.

Around November we witnessed our first snow fall. And I broken the puzzle about the icy thing that had felt in Virginopolis some time ago. It was snow mixed in the shower. But when I told it to the others guys they made fun of me. To then it was impossible. And if I hadn’t seen it I also would have my doubts. Although I also would take a more reasoning approaching. We never had snow there before in our knowledge. But also never had witnessed showers in winter time. As our temperatures always went under 32 F for short periods of time in Minas Gerais, then what was lack to have snow was the rain. So, even if I hadn’t seen it, is perfectly possible.

But make fun from each other was our best passtime. Our meetings in every breaktime was for comment the news from Brazil, United States and the world. But also to make fun from ourselves. Was said that, nobody could come late to or go away earlier from our meetings because if so he would be the issue. But it is a common happen in our Brazilian culture. And is called fofoca, although, in our case without the meaning that the word imply.

Wasn’t so many time after we came to Massachusetts and I discovered the community already had its own newpapers. As was my practice in Brazil, start send opinions. Many of my opinions were published. Most of it by the Brazilian Times. And were in 1,994 that I sent a letter asking the Brazilian Consulate to create the Itinerant Consulate. The idea was to bring the services, one day a week, to the communities. To me was more reasonable to mobilize some people to attend thousands in a more convenient place than to expect thousands go to the inconvenient address in the Boston Center. We were fresh around here, most of the people didn’t had cars and was more difficult to those who new not English to use the public transportation. The Itinerant Consulate were created some time after and still in use today.

I have some curious story from that time. A housecleaner worked for a American family. The Mrs owner of the house asked to her if she was legal because her husband was thinking in be a candidate and, if was discovered they was hiring a person without papers it could put him in trouble. The worker had documents. But her helper didn’t. And nobody asked about it. Later the couple bought a new house at the neighbor State of New Hampshire. The helper stood working normally.

It was troubling and a great sacrifice do the cleaning on that house. The keepers had to get up before 5:00 in the morning to be there around 8:00 am to do the cleaning and had time to go back and do others obligations. The housekeeper could simply said that she wouldn’t do the cleaning in that house and look for another client. But Brazilian have some mania for do sacrifices because like the people and have no respect for themselves interests. If she had unveilled that had an undocumented working in the house the owners wouldn’t think two times before let them all go.

What is also strange on such History is the American hypocrisy in relationship to it. Here the people get up, take their coffe at a convenience store, take lunch in a restaurant, do shopping at supermarkets and department stores, do shopping products from the local farms and many others knowing that is there a great possibility of the undocumented immigrant service be embed in every and all product. They know that is impossible to live in here without undocumented immigrant, unless we have an way to legalization. What they can’t know is that, that specific immigrant don’t have papers and work for the good of the nation. If they know it, they persecute him.

Also come from these time another curious fact that we encountered. One day Geraldo came to us saying that, a son of a client of his wife, Alice, a descendant from the trunck Barbalho Pimenta presented at the book of cousin Dermeval, always said that, he would be the president of United States. The curiosity was in that, he was just a child and told it with all the certitude. I don’t believe in no way that the persons are born with a defined destiny. So I speculated that his will would come from his parents influence because be a country’s president would appear to them like to have the most desirable toy!

Actually, at the present presidential campaign I am seen the same on the Republican Party candidates. Not all. But have some that want be president for the status of the position. By what they presented and say they are totally out of thought with the reality. They don’t want represent the head to attend the need from the body represented by the people. They want to be the head to impose to the people their own will and the interests from their money donors. How they look like to those that administrated Brazil on its first 500 year!

I am detailing to much around here. These chapter will last forever if not be simplified. I think better is to reduce the details and maybe somebody else will be interested in write a more complete narration of what went on to the Brazilian immigrants around here. To you reader, to have an idea about the number of us in that time, around 17 years ago, I offer an image. When we start attend the masses at the Saint Tarcisius Church, sometime the first people to went took the back seats. And in the beginning of the mass father Roque always invited them to come close to the seats next to the altar. We were around 200 or less people on each mass.

Around 2 or 3 years later all the seats was taken. It lead to the creation of more weekly masses. And the Evangelical Churchs that was in others cities having a small number here now are at least one dozen. The booming of Brazilians here were around the year 2,000. Since we came, all week father Roque asked if had some newcomer and always had. Sometime 10 people in one time. For many problems and some solutions, our community is shrinking since around 2,004. From the crisis of 2,008 to now the people is making their luggages and staying in Brazil definitively. Some Americans who are now related by marriage also are migrating together. Still, a small number of Brazilians also keep trying to come for a diversified number of reasons.

Coming back to our own story, in 1,995 I wrote a new book. It is the result of old thinkings combined with new ones with the direction of a reading on the Bible. Since then I planned such collection that would be composed by two volumes, refferring to the Old and New Testaments, and the one that I was writing. Its name is “The Knowledge from God”. Soon came the inspiration to write one more volume, and now is called, The Divine Parable and is the fourth volume of the collection.

Only in 2,004 I began to write the volumes 1 and 2 of the collection named, THE THIRD ANS LAST TESTAMENT, from: THE KNOWLEDGE CONCERNING GOD. These one is the only one already published in paper, just in English language. The other ones are now available, just in Portuguese language, at my blog, Lets coment about it later.

In the same blog I have been publishing others of my works. The most viewed are about the Coelho Genealogy. Last year we got around 10,000 visits only. Not too bad to an almost unknown nobody like me.

Before I do the promised comment I need to talk about a publishing that I did in Brazil. It was 1,995 and the book was the one that I wrote in 1,977. We was here in United States but my wife wasn’t able to let go her feelings by the distancy from Brazil and her family. My vision was to stay. Without any good idea of what to do in Brazil I gave a try been a writer. So I entered in contact with my brother-in-law, Ricardo, Magda’s husband, and he knew a publisher. I decided that it was the only way to me be back to Brazil.

But the publication didn’t came as quickly as we planned and it came just in timming to cause me a lot pain in the neck. Things went wrong in a totally distorted way. In 1,992 had a rumorous case of assassination in Brazil. An actor of soap opera, Guilherme de Padua, and his ex-wife, Paula Thomaz, kidnapped and killed the also actress Daniella Perez. She was daughter of the soap opera’s writer Gloria Perez who was working for the most known television channel in Brazil, Globo Television.

And the juditial process went slow as the Brazilian Justice use to do. The actor assassin wrote a book where he defended his version of the crime mentioning things, imaginaries or not, about the lives of the workers in that channel. By coincidence he choosed the same publisher that my book was been prepared. The case got to much publicity around and Mrs. Perez went the court to block the commercialization of his book alleging it was composed by lies.

I wasn’t there and don’t know that much about law applications so I think that the judge was pressioned to give a favorable decision to Mrs. Perez because the television had mobilized the public opinion against the assassin. So he were in some way suppressed on his right of have ample defense. But the publisher had already edited his book and refused to recall it. He went underground and more attacks he sufferred from the television more free publicity the assassin’s book gainned. The public was buying it for curiosity of what it would reveal of negative from the actors lives.

The publicity on my book was forgoten. The publisher delivered our contracted copies in small numbers each time, in the middle of the nights. And I was here not knowing what to do. It was too risky to go there, leaving family here, because I hadn’t have papers yet. And I had no response from a bigger number of people if a career as writer would be worth of try. The people who read the book did like it. At least the ones that gave return. But they were all from my family. I can’t say for sure if it had no interference of distorted kindness. I myself love it but I am the “father of these child”.

And I had invested all the economies we had made then in these project and was dependent on to sale the first copies to reinvest later. Without advertisement had no how it be. These became one of the doubled sharp point thorns in my marriage. The one that hurts because none want lose in a situation like that and also because you are treated like had the will of to do the wrong choice in that precise moment.

The odds of something like that happen to anyone is small. But when I got the information that the assassin was from Guanhaes and his ex-wife from nearby, and all the problem in Rio de Janeiro, I was shocked.

At the end of 1,997 I was in a bad mood with the company that I was working for during the day. Everybody knew I was a good work and it wasn’t secret to not one. The bosses noticed how the productivity had went up since I took the position of printer. But my salary was worse than what I was making as cleaner. So I was decided to wait the coming spring to quit and take anything else.

Then, in that December we had the opportunity to enter in a process of legalization. We was around seven Brazilians working there and only Salmen had his Green Card. We did a meeting and decided it was worth to ask if the general manager would sign for our legalization. Everyone looked each other and exploded in laughs. We had nothing to lose! If he said no, nobody would stay.

The general manager was amazed we had no papers. And made a quick consult to the lawer before accept the responsibility. We had only days to start the process and we went the office of the most known lawer of immigration in Boston. Dr. John K. Dvorak said he would not take our case because he didn’t see how we could fit in that law. Our translator, Icaro, who was around 12 years old then, and son of our cousin Geraldo, almost got up on the desk of the lawer saying that, must have some way. The lawer said he would not take our money knowing that our case was lost. We was about to go home when his assistent brought him an specific article of the law. He just smiled and said, I accept your case. From there on it is history.

My wife didn’t liked it. To her I had to work more, move to a better paid job, make a quick money to us be back to Brazil. Since we came, until four more year later, she shed tears of repentance for her idea of bring us here. Then I was the one who had to be the reason to both and do it alone. She said to me, I don’t pay a penny for these legalization. And I just rebuked, I am not asking you nothing, I am just communicating you what I am doing.

2,001 came and the September 11 still in our memories. In that morning we was already working when our superviser told us that an airplane had reach one of the twin tower in New York. The situation was grave but nobody expect it be more than an unfortunate accident. Not long after came the notice of the second and the third. Had no doubt, it was a premeditated attack. We went to break for launch feeling the fear and the heaviness in the air. We had no idea of what would come next.

And all people of the president Bush began to talk about war. In our meetings in the coffe and launch breaks I defended the thesis that the best way to resolve the problem was talking directly to Osama Bin Laden and his terrorist organization. No. I am not that good or innocent. I was giving my aknowledgement that they wasn’t attacking United States for nothing. And I believed that some talks could avoid worsening of the situation.

It is a little more complicated than appears. Long before I followed what was happening in the Middle East. Since the Six Days War I took some opinion about. In that time I was happy as a child thinking as heroic a small State of Israel wining an war against the combined forces of the others countries around. In that time I was really been pure innocent. I had no idea that one war don’t give us peace. One war is the short cut to the next one.

Later I start to see more and understood better the situation. I see the Palestinians been often denied from their rights of have their own country and a disproporcional force been moved against them. So I got sorrow for both people that were caught in the middle of the disputes of interests and dragged against each other. Since them I start seen both people as hostages of their leaders and victims of a despicable plot.

Around the 90s had a great opportunity for peace be made between the two people. But the Israeli government said that, in my words, it would not talk to some part os the representatives of Palestinians. In that occasion I demonstrated my unsatisfaction writing a letter to the newspaper Estado de Minas. It were published and my words can be resumed to it: We need to speak peace to our enemies because we don’t speak it to friends, we celebrate peace with our friends. Since them it became clear to me that the leaders of both people wasn’t fighting for peace. They were fighting against peace and putting both people in harms ways.

Unfortunately I was nobody, writing through an unknown newspaper outside Brazil. And I saw similitudes between the situation between the two peoples and the one that ended in the September 11 attacks. And my view was that, talk openly to the rest of the world see. Giving a gesture of good will would give reason to every other people see the contrast between good and evil. If Osama Bin Laden extended his hand the other peoples would be admired for how magnanimous Americans was. If not every people would say he was worth of anything bad happen to him, even his fellow Muslins. And he would lose the credibility that attracted more fighters for his side. Challenging him before talks just gave more support for his hideous cause.

Later on the administration George W. Bush made its case to go to war against Saddhan Hussein. In that I went wild. The allegations presented to the UN to me was clear based on false intelligence. How I knew it? Only God know. Was just an intuition that sometimes happens to me. I even wrote that I was suspicious about the Administration Bush had facilitated the plot in September 11 go on to have the opportunity to have the excuse to make the wars. But it wan’t something that I believed.

In the talks with my colleagues at work we had different opinions around. Nobody was favarable to wars but also nobody credited me as the best reason on the play. The only thing that I remember well is that, Unfortunately the people is been induced to err again but the people sometimes only learn while is been spanked. They will change opinion when the caskets rather than people alive began to come in numbers.

My prevision didn’t became 100% true. To make the case in favor of the war, the Bush administration had painted Saddhan’s army as a formidable adversary. I new it was the usual exageration as it happen on both side. Everybody who remember the beginning of the war recall the Iraq’s minister of communications and his version how the Saddhan’s loyalists were been victorious. But most of their soldiers had the good will of depose their weapons rather than fight for a lost cause. I expected more Americans deaths in the begin and, thanks God, it was caused by intelligence’s bad information. But in the long run it became equally painful.

Until today the only reason for that war was not more than a vendetta from the Bush family. Since the 90s, because the Gulf War, where the big father Bush was unable to remove the Hussein family from that strategic spot in the globe, the days of Saddhan were counted. What was lack was a new opportunity until 2,002.

At November, 2,001, we received the communication that our Green Cards had been issued. Just in time. My mother and my father was about to turn their 50 anniversary of marriage and we was away for 8 long years. In no time we bouth three airways tickets to Brazil. It was only possible because of the terrorist attacks. Usually we would find available places only six months prior to the trip. And the people became afraid to travel by air. We didn’t think two times.

December we was there. And the scene was shocking to my wife. She had forgoten how poverty looks like. And it was bigger than ever. In our region her city was one of the poorest places. Only then she realized why I had applied for legalization. Although it was only a confirmation of her changing in heart. We already was buying an house here.

And it was another thorn in our lives. Around 1,995 I had asked her to not invest in Brazil because we didn’t agreed where to put money there. She wanted apply in her city and I knew it had not future for a long period. I suggested do it in Virginopolis and she said would never live in my city because had to much snob people there. But it was false in my view. So she applied in Belo Horizonte in something that was a dead end.

Since I decided for the legalization my opportunities of make more money were cut down. I had to keep my underpaid job and I pass through a great time of humiliation. Everything I was making was for pay the bills, expenses of the house e a little to pay our legalization. So it appear that what was been saved came only from her payment and I am not attached to money. I let her do whatever she wanted.

I had suggested we buy a dwell for us here and we could do it for as much as 45-60 thousands. When she changed her mind, a single house was around 300 thousands. We even was about to buy one when 9 11 came. I said it wouldn’t be a good deal and she agreed with me for these one time, and we changed for a condo of 160 thousands. When we came back we entered in these house.

In Brazil we had all end of the year holidays plus the 50 anniversary of my parents and the 60 anniversary of marriage of aunt Odila and uncle Eurico. She is born just after my father but had marriaged on his day of birth, ten years before his marriage. So my parents anticipated their commemorations in between Christmas and New Eve. It was in Virginopolis. And in January 7, my fahter’s birthday, we had the commemorations in Governador Valadares. Were exactly in those days that my father gave me the book of our genealogy. Just after, we came back. Was like a lightning.

It was also the last time I saw my father alive. And the life got on like before. Just one changing. Since I was legalized I wasn’t up to stay in the same job. 8 years of my life had been lost. My salary wasn’t much more than US$ 8.00/hour. And we were abused in many senses. Not only at the ESP but on every other company we worked for. Been a Brazilian and Mineiros we learned how be resilient. Rather than fight back any and every aggression we prefer make fun of our situation. The Mineiros are known by the saying: “O Mineiro da um boi para nao entrar em briga, e uma boiada para nao sair dela.” The Mineiro give up one bovine for not fight, and a herd for don’t get out of it.” The mean of it is that, we do every effort in our power to avoid fights but once we are involved in it we go up to the end.

What moved me to have a second thought was that, our cousin Nilton had entered the process of legalization too. But when it was in the middle he let it go because he had established that only would stay here for 5 years. As piece-worker he could make much money than me. So I accepted the challenge of replace him. The work is very hard. We had to work with a very noisy machine, stapling carboard boxes all day long. Was so hard that no American was up to get the position. But we did it, not doing like a regular job but in a faster way. To get an idea of what it mean, when the owner of the factory saw our cousin Geraldo doing it, she had only one word to describe, “Amazing”.

When the factory would have an open house to show future clients how the whole work there was done we had to prepare some scene that we was familiarized with. Put bundles of boxes type letter, which ones was easier to make, and wait for the sign to start. The most experient on the job was Geraldo and he was able to do more than 2,000 boxes a day. I also became able to do but had no time to match him. The people who was seen us for the first time really got impressed.

The job was so hard that we put off the heat even when we had freezing temperatures. 10 minutes after we start our bodies began to sweat and I had to drink bottles of water or sports drinks to keep hydrated. We had no fat in our bodies, just muscles. Since then I stop to do part times as cleaner. At the end of the day our body demanded some relaxation. In these time the money began to come into my pocket and was enough to have health insurance, start invest 5% from each check on 401K and have couple hundreds in the bank just in case.

At that time we also got some interesting event in the factory. We don’t had large competition in the field. Maybe two or three other in the State of Massachusetts. Our company had others units around 10 others states. And they agreed with a competitor to close one unit on other state, I don’t remember if was Michigan, and the competitor closed its unit in Massachusetts. And they exchanged their list of clients on each state. Apparently was just a market operation.

So our production area doubled and we got new colleagues of work. All from Virginopolis pointed by us. The new ones, Ramon, Agnello’s brother and Amaury, my cousin aand Marlene’s son, was from the Coelho Family. With them came also, Carlos (Tchaca) who’s family was aggregated to mine, Edinho and Ademar. The last one was son of one of my grandaddy Cista aggregated and his sister, Silvana, is marriaged to our cousin Wellington. Family also living in United States.

Had others that came and got out from the factory. Not everybody is coming in my memory in these particular moment. But we had also Rodrigo. He is cousin of my wife and legalized in there. A little time after got his Green Card he quitted, looking for better opportunity. Nelson was from Belo Horizonte and marriaged to a Virginopolitan. Aender was a stranger in the nest but soon was like in the bundle of brothers. I am in doubt of the name of another cousin from there but I think was Eustaquio. They are seven brother in the same family and I had less contact with the youngesters. Here I am mixing people from different times that worked there and we also had our cousin Marcelo N. Coelho.

We start working in two turns and our group kept the day time. After our cousins be trained, Geraldo and I saw that we was pushing to hard to keep producing more than the newcomers. In our experience we knew that they would have long time to match our production but even so was better to make the production collectively. We promptly agreed on share all production in equal parts to all. We was able to staple more boxes but when we was making it into bundles the other guys, as they produced less, helped us. What we was loosing was a small part but everyone was almost happy.

The lack of plenty happiness was due to the hardness of the work and the bosseness around by our manager. Nobody liked his way of bossing around but had no hard feelings, personally speaking.

In July 2,003 my wife took a 40 days vacation with our son in Brazil. I already had bought my ticket for the begining of 2,004. At that time my ordeal with my genetical inheritance had began. I think nobody had a better sight than me. Probably it is normal to billions of people and was perfect. Soon it became opaque. Was cataracts. Around my 40s. On exactly age it came to my father. I had done a first surgery here in United States and it didn’t went well. Then I made appointments in Belo Horizonte where we had the best specialists since Dr. Hilton Rocha. Dr. Hilton was my father’s and the whole family eyes doctor and in his place I got his best disciple Dr. Rui Marinho.

Before I went Brazil my wife came back and we decided to have another child. She got pregnant around September. In October my father died. I didn’t go there immediately because was unable to do anything more for him. It was the death of a saint man. My father never were a perfect person. But had something that distinguished him from others. He was conservative in all senses. Although wasn’t ignorant.

He was son of a rich man. The people of our city had him as rich too but didn’t knew what was going on inside of our home. He wasn’t an outspoken person. Usually he was able to talk the essential. In our home had two things that he would never fail to provide. Food and education. He never had a car of his own. He used to say, “Car is a second family and I can’t provide for both”. In Brazil it was perfectly true.

Usually we had only five garments to use. The one to see God, the uniform to go to school, and three others used to the most until it had to go to trash. All of our garment was home made, by my mother who was his right hand and second in command. Most of the helpers in our home had to go to school with us. After he acquired our farm his employee in it had 13 children and two grandchildren. He paid for many of them, those who wanted, to attend at least until high school. It was extra salary to his employee.

We lived in a decadent house for many many years. It was where his greatgrandmother, Joaquina, and his grandma, Ercila, had died. Even my mother pushing him to construct a new one out of loan. He first made his economies and we went the new home after their 26 years of marriage. Was his way of be himself. If he had to have something he first would make money before buy. He rarely paid interests. We used to make fun of it because he was the bank manager in our city. He was good manager for our family but a bad advertisement for the bank. The bank was public and as public servant he wasn’t well paid.

Well, he was a really dedicated father. Hard worker. One day he said that, he wouldn’t die before know the ocean. But he never knew the ocean and died providing for the family and giving to others. He was at the hospital, about to be discharged the next day and died with a clog in his leg. My daughter born four months after and was saved from the same problem. Could be a sign that he still watching for us from Heaven. I will say no more about it. His and my mother’s biographies are worth of a better studies.

Around December I was drinking water from the refrigerator and it was so cold that had some sprinkles of ice inside. One of it got stucked in my throat. I had a painful sensation of suffocation for a little while. As it came it was gone but I felt like a sting. One week later I felt ill.

My doctor diagnosed hyperthyroidism and let me go home to wait because had not available treatment for it. For one entire month I was unable to lift my body up from our sofa without vomit. Unless laid down I was always dizzy. Hardly kept juice in my stomach. The taken photo from me in my passaport shows one version of me so thin that the volume of my thyroid can be easily deliniated on my neck. When I got in Brazil I was been able to stand up and was eating better.

Some doctor there examined my thyroid and said that, whatever had happen had gone with no trace. Another said my heart was perfect. And my eyes doctor, Dr. Marinho, did on me two surgeries. One to resolve my second cataract and another to correct the position of the lens of the first one. He said that, it was not unusual some young doctors become afraid of pull the artificial lens hard enough to place it in position. And my body had reacted against it and he had to clean it up with another laser surgery. I did other things there but not important.

My wife’s pregnancy had been difficult. She was bleeding and the prior tests gave a possibility of our child be a down person. Her doctor offerred abortion. To us Catholics it was despicable although we understood his obligation to go through the law. We just refused. But he failled to prescribe to her absolute rest and she kept working. In the day I arrived in Brazil she called me saying that was in the hospital and was miscarring. She wanted me here. I couldn’t do it. Everything was scheduled and we had no funds to me do it twice. I just knew she was overreacting, as usual, and she had brothers and sisters to assist her here.

She stood in the hospital for two weeks before the child had to be taken from her womb. Was a five and half months of pregnancy and the child was really tiny. One pound and four ounces. When I came back she stood whole in my hand and just her legs out. We got four months of goes and backs to the Santa Elizabeth’s Hospital in Brighton, Boston outskirts. Exactly when I came she was at New England Hospital, in the Boston Center because she got a clog in her leg and a angel acting as a nurse was able to perceive it in that tiny leg like a little finger. She also had some infection in her body, treated and cured at Saint Elizabeth’s.

It can be just coincidence but in my genealogical studies I found that, our supposed ancestor Jose Coelho de Magalhaes (*) is an offspring of Saint Elizabeth, the scotish queeen.

Our girl was born in February 14, Valentine’s Day in United States. July she went home in a stronger version. In times of desperation my wife said to me, “It is your falt.” She was referrring to my will of have one more child be more strong than her’s. And I acting chauvinistically responded, Ah if it was not! Later on she regreted for her saying and agreed on our baby been the best thing happen to her since our first born. And I encouraged her, It is my falt!

Later on my wife was with our daughter walking on the streets and saw her doctor. She was so happy that didn’t have a second thought on show the child to him. Seen her the doctor asked: “Is her name Miracle?!” Was there, face-to-face, the Faraoh’s arm and Herod’s hand. The one that wanted our permit to kill our child. But he had an humbled gesture before the evidence of the err that he could have induced as to do. Our girl is perfect for the pattern of premature babies.

At the factory the things didn’t went so well. My colleagues knew many of our fellow Virginopolitans that was making more money than us because they was working with granite and marble in the construction booming from the earlier 2,000s. And they wanted to ask for a better payment in our job. I was satisfied with we was making and was in doubt if it was the best thing to do in that time. But I didn’t wanted be the only voice against their will.

Our negotiations went a little rush and the manager said that, for give what we wanted the company had to let someone of us go. And my colleagues stood in their strategy. I wasn’t content but never said no to them. In September of that year I had some discussion with the manager and he decided to give me a warning. I signed it without look at what was written in it so disgusted I was. In a blink of eye I was called in the office upstairs and they let me go.

I had more worries of what to do next than hard feelings. It was to much shocking to bear. I knew people from everywhere but nobody who could indicate me to a good position. Had many offerrings around but for the minimum wage. Every department store was hiring but what I could make would be less than what I would had to pay for a baby sitter for our girl. And as an earlier premature baby she would be accompanied by many doctors and a nurse. Somebody had to lift her to many appointments. So we decided I would be home to take care of her while things get better.

One big problem to got a good job in that moment was because doesn’t have many companies working in the same sector of ESP. If I was working as landscapper or in many others sectors taken by immigrants I could use my experience in other firms. Then I was devided in my opinion of what would be better if I anticipated something like that when I began working at ESP. I got the benefit of the legalization but not use for my experience and made not enough money for 8 years long dedicated to it.

In that time I start to use our computer. While the baby was taking her naps. I found the and placed there our genealogy. It helped me to memorize the names of our family members and have a better idea of our kinship with many thousands of people. Soon I discovered the – Portugal, and learned much more.

Later I start to write the volumes 1 and 2 of THE THIRD AND LAST TESTAMENT, from THE KNOWLEDGE CONCERNING GOD. A new reading on the biblical writings gave me more understanding of the facts. In that time our friend Sandra Sampaio gave me a copie of the book, Who Wrote the Bible? I loved the book, not agreed on everything, but took a good teaching from it. We need to look what are the interests of who wrote anything to undestand the real goal of the authors.

And I wrote my own book debunking many old conceptions and interpretations. It is almost unbelievable how wrong teachings are on all faces of readers and scholars and they don’t evolve their understanding! Anyways I really felt that I was connected to God and what I wrote is more close to His Will than what we had before. So I got these sense of mission to let the world know what is right and what is false about what is said in relationship to God.

It was another blow out in my life. In the internet I see some advertisement saying that some publishers would pay US$ 100,000.00 for any unpublished work. I didn’t believed on it and also felt uncomfortable to give up my authorship. Books to authors are like their own children and give up authorship brings not good feelings. We love to share the talent in our text as a parent love to show a talented offspring. Later on I confirmed through a documentary that, the advertisement was true. The market was so hot that the publishers could pay it and try because in the midst of many low sellers they could fish one best seller that would pay for all the others.

Otherwise I heard about a then new kind of publication. Called by the name of “Printing on Demand”. I wasn’t yet prepared to take a big decision through what I knew of the English language. Was able to read and understand it most but not all. I understood that the editor would print any copy ordered by any interested buyer. And I thought it was reasonable some number of books would be printed and put in display on, at least, the main bookstores around the country.

I thought also that, as some people buy anything that is in their preferred subject and the subject in the book been religious it would sale a small number of copies but enough to pay for my initial costs which was more than US$ 10,000.00. From that I would keep investing and doing debates that could increase the understanding of the text and make more sales that would pay for my additional costs. And I was totally wrong on that.

Now, in my point-of-view, the system is nothing more than another Ponzi Scheme. You pay for every cost of publishing. So the risk is only yours. The produced copies are limited to a minimal. You can order many copies you want in a low cost to you resale it. They have many ways to advertise your product, since you pay for it. To you promote your book you need buy all opportunity of exposition and be there is all at yours cost and risk. I think you would need US$ 100,000.00 to begin with. In other words you is transformed not into a partner but into a slave of the system because more you work more the publisher gain without effort. At the end of the day you are a salesman having no salaries or health insurance from your employer. But will sale a product that is bring them alive money.

The system could work for an well known author who’s name come prior than whatsoever he can sold. The authors of prior best sellers have free advertisement in the news corporations. They are interviewed about the most recent production. It is easier for them not for an unknown author. Even some books from unknown authors been better written. Here I am not talking about my particular production.

After months of my book on sale I received my first and only payment check for the sale. Something around US$ 10.00. Then I was yet conformed with my loss. The publisher probably didn’t nothing illegal. And I had to pay for been a jerk. The book is available to the public since 2,006 under the IBS: 978-1-4389-5097-6 (sc). Is a massive 664 pages book with too much knowledge and not reading.

It is another two pointed thorn in my marriage. Until now my wife doesn’t know how much we will have to pay for it. Or, better, I would like to pay for it by myself, and pay generously to those that gave me credit without interest and deadline. Anyways, I have to keep my head high not by pride but to keep strong enough to not be dominated by the desperation.

I never cashed that check. The money will not make us less poor. It belongs to History. If someday I become successful in the future it can be an incentive to others who are struggling in their lives. My life can be example of resiliency. It is something that can bring dead people from their tombs to a new and fortunate reality. If I be a failure in life nobody will know nothing about it.

In Human History, I see as act of improvidence the fact that the German priest Martin Luther burned the papal bull that treated him of excommunication. The pope was Giovanni di Lorenzo di Medici, or Pope Leo X. The document could be one more proof of papal failure. No, no, no. I am not thinking revenge here. It is never my goal. We are used to know much about the life of Martin Luther and forget even the name of his opponent. I am sure it would be worth for Leo X we know his name and say prays for him be forgive. As a dead man he can’t do it for himself.

Oh yes! I am a Catholic too. And, yes, not all Catholics believe on the dogmas of our Church. To believe on papal unfailibility is too foolishness for me. And ignore an elephant in the middle of the room will not make it go away. All religious paths have its funny king of beliefs. Not because people want it to be like that. But because we all are human being and subjected to some kind of failures. The greatness of a great man is aknowledges his own failures not advertise his supposed success. Success to my human being eyes can be a total failure in front of the truth.

Before even my daughter came to our home, when I was employed by the ESP, came to us the notice that our old supposed competitor, Victory, was back in town. Precisely in Worcester City. And some of our staff was been transferred to it. Even our general manager. And we learned that ESP was up to be closed. Later on even my cousins were transferred and I wasn’t the only one who lost the position. Some, like Geraldo, by option had fixed some better place to go. They had reversed what were done about 5 years before.

Probably the move was covered by the law. They wouldn’t be so dumb of do an operation so large taking too much risk. But I felt like how Brazil like United States could be! Those kind of operations are the way the rich gets more wealthy in Brazil. They know where the loopholes in the law are. Better saying, the richest lobby for it through our Congress. And they exchange favors. If anybody have the illusion that capitalism is made out of complete fairness must be awared of how fragile the system can be when the opportunists take chances.

“We the people”, when paid by check are taxed even before our checks come to our pockets. And to us have not loopholes. At the end of the day “we the people” pay, proportionally, much more taxes than the rich. And they got the honey. But I am not saying it to inflame the mob. It is just to inform and from that I expect more fairness from those who are not “we the people”.

Our life have been a bit of struggle since 2,004. I am accompanying my daughter since then. She’s ok for a too amazing beginning. Usually the so premature babies gets some visual or heart problems and she is not showing more complications. Otherwise, my health is much more deteriorated. I think, the interruption of my physical activities made me more susceptible to high cholesterol. And it was discovered after I get some flies in my left sight which almost made me blind. I am been treated.

The earlier cataracts came from my father’s side. And the almost blindness from my mother’s. She even is one side blind now. Probably, my back pain came from her side too. But it is worse in me, because my higher stature. I am suspitious about the diabetes my father sufferred after his 60s. I am not up to open all my medical records. I just think I am health enough to go on and start a new career right now and will help reverse some of my problems. My little girl is doing well at school and now need go more on her own. It freeds me to go too.

The construction meltdown affected our family for the worse. We are struggling to keep our home but lost an unit apartment. In the peak of the booming my wife decided to apply our economies on it as an insurance for scolarship for our son. I was suspitious about that market gainning too much in so little time and believed it was too risk to try. But she is the kind of people that goes where the others go. And the Brazilian community, which was mostly younger aged, wouldn’t hear advises from someone who is a not example of “success”. Now we have a 17 years old boy trying to get some scholarship by his own.

Fortunately he is been helped by Step Up. In the day of his presentation I was there. We had just went the room and we overheard talks between two of the members. One was his mentor and the other was the superviser. The superviser was talking about his name, Alfred. He was saying that all of first born in his family got the name because had once a king named by Alfred, and was their ancestor. He also said one of his cousins had even changed his name because was bothered by so many homonyms in the family. I told my son, I know about who he is talking. Is our ancestor too. And I kept it in silence because it would bother my son. When I say to him somebody have ancestor ties with us, he just say. “Everbody is our cousin!” And it is true.

I went to Brazil more times until now. 2,009 we went there. My wife, our kids and myself. What was different to us was that, nobody asked us for guidance to come to United States. In our time there we had to work hard to buy a bicycle. Then cars and motorcycles was at hand to all. The 18 years old people are no more willing to work anymore. They are concentrate in go to universities or faculties. I know, It is a long way to go until Brazil became a modern society. But they are going on accelerated steps.

Not long ago I saw the presentation of a research made in Mexico that point out the same phenomenon there. The families now are smaller and are no rushs to go away. The parents are been able to provide a better life for their children and is not more the enormous difference between how much money the people can make here and there. In Mexico and Brazil they can make three times less than here but can live a better life among relatives and no worries about legalization.

If the economies of those countries keep improving for more ten years the direction of migration can turn to the inverse of ten years ago. Maybe United States have to take a second though about its immigrational behavior towards aliens. Later I will explore better these issue. The people need to know that if all the undocumented immigrant be deported in a short period of time United States will not recover from the recession and its downfall will be quickly as make a pie.

I got data from recently that would help to understand it. Brazil is counting 2,000,000 immigrants in recent years. And the government there is giving amnesty or legalizing most of the newcomers. Even Americans are immigrating to there and taking advantage of the many specialized jobs that are been created without people trainned there.

I think, would be wise from the people who are unemployed here to start thinking in the opportunity of look for something abroad. We did the same when we were in trouble and my repentance come from I took so long to take the decision. Be employed abroad is more useful to all careers than be unemployed in home. And you can send money home from abroad to start your own business.

2,011 is some kind of year in our lives. Following our Brazilian traditions we left for last our naturalization. We could do it since we completed 5 year old on Green Cards. Its validity would expire 10 years after it be issued. Then we filled up our applications, paid the taxes and did the tests. The immigration officers who attended us were exceptionally cordials.

I got everything done a little later than my wife and so she sworned one day before me. Her cerimony were a great event, done at the TD Bank Gymnasium, where the Bruins and Celtics have their homes. Around three and half thousands were swearing together. I can’t describe the emotions. Next day we were at the Boston historic center. In a simple cerimony around 360 of us were sworn in. The days were August 31 and September first.

Well, lets say no more about myself. We are in the middle of the Republican campaign and now we have only four candidates running in it. Yesterday the ex-speaker of the House won South Coroline. With him is Mitt Romney, Rick Santorum and congressman Ron Paul. Paul is the only one that I know will be less damaging to United States if elected. But his chances are small because the decision will be not in favor of reason. It will be done by cleverness of the elites.

Until recently I was willing to have someone credible on the Republican side. He could be an alternative to the wrongdoings by the Obama administration. But I think we immigrants will have no choice between two good candidates. The Republicans are pushing us to vote on to reelect president Obama. He’s not bad at all. He just don’t understand the world that we are living in now. The problem is that, the Republicans are much less up to even try to understand it.


Before even I start the present chapter I wouls ask the reader to take a time to look at two important texts, unless the reader know it. I am just pointing out two addresses for it but anyone can google the names Mahatma Gandhi and Cristovam Buarque to choose any other source. Those readings will enrich the understand of what I have in these chapter. The texts are, which one brings as The Mirror from Mahatma Gandhi.

I don’t want be as dramatic as the excerpt from Mark but needed is to play my peace drum. In the Book of Mark, Jesus was talking about the Apostles time and not today’s. And many things from the past is coming up now-a-days.

Our world is in a course of collision with the past and some nations in the path to collide on each other. Nobody needs a crystal ball to see it. And I will pretend here, from these point on, a moderate criticism of the Americans policies for the world. I will try to show how the other people see United States from outside in and not from inside out as Americans do. I want offer a vision that, in some way, can bring us some answers and solutions. It depend on the good will of Americans, because if they stand on the same opinions that many have, not seeing ways to change their paths, probably we will have the III World War, and nobody will win it.

Is emblematic the State of the Union Address of president George W. Bush, on January 29, 2,002, when he characterized Iran, Iraq and North Korea as Axis of Evil and accused them of helping terrorism and seeking weapons of mass destruction. In reality, as Hugo Chavez said in front the whole world, at his speech on September 20, 2,006 at UN, “The devil came here yesterday. And it smells of sulfur still today.” To most of the world, Bush could characterize anyone of Axis of Evil because United States became The Evil itself. So none but The Evil itself to know better who is its image and likeness.

In some way Saddhan Hussein’s Iraq, Iran and North Korea maybe wouldn’t look so bad if wasn’t for the American History of interventionism. I don’t want explain everything or point out all the facts because they already are identified for those who lived through the, at least, 50 past years and those who study History. I Will just point out something. But I have to remember the reader that, I will not work in an assumption of a Theory of Conspiracy.

Theories of conspiracies usually don’t measures the human limitations. The authors just assume that, some people are bad and so, they will do everything unimaginable to meet their goals. But it doesn’t add to the equation. And the historical facts always come as consequences of many previous events, most of the times, not even taken in the books. It is also happen to the individual personality formation.

When human beings clashs to each other the first reaction is to try to paint the enemy with a bigger image of deception. What happen in the preparation for the entering in the last Iraq War is classic example of it. For the “intelligence” collected in the field and exposed to the world, Saddhan Hussein already had posse of nuclear weapons or was about to acquire it. So it would be a good reason to declare war against him and his counterparts. He also were accused of be allied to Al Qaeda. Now we know that, both accusations was false.

On the other hand, in every conflict the belligerent parts take a selfindulgent position. Their leaders become heroes, defenders of liberties, the Justice’s hands, etcetera. And in Brazilian culture have two words that separates, in these case, the selfindulgents from the wheat. The words are patriota and patriotada. The translation for the first one is obvious, patriot.

Patriotada otherwise doesn’t have English translation yet. But it is defined as arrogant exibition of patriotism. Something like to challenge a weaker counterpart to a fight when these one have no way to escape, and later brag over the event. Bullying is a word related to it too. The inverse of it also can be a patriotada. Like the weaker not aknowledging the weakness take pride on challenge the stronger. Like in front of many others knowing that, if the stronger accept the challenge the others will try to dissuade him of a fight. It also could come from a person who don’t know well about some issue and is misslead to take a supposed patriotic action such as love his or her country and hate the others just because the others are different.

From those words derive another one, patriotario (sucker-patriot). Those are the ones that are blinded by the false patriotism and do and believe on everything that Simon says. One example of it that occurred in Brazil was the slogan, “Brasil, ame-o ou deixe-o” (Brazil, love or leave), made up at the time of the dictatorship addressed to all dissidents. The intent on the phrase was to make the sucker-patriots believe in that, the dictatorship administration represented the country Brazil itself. So if one didn’t like the administration wouldn’t love the country. The saying was clever. But the effect on the population was minimal. And as Brazilians use to say, We were vaccinatad. The population didn’t felt for it because hadn’t too many sucker-patriots there.

Like that we need to be awared for the many uses of the words. All word can be use on more than one sense. Patriotism can be one of the most inspirational as much as derogatorial word in our vocabulary. Patriotism can create a freed and fair society as much as a fantasy land where freedom and fairness got its distorted senses to veil slavery. And I am in doubt in which direction of the extremes United States is moving towards it.

Lets point out something that is in the core of the American society. The people here have one perception of it and the outsiders have the opposite one. After the II World War it became clear to others and even to some Americans that our society is based on competition. At least the others societies was less awared of competition in some aspects of life. Otherwise, here in United States competition is seen as the propeller of the development.

In other societies like in the old Brazil the partnership was more accepted although the individualism wasn’t ruled out. And in some cases it is one of the reasons we can for sure pinch point why Brazil is taking so long to emerge as an industrialized society. It’s interesting to take these two examples because United States is the individualism that got things right for some time and Brazil with its individualism proved the opposite side. What was different between the two is that the American society bet on fairness to most of its population give opportunities to a bigger number of its population. The individualism in Brazil were excludent. Some who have got all, those who have not were forgotten.

When we analize it in relationship to the world we get the picture. Taking each country as part of the whole terrestrial society we have United States as the some who got all and the other countries as those that were forgotten. We can’t trace the these analogy as perfectly parallel because some of the others industrialized countries got something and parts of the societies in the poor countries also had their share. But in a general context we got more excluded than granted. And as Brazil is so does the world as a whole. Like the Brazilian say, “O Brasil eh o retrato do mundo” (Brazil is the picture of the world).

But since after the II World War the “theology” of competition were spreaded. United States as it’s head and principal associated wasn’t any surprise it took the lead and got ahead in a long distance. We have to understand the situation on the departure. At that time, all the other industrialized countries was levelled by the war. Although United States had a proeminent participation in the war its main territory didn’t sufferred the same faith. The great capital that United States lost in that war were human lives but if we think just as capital, not as the irreparable losses to their families, it was plenty replaced by the immigration from the whole levelled world. So, economically speaking, United States gainned more worker force just after the war than lost during it.

Adding it to a not damaged territory is easier to understand why United States took a so large distance from the others competitors. And, like a bullier, carelessly pulled the rest the world to a competition that in the beginning the proponents of it may have thought that, There will past a thousand years before any one of those other weak nations shall be match to us. Also carelessly, nobody since then had the humble thinking of, Even if it come one thousand years from now would be better we take another approaching. Lets, just in case, be more fair to the rest of the world because in the day that we fall they have mercy on us.

The idea of competition may work well in sports but I am not so sure if it works in the same way in life. The idea itself imply that we gonna have a winner and losers. These is the great problem when you put life in a bet such as these. Life shouldn’t be put in a bet with the consequence of some be classified as winners and others as losers. It unfolds the beastliest behavior on human being.

The ones that are in a better position to win lose their sense of fairness and don’t think two times to use deceits as United States did in the transference of money from the developing countries at the time of the New Colonialism. It is seen also at the Colonialism itself, in the slavery time, in the genocide of natives from all Americas, and many more.

The ones that are in an inferior position to compete on the same level of the adversaries can do things totally crazy such as opt for terrorist attacks such as we have been seen for so long in our world.

Competition can be helpful and fun since what you can lose will not affect your behavior. I remember our colleagues Joe and Dick, workers at the ESP in our times, that was fans of the professional baseball Red Sox team based in Boston. Some of us used to make fun of them because the last time their team had conquered a title of champion in a Major League was in 1,918. So, maybe not even their grandparents had seen it.

In contrast to it, the preferred soccer team of some of the Brazilian colleagues, Cruzeiro Sport Club, was piling up trophies in the 90s and earlier 2,000s. Only in 2,004 the Red Sox were able to end its fasting of titles. Anyways, the brothers wouldn’t make fun of the Brazilian colleagues because their were celebrating together. In sports we can be loser for not matter what space of time because it don’t take nothing from us. You may be mad because it as long as one week or little longer but soon you start planning to see what will happen in the next year.

The problem in do the same with life is that, you don’t have many lives to be loser in some and winner in others. Life shouldn’t be played as competition. It should be played as the motto says, “Live and let live”. In others words, life must be a play of winner and winner. And it, in terms of economy, the Americans had some trouble on to understand. Not all but a good chunk of them. The Republican Party people are the ones that got less understanding on it, at least, it is what appear to be by their discourses at the debates about who will challenge president Obama on his reelection campaign in 2.012.

And yesterday, February 7, the concurrent senator Rick Santorum got a symbolic win. He was behind the other three competitors and won the contests in Missouri, Colorado and Minnesota. It is a big win since we are in the beginning of the constests but is not as expressive as it could appear. For the Brazilian readers to know, the sellection of the candidate of one party in United States must pass on for contests in each one of the states. The winner on some states got all of the delegates that will go to the convention to decide who will be the candidate of the party. In others states the delegates are proportionally shared between the candidates, accordingly to the number of votes that they got in the contest of that state.

Mitt Romney won only three states until now. And senator Santorum won four states. But Romney only from the win in Florida got 50 delegates and now got a total of 115. Senator Santorum, with more states still got only 34 delegates. Ron Paul now is the last one in the running with 20 delegates with win not state. And Newt Gingrich is the second with 38 delegates. The one who will be nominated, independently of results from the other concurrents, need to have 1,245 delegates. Now they are working to do the confront called Super Tuesday. It will be in March 6 and many states will be at stake in the same time. If in the Super Tuesday have one clear winner, it will probably open the doors to win in the subsequent states and maybe become the nominee to the Republican Party. But they got plenty of time until it be.

Anyways, what is amazing me the most is the climate of competition the Republican candidates are shown in their debates. The election that will occur in November is supposed to decide who will be president of United States of America. Who will be elected to administer only the country not the whole world. But they are already discussing what they will do if elected in relationship to others countries and peoples. Senator Rick Santorum for example menaced to bomb the nuclear facilities in Iran.

Buy the way, before I comment individually their pretentions, I have to admit it, I can not vote for anyone of them. Since the beginning of the primaries all the Republicans canditates have been claimming that, anyone of them is a better alternative to president Obama in the White House. Ok, they are candidates and are free to say whatsoever they want to say, but, except for Ron Paul, they are just acting as a bunch of stooges in relationship to international affairs. They present themselves as the powerful sheriffs of the world. Like the world will elect them to do whatever they want.

The only one who is rationalizing the facts is Ron Paul that don’t want see United States as sheriff of the world. On contrary, he is promising to bring back home all American troops abroad. Even those that are serving in American Bases such as in Germany and Japan since the II WW. I totally agreed with these proposal but not in the same way. Yes. Ron Paul is right on say that the American interventionism is gone too far and it is not solving any of our problems. So take a more conciliatory position would be better for our commercial relationship.

I believe he is right in his will but is totally mislead on the results. I also want radically changings in the American policies for international affairs. The system that we have since after the II WW is a total failure. But we also need to take in account the fact of if it be dismantled in a blink of eye will be created a vaccum of power in some places. And the consequences can be the opposite of the intentions.

Some time ago I heard about the intention of some of our forefathers to create the Secretary of Peace. I don’t know why it was never created. But I heard one allegation in a news channel that says, “If we have a Secretary of Peace the adversaries will be more aggressive against us because will think we will be weak”. Wow!!! I never heard about so wasting of intelligence! Probably senator Santorum would cheers up such argument since he pretend, if be elected, to have a Army so powerful that would scares anyone else of challenge United States.

But we already have such force and the only thing that it is creating is another competition between nations to know which one will have the more powerful Army in the next stage. And doesn’t matter anymore who will have more weapons of mass destruction in the next stage because what we got is enough to destroys the Earth many times. So, where is the intelligence on to have more guns?

Just another comment. Our command in chief is always saying that the States like Syria, Iran, Paquistan and others shouldn’t possess weapons of mass destruction because is always the risk of it end in terrorists hands. The allegation is that, the administrations of those countries are already in the hands of terrorists or can be taken by them. And even because the lack of security the WMDs can be taken from them by terrorists. The problem is that, United States, Russia, France, England, India and others which have those weapons are not exempt of serious crisis, or elect a president with Santorum’s like mind what could equal or more dangerous. And, what B plan we have in such case?

In Brazilian culture we got some saying that says: “Se queres a paz, prepara-te para a guerra” (If you want peace, be prepared for war.) I doubt if does exist any intelligence on such saying because if you is always prepared to make war you will never learn to live in peace. And I think these is the exact reason that United States is so involved in so many conflicts. It is too much prepared to make war and never learned how make peace. United States have a lack on give a chance to peace.

I think that, if United States stands on its path it will have a similar end to the Roman Empire. Is used to say that, the Roman Empire stood for a thousand years before its fall. But we can cut it by half or more because it reached its apex around Julius Ceasar’s administration. And then were stable until Constantine where it starts to decline, and felt in 511. The American Empire end will not necessarily come with a Barbarian invasion. Can be by the opposite.

A “Barbarian” ignoring. The others countries can look at each other and simple say that, I am tired of bossing around. Let make our relationship stronger and based on peace. Is better we “beat our swords into plowshares, and our spears into pruningshooks”. Isaiah 2:4. If they follow us on do good we shall be friends. If not, they are not irreplaceables. We can chose a better leader, a peacemaker one, not the troublemaker.

And now we need to recall what I learned at the Federal University of Vicosa about the efficiency of the Brazilian education. We can trace a paralell between it and the efficiency of United States and United Nations as peace keepers. By the number of wars we got after the II WW we can now measure the efficiency of those entities as peace keepers. I will be not so hard on the UN because it have a much more limited power and works more like as the arms of the gang of five. The other nations are more like espectators with no veto power.

The problem is that, “We the people” are always driven by the idea that our governance is thinking peace in first place. So we supposed the many wars that we fought or we were unable to avoid as peacemakers is a consequence of the others behavior. At least it is what our Department of State is always saying to us. Then, if it is so, “We the people” must ask ourselves, How efficient have been our government for the cause of peace? The answer is clear. Is a total failure.

But now we need to ask ourselves too. It is an accident or our government is saying one thing and doing the opposite? So many wars later, can we suspect that the real goal of the past, present and future administrations is make wars? If so, it is an super efficient machine though!

Now we need to ask ourselves, Why would our government for so long be acting like these? What are the interests? We can answer it just looking at the volume of money that the wars costs in a short period of time. If we look at the American monetary deficit and dismember it by sectors where it were spent I am sure that a good chunk of it will fit in our “defense” account. Now we need to ask ourselves, Where did the money go?

As Lavoisier said, “In nature, nothing is created, nothing is lost, everything take another form”. And many Americans are angry with our government thinking that, The money were spent in Iraq, Afghanistan and other places that are involved in conflicts. And it is true for the least. But the good chunk was used to pay soldiers salaries, weapons, tools and many other services. So, at the end of the day the bigger chunk of the money never got out of United States. And where it is? I think the readers are enough clever to pinch point at least some of its destiny.

It is the abomination on human life. Does not matter the sufferring that some got. Always will be others that will make money out of it. And it is our great problem in United States. Too much of our economy is based on the production and commerce of weapons. And the lords of war are not ashamed on make money out of it. They got the money and the power. They lobby impudently our Congress. Ignoring it, as the majority of Americans do, will not make anything better. The blue whale in the golden fish bowl will not go away.

I mentioned about the Secretary of Peace. And my proposal for it is take half/half of what United States spend on the called Department of Defense. Because make peace is a better defense. The half of the money that would be kept by the Department of Defense should be used to make a smaller and better Army. The Army shouldn’t be taken as the primary response to the crisis but as a back up plan for when all attempt of peace fail. And the Army must act quickly and efficiently. Just to remove the cause of the problems and let the peace keepers do the rest of the job.

The proposal of senator Santorum underestimate the intelligence of the others. And also is not a clever one. Everybody outside United States know that the others don’t have the power to confront the United States Army in a mano-a-mano conflict. So our enemies must have been cheering any time Americans make war. They are happy on observe all moves. It is one way to learn about the weapons used, maybe take posse of some to be copied, and take notes about the weaknesses. More we fight, more they will learn so they also will be prepared, just in case.

And I think the congressman Ron Paul should attach to his plan of withdraw our military from abroad to the creation of the Secretary of Peace. I will go back to these issue later, in our chapter about economy, and is when I will explain how to save our position as leaders of the world. The only way of Americans keep the dream of be the Thousand Year Leader of the World is to renounce the Bossy Play and assume a more Togetherness Position. Our Secretary of Peace should have the capability of send people, not troops, to all corners of the globe as helpers to fight poverty and look for solutions to the other problems.

The missions can’t be to say to others what they got to do. The mission should be detect the problems, ask to the local people what the solutions they think would work out to all and give assistence to it be done. Our mission can not be say to abroad governments they have to act in some or another way. We can’t mix religion, culture and ideology with our mission. As our Constitution guarantees us the right of choice about it, it should equally be respected abroad too.

As I mentioned in my autobiography at the chapter 15, we need to choose between an interventionist model and a more democratic another. Like in my city in the years 70s, we needed more technical assistance for we ourselves produce more income and be independent to need less charity, the billions of poor people around the globe is in the same situation. But if they was able to get the income that they need with our technical assistance, they later will also be happy in buy our hightech production. We can’t keep try to impose to others what we think is good for them. As we gave ourselves the right of choice the same right must be given to all the others.

The Republican candidates are living in a Fantasy Land, except for Ron Paul, thinking we will create more jobs here in United States and keeping the interventionist model. The interventionist model have been creating only more poverty and we will not create better jobs in our country if we don’t have people to buy our hightech products.

And I have a good example from the Brazilian economy to explain it better. When I was younger there we had basically two auto industries. One was the Volks Wagen and the other was the Americans. The Fiat only went there at the end of 70s and earlier 80s. And I saw the resume from the sales of cars in Brazil last year. Fiat is in first, Volks Wagen in second and Ford comes the third. The first position was historically alternated between Germans and Americans.

And in my interpretation I think I know what must be happen. When Fiat went Brazil it was the worse car we had seen. They launched a model called Fiat 147 that nobody liked but the car kept been commercialized. Just because our market was a poor market and the price of the vehicle was more compatible with the Brazilian salaries. Now the maker must have taken steps farther because people from the classes B and C are also buying it.

The second place for the Volks Wagen is also explainable. The maker always offerred a more reliable vehicle. It was so important to Brazilian consumers that in the old times we had more Jeep Willis than Beetles around our place. As most parts of the Brazilian territory today, much more of the country not even knew what was asphalt. The cars had to be strong, cheeper and easier to fix when necessary.

Now Brazil is a free market for cars. There are most of the makers from the world. Still, cars there are much more expensive than in United States. To our exercise of mind is not important to explain why. Most of Brazilian population live around the Atlantic shores where the roads and streets are paved now. So I think the problem with Ford been the third car maker in Brazil is attached to the detachment between the product to the market. Ford must be keeping an American style of product which is good for the tradition but harder to sale.

And talking about sale, I imagine how hard had been the life of our diplomatic corp to sale United States in other nations. The American administrations, doesn’t matter if Democrat or Republican, with its mask of liberators and freedom defenders must explain to us what is about the blockades and imposition of sanctions against the “enemies of the people” in many countries like Cuba and now Syria. Cuba is a better example of what not to do for make a goal.

President Obama and I was not more than toddlers when United States started the blockade against Cuba. We were always told that the preasure would work in such way that the “El Commandant” would step down and give the power to his people. 50 years later and nothing changed. Otherwise I know how it worked well to keep our friendenemy in power. Every totalitarian regime need an enemy, imaginary or real, to keep its power. Yes! If the dictators have no enemies to blame them for the bad things they do the people would get rid of them sooner.

I don’t think any white hair over “El Commandant’s” head come from his repentance on do anything bad to the people. He must know that the blockade did everything bad to the people and gave him the argument to stay in power forever. If had no blockade and Cuba had been integrated to the world community all the past years and the Cuban people lived in a more market freed society what argument Fidel would present to stay in power? Probably none.

I always thought the blockade was some kind of mistake. Was something like, since the Cuban-Americans hated Fidel they was blinded to see that, their hatred for him was the help he needed to stay in power. And the other Americans did nothing because they were hostages of the Cuban-American influence in politics. But now I am changing my perception a little. The American power also need to have and create enemies abroad to stay in power too. It is just a play where both sides win in favor of their bad behavior.

If United States have no enemies, or did not created some, the commerce of weapons would goes down and our authorities are afraid of it lead to a smaller market and our interests be compromised. But it is not true. We have too much to do to make our world better. We need to produce more food, more alternative energy, less polution, bigger and better transportation systems and the world integration is so demanding that if we cut the weapons production to a necessary minimun we can substitute it by aggricultural tools production and, even so, the market will be greater. We have billions more to feed. But while we choose fight agains each other instead of fight the real problems the poverty will gain force and nothing that we do to guarantee our freedom and happiness will work.

The lessons from the Katrina Hurricane and the earthquakes at Indonesia and Japan must be learned. No matter what we do we can not prevent such things to happen. So we must be prepared to avoid its consequences. And the scientists are warning us that those things are not the worst case scenario. And I pretend write another chapter, small one, to maybe create awareness of three or more events combined that could happen in our time.

Months ago we had examples of our lack of preparation here at the American Northeast. One small snow storm and later one day of rain let some without power for weeks. Is incredible the absence of seriousness on our politicians behavior. They act like have no clue about the danger life can be without we create some more. They need to know how many times and how many ways the planet sufferred wipe out of life to millions of species. It can easily happen again and we are not prepared.

And those things combined are some of the reasons that the present book is called, The Suicidal America. We are clearly in the path of fall down and most of our politicians have no clue about it. They are not only ignoring the danger and worried only with their own agenda, I am not excluding any party in this assertion, but are working for it come sooner. My only doubt about it is that, do they are doing it on purpose or are totally alienated from the reality?!

Since I have doubt about it I can’t write these book in the same line as the one of theory of conspiracy. Although I am awared about the Christian extremism around here. We have an wing of the Christianity that believe in the Book of Revelation as a foretelling of the future. If so they think that the tale there is unavoidable and they assume that, is their mission to cause what is “predicted” in there.These apocalyptical vision is another funny interpretation from the Scriptures. I am considering here just the interpretation not the consequences of it.

I already said that all religion have some funny beliefs and told about part of the Catholic herd’s belief on the pope’s infalibility. The original name of the book is Apocalypse, which in Greek means Revelation. And throughout History the tale narrated in it gave new mean to the word which is, The combination of events determined by God to happen for the general purification, remission of the repentant and eternal punishment of the not repentant bad doers.

What is wrong with these interpretation? Is simple. God is Omniscient. Since the Beginning of Life He Knew what would happen throughout the whole History. And if He had said so that, One day I Will Put an End to the world and Will Punish for eternity the not repentant bad doers, it would be the same as He say it: I Will Create the bad doers for they do bad things and not be repentant because when I say It Will Be, It must be unavoidable. And God would be part of “the evil” created by Himself and Part of Him would be eternally punished. Not matter how much of the human population would be eternally punished because it would be accounted as inefficiency of God. Then God wouldn’t be Perfect.

The problem with the Christian God’s theorists is that, they think they know God and create an image of Him without look for the consequences that is implied on their suppositions. And they keep going on in their delusions even when someone else shows the clear contradictions in their theories. They think that they are been conservatives but what they really are doing is standing on the hardness of their heads and hearts.

Well, I don’t believe in any evil part of God. And the people who believe in it just don’t know God, although is mislead to think otherwise. Is impossible to God be Good and evil at the same time, and also be Saint. But it is part of the discussion in my other book, The Knowledge Concerning God.

Important here is to aknowledges that, we have an extremist Christian group that believe in that, God is part Good and part evil and the group uses its distorted interpretation of the Scriptures to justify a bad behavior. The group is up to unleashs it to provoke a coming back of an imaginary savior and fulfill an imaginary prophecy attributed to God Himself. It also is part of the part of Americans that are suicidal. These part is not different from the extremists Muslims. Is one minority that have too much influence in American politics.

It’s clear to me that, the wars that are been fought now are not to defend the American freedom or the freedom for other peoples. Those wars are defending the interests of big corporations such as the petroleum companies. And the wars have been paid by the American people with money, blood and sacrifice. No surprise then the outsiders blame the American people for the wrong doing of some part of our population.

I don’t know in what degree senator Santorum is part of the Christian group that is apocalyptical. He sounds like it. I can’t vote for three of the pretenders to the candidacy from the Republican Party. They are suicidally believers in the fixing the world through confrontation and not negotiated solutions. What they are defending only will lead us to new wars. The least they want, like Mitt Romney do, is start a commercial war against China. If it be the world will not be better. Only will go to another path of instability with created conditions for an worst war.

Then I got other special reason to not vote for senator Santorum and the former Speaker of the House, Newt Gingrich. For the surprise of many, the reason is because they are Catholics. Why a Catholic wouldn’t vote for a fellow worshiper? Some could ask. The answer is just too bizarre. But we need to pay attention on what is around us. At least 50% of the news I have heard about the Vatican is about the abuses committed by Catholic priests around the globe. And the problem was happen under the watching of the last two popes, John Paul II and Bennedict XVI.

The accusations are such as both popes not only fail on to protect our children against predators. They badly managed to keep the bad guys in position of repeat their wrong doings. I am not the kind of guy that would blame the institution because of the wrong doings of some of its employees. Brazilian have a saying that goes like that, “Cautela e canja de galinha nao faz mal a ninguem” (Precaution and soup of hen doesn’t do evil to nobody).

Underlined in the news we can perceived that is a predisposition on label the Catholic Church as, “Roman Catholic Pederastic Church”. The Pederastic comes in substitution to the traditional Apostolic which was related to the 12 Apostles of Jesus. We can’t underestimate the power of the negative words. If the Republican nominee become president of United States I am sure that bad things will preciptate from it. And if the American president was happen to be a Catholic, bad feelings will arise against Catholics over the whole world. And I don’t want more sufferring coming to innocent people.

Brazilians have another saying that goes like that, “Os justos pagam pelos pecadores” (The justs suffer the burden of sinners). It is not a religious teaching. Is an observation from the practical life. Although it contradicts what is written in the Scriptures that, the righteous should not pay for the other’s sins is obvious that in our material world good people are always sufferring the consequences of the brutality of the sinners. It is not suppost to happen in God’s Helm. But in men’s world it is the rule. So I don’t expect all people of the world will know how to make the difference between a specific bad doer that is happen to be Catholic from all the others Catholic people. Then precautions must be taken.

Now I want change a little bit my discourse. It is also part of the Beginnings of Sorrows. Only the issue is immigration. It is one of the reasons that I am blocked from vote for the Republican Party. For his words against immigrants it includes the candidate Ron Paul. I think it is the main issue because the rest is consequence of it. I would never say that, Is bad because is Republican. It is a generalization that I know is not true. Institutions are not bad or good. It is run by human beings and what bad or good come from the running is inherent to the person not to the institutions.

In a long run one party can be bad in some occasion and good in another. And it sometimes come from the competition. The positioning in favor or against some issues depend on the rivalry between parties. And the bipartisan system that dominate the American politics tend to open for the opportunity of label the parties as something that they are not necessarily what the label says. And in these precious historical moment the Republican Party can be easily labelled as Soften Nazis.

I know. It is not a Nazi Party. But to the outside world it is appearing as partially Nazi. So I added the Soften. And why it become so undesirable to the rest of the world? I am sure of one thing. Is not because the world is jealous of the American success. As I tried to explain before, the outside world have no “problema” with the American or someone else success. If it was so simple like that a sucessful artist like Michael Jackson and many others wouldn’t have any success around the globe. When the sucess make no harm to you, you become fan of that success. Yesterday, February 11, 2,012, Whitney Houston died. And probably no American born here know how beloved she was abroad!

You admire the others not harmful success unless you have a behavioral problem. In every population we find some people with distortion of behavior. But when a big number of any population start getting issues with some kind of success you must begin to ask why, because the answer probably will fell on something wrong on the reasons of that sucess and not on the behavior of the population. When the polls after the 9/11 terrorists attacks happenned shown that Americans was hated in some proportion all over the globe, the excuse of jealousy were wrongly used.

Only a feel open minded people warned for the need of ask what we did wrong for it be. But the imposition of the answer that the world hated us because is jealous about our success worked just like an assault to the outsiders intelligences. Yes! If one thief armed with a gun point it to your head and say, Give-me your wallet or die, you don’t think two times on obey his demand, not because you agreed on that he is doing a righteous thing.

Today I can openly speak about. Sometimes I saw the presentation of the anchor Erin Burnett on CNN and every day she is counting the days, yet almost two hundreds, after United States lost its classification as AAA economy in the world, and she asks, “What are we doing to take it back?” In the same way I would like to ask, What are we doing for the world hate us less? Unfortunately what I am seen until now is what our administrations are doing to add more hatred against us. Assuming that the world hate us because our success only add to the equation of us been the most arrogant people in the world.

The outside world would rather been crazy if haven’t any hatred against Americans. In these Ron Paul got it right. I will write a chapter about terrorism where I will point out some of our administrations wrong doings that are giving more reasons to outsiders hate us. Ron Paul mentioned the bombings that have been happen for more than a decade in the Middle East and Afghanistan. The common readers would ask, What it have to do with the rest of the world also hate us?

And the answer is simple, they are human beings, sensible human beings that have connections of love for each other. They don’t have just interests on each other. They feel like the caused sufferring affects everybody. Some Americans also have the same connection. Among the outsiders does have many that are peacemakers and feel like deceived because the choice for peace were killed before any chance given. The question is not why they hate us. The never answered question is, What are we doing for their love?

Anticipating something about terrorism we can easily show some reasons for the hatred against Americans in the world. Not long ago I watched the documentary about the raid that killed Osama Bin Laden, produced by National Geographic Channel. Maybe the Americans born can regard that work as a piece of news but inside it have some scenes that are stimulants to the hatred for United States. One of those is the interview given by a supposed former intelligence agent. He talks about the calculation that, until that time, around 18 hundred people had been killed by drones. He mentions that, probably 300 of them were active terrorists and the others 15 hundreds were “casualty of war”.

The interview was going well until he added, 15 hundred “casualty of war” is totally acceptable in these kind of work. I just thought, Oh God, where we lost our sense of humanity?! Looked like the guy was talking about animals not human beings. They was people. Probably with mother, father, cousins, uncles, children, friends and a great number of relatives. If they were known by at least 10,000 people as it is usual in societies in development we would have about one and half million people angry at such stupid declaration.

I know. Most of them don’t have ways or are not willing to translate their deception in form of terrorist acts. But they also will do not to prevent anyone of do it, even if they knew it was about to be happen. Lets though speculate if just 0.1% decided to adhere to the cause and be active combatent against the “American domination”. It will be 15 hundred new active enemies on the ground. So, who to blame for the increase in terrorism in the world? What bothers me more is it, the ways that United States is using to combat terrorism is creating the next generation of combatents who, probably, will be better on to do what they predescessors did. United States government is deliberated putting our next generation at risk of be attacked again.

Another thing that is setting back on us is the bad use of the words. Why the fallen innocent in the other side is called “casualty of war” and the fallen innocent in our side is called “victims of terrorism”. Look, even cynicism need to have limit. Most of our population don’t capture the cynicism on such words because our population feel like been victims of the terrorist attacks. But the other side is more sensitive to these detail and is much more up to openly talk about it to their neighbor.

The war of words is making appear that, Americans consider themselves better than the others. As it had a division between two classes of human beings. One superior and another inferior. If the 15 hundred can be considered “casualty of war” why didn’t Americans take in the same consideration the thousands that died on the attacks of 9/11? If we did, maybe we didn’t lost the more than 10,000 of our troops and hadn’t the more than 50,000 wounded. I can’t forget the more than 200,000 troops with PTSD, and the millions of innocents in same situation from the other countries. Most of all, don’t forget that we are loosing 18 war veterans/day by suicide.

Brazilian describe such situations with the saying, “Pimenta nos olhos dos outros eh refresco” (Pepper inside the other’s eyes is refreshment). The problem is in the different kind of judgment used to one and the other side. Unfortunately I can’t say for sure that the American administration is willing or willing not to make more enemies in the world. I can’t say which goal it want to make. I can’t guarantee what the interests are.

Let me though start to talk about immigration. I have not intention to talk about the whole issue. In these chapter I will just mention the stories of some immigrants. They are real persons and what I will say did really happen. Let start on myself. Just a little bit of my life. Around of the end of 90s I was neighbor of some people. I lived in a mix neighborhood among Americans, Latinos and Brazilians. And we were happy.

Most of the immigrant population, included my family, was undocumented. We was in the line of legalization. Our days was typical. Had to wake up very earlier, leave the children at schools and go to work all day long and part of night. Most of us lived on rent houses, had very old cars and had to send money to our origin countries. The majority was investing in a possibility of have an independent life back home or had to support family members. Still most of what we made was to pay for whatever we needed here. The rent for example was a neck tie hard to bear.

We didn’t made more money than nobody else. Better saying we were the poorest salaries in the country and it was why we had to work more. Sometimes three jobs like I did or more, like others did. But we also had others ways to economize. Had a bad car meant a lower insurance and excise tax. Cooking at home meant more worked hours but expenses cut on restaurants. Some worked for the restaurants and ate for free. Nobody bothered to ask where was the mall or the theater. Our only entertainment was go to church, play soccer on the weekends and have the accompaniment of each others. And it went on for years.

What motivate us to stay here was that, if we were a couple we could pay for our expenses with our salaries. And with a little more sacrifice each one could get a parttime and save together US$ 200,00/week. It in the end of the year is a little more than 10,000 dollars which could be sent back home to buy an entire modest house there. Some could make much more than it sharing rent here with friends. I knew examples of around 8 people living in the same house. But it now is past due. The Dollar had great value in front of the others currencies. Now is buying no more than 1.80 from Brazilian currency and everything there went up when here went down. With US$ 10,000.00 you don’t buy much up there.

At that time the Brazilian economy went wild baddly most of Latino America was in the same path. And many people concluded that wasn’t possible to go back anymore. So some decided to stay and try a better way of life over here. And it began to make us more visible. Unfortunately in the wrong way. It is so because, let me say, at least 20% of immigrants love fancy cars and fancy houses. We use to joke about saying, some don’t bother if have no food at home since driving the most expensive car. At that time the housing bubble was about to attract the interest of immigrants too.

Some of us had already bought houses here and was taking equity to buy more or invest some back home. Nobody realized the trap they were going in. Except for a few, like me who had learned the lessons from my father, the people was thinking that the market would continue going up until some point of stabilization. Nobody was paying attention on the possibility of the prices get back. The dismantle of the market was something never heard from. Brazilians had no experience with such situation because credit since long ago was to short and to expensive for the people try it there.

And the Americans shall be intrigued with the notice that immigrants also was investing in houses here. The question was how they was paying for it? It was simple. And wasn’t so difficult. If you choose a town-house or multy-family size house and rent your spared spaces you could pay for your mortgage, totally or almost it. One of the dwells was separated for your family in such way that the buyer would expent less than what he was paying for rent before. At the end of the day he was saving in both ways because was paying less and others was helping with the payment of something that was expected one day be his own. The equity was an extra revenue. The minds was hypnotized by what would be gained and the sense of risk taken was blocked by it.

In our region here many immigrants was working for the construction industry. Anyone could buy a demanged house for a low price and fix it on his own. What could cost to a regular costumer tens of thousands of dollars the person could do it by himself or with help of friends for a small amount. Like these who was looking from the windows was mislead to think that all immigrants were making too much money.

And the appearances conspired against us. The people with behavioral deviations start to look at us in a jealous mode. In their understand we couldn’t be here in first place. So whatever we was making in money was seen as a robbery. For them did not matter if we don’t was here the job wouldn’t be done. Even we been underpaid. They have no issues with the money that was been taken from our work and going to Americans pockets. The problem was just envy.

They used to say that we was taking jobs from Americans. But if all of us was dismissed they wouldn’t take our position. Our positions was good to other Americans not to themselves because they knew that what we was doing was too much hard for them to bear. In their mind somebody else would be clown enough to take it. Even in it they was been prejudicial. They thought that some Americans would be less valuable than themselves to take a position that only undocumented immigrants would take without any reserve.

Something similar was been happen in the market of cars too. Some people was taking cars from bargain deals, fixing and reselling it too fellow countrypeople for an affordable price. Those who was intermediaries on the deals was been able to buy new ones for themselves. And such behavior made the community more visible, although most kept their modest salaries and lives. Just a small part of the community had better jobs due to their own experiences back home or long time working with the same activity.

The visibility got the attention of people with behavioral problem. Long before the 9/11 attacks and the problems in the economy we had people saying and doing bad things to immigrants around here. We had some neighbor that founded an anti-immigrant association. He and his brother are well known around here. They used even some space in the public channel to divulge their opinion of intolerance. What they had the courage to say was that, they weren’t anti-immigrant because their movement had nothing to do with documented immigrants but the way they used to say things made clear that they had issues with anyone of us been here.

At first nobody paid attention on them. Everybody was thinking only about work and kept going. The ones who was in the line to legalize had not to worry. The others had hope for an new comprehensive law of legalization. Even the groups for the defense of immigrants underestimated their power of intrigue. They were not alone. Groups with the same intention were formed all over the country. And they began to spread false conceptions about immigrants and immigrants lives. Another person in a different city and part of the same prejudicial way of thinking even desecrated the Brazilian Banner in his own show. He were suspended for it.

They correctly evaluated the immigrants weaknesses. Like in ancient Greece here the saying also worked out, “Good thing we have immigrants among us because we can blame them for whatever we do wrong!” If one immigrant committed any crime, the next day was a crime committed by the community. If one American kill dozens in a spree killer the problem is logically linked to that person not to the entire population. If one American get ill by a contagious disease and inadvertently spread it to others, nobody would blame the American population for it but if were an immigrant it immediately enrages concerns against the whole immigrant population.

We only became awared of what was going on when the project Kennedy-McCain Immigration Bill were shameful defeated. And it is when the most soften nazis got involved. The politicians, usually linked to the Republican Party and particularly to the new created movement Tea Party, felt like it would be a good way to conquer the American voter’s hearts and minds. To them it was a safe calculation. Illegal immigrants as they call the undocumented don’t vote so, like a cowards bullies, they could spank them at most because it wouldn’t reflex against them on the polls.

But behind these anti-immigrant movement is all the hidden prejudicial feeling. Our old enemies around are now suspended from their show on tv. They already exhaled their anti-semite opinions there. The problem for them was that, the Jews aren’t immigrants and the stronger Jewish community around gave them what they are worth of. They used the laws and their economic power to shut them off. And I am sure that, the bad influence from some and the bad behavior from the politicians are the right recipe to take down the Republican Party. And, if the Republican nominee become the president, United States will be take down together.

Most of the Americans are not aware about what is going on here. What I am sure about is that, if all the undocumented population be removed from United States in one time we can forget about any hope for American economy come back in a long period of time. The Obama administration must got the sneak pick from it. His administration already deported more than two million people and he put an halt on such policy. The insiders now know what the consequences it will have to the economy. But I will give a better idea about it in the chapter about economy.

Some years ago had a group of workers doing landscaping in an Army Base at the City of Natick, Massachusetts. Was way after the 9/11 attacks and they had been doing it for years in a roll. Nobody never got problem with it. But in an unfortunate day their boss let the trailer blocking the way and a regular policeman stop to check it out. Nobody from the base had been bothered. One of the workers seen the scene moved the trailer from the way and got back to work.

After a long discussion with the boss, who is either American born or naturalized, the policeman resolved to ask the workers for papers. The three of them didn’t have nothing with them. Not even their passports. Nobody in United States would get along with unnecessary documentation and less often do it with passaports. We all know that is better have it in a safe unless you are travelling abroad. The partner of the policeman clear saw that they had nothing to do with the case. It was not their job. But the guy resolved to call the ICE. The immigrants not even tried to escape as others could do.

The first one had entered United States through the Mexican borders. He was considered a fugitive because he evaded court. The conservative would say though, he was a criminal. And I think that we shouldn’t jump to any conclusion so fast. He is a illiterated person as a good chunk of immigrants are. He know how to read and write but in a elementary level. Probably didn’t frequented more than three or four year of schooling.

And before come to United States the only thing that he knew about the country was that, it is expected to be a place where you work hard and your work must be fairly compensated. What gets the attention for someone to come to United States or any other industrialized country else is the fact that you know somebody else who went there, made money and sent such money back home, and it was buying things that you never had any chance to have. These is the real bait that fish immigrants to come here.

The details of the law nobody mentions. Nobody knows. The smugglers was using the weaknesses of the law to make money out of it. I heard about many cases in that the immigrants were instructed to cross the borders and let be caught by the borders patrollers. From there they would be taken to the court and get an appointment with a judge acting around the place where the immigrant was set to live in. But nobody would appear before the court.

The poor immigrants had not other alternative. It was more safe than try an walking through the Arizona Desert. These was the only loophole in favor of the poorest immigrants. Although the immigrants themselves wasn’t awared about the consequences. I would say that, the smugglers and the loophole can be blamed for the crime, not the immigrants themselves. But it is not taking in consideration.

Jose, was the second worker to pay for the infraction that their boss committed. He had tragedies in his life even before birth. His maternal grandpa were assassinated when his mother was a child. Although his grandma remarriaged the fatality must took a toll on his mother psychology. She marriaged young and on eleven years of marriage begot ten children. Lost a twin sisters. Jose was the number 10 sibiling. And their father died of heart attack before his birth. His mother never remarriaged.

Jose is born in 1,970, in the time that work would come first, before schooling education. His mother taught the whole family how to work but only one of the daughters got all the way until high school. The old mother bravely assumed all the burden of take care of her family with some help from her parents-in-law. But without more schooling education the family confronted the hardship of poverty.

Jose followed the steps of his older brothers and went Sao Paulo City just after turned 18 years old. In there he worked for some years as common worker. He knew a girlfriend and she gave him a daughter. But they never marriaged to each other and she got marriaged to another man. With him she got more children. From another relationship he begot a son. And the history repeated itself.

Later on he got the opportunity to come to United States. Here he began to work hard in the landscaping company and general cleaning services. Economically we could say that he was very conservative. As Brazilian use to say, “Ele cria um escorpiao na carteira para nao ter a tentacao de gastar (He raises a scorpion in his wallet to not have the temptation of expend)”. Firstly he start to invest in Brazil. The Dollar was healthy and everything in Brazil was afordable. And he made investments in Sao Paulo and his birth town.

Before it, he knew another woman here and stood with her. She is also Brazilian and had a previous marriage from which she mothered a son. While Jose and her was together they got a daughter. And they brought her son to raise both children together. Their union wasn’t like seventh heaven and one day they got a serious fight. He was fixing diner and the fight went on. She didn’t denounced him but her mother did and the police were called. The story went darkish when came the mention that he had a knife at hand. He was taken to the prison and in court his girlfriend denied the darkish side.

I would say that, was impossible don’t have a knife in such event. Sometimes I myself fix some Brazilian food and always need a knife. But the addition to the story was some violence. And I remember an event in my life that could explain the mistake. I recall one day doing the sweeping in the factory where my group of friend used to work. It is one detail in our lives. Usually we had Americans and Brazilian working at the warehouse. But only Brazilians was scheduled to do the sweeping job. Why? Because we were considered less equal.

I am just mentioning it. It didn’t bothered us much. We used such moments to relax. Our real work usually was too much harder. And it was the moment when we discussed about everything. And in that day our friend Eli told me something about religion. He had a mind too conservative in all of us others opinions. And I probably said something to him not only through mouth but also with the hands as usually everybody does when talking.

Some time later all of our friends start to make fun of me. I didn’t understood why. Then they said that, in that day I moved my hands in a rush way, looking like I was a priest, conducting a symphony with my broom. They said that was the most hilarious scene I had acted on. And I hadn’t have the least recallection of the detail of the broom in my hand. So a fight in a Brazilian cuisine could have the same special effect!

Going back to what I was talking before, the booming of construction here became too tempt to our character Jose. First he bought a studio because was cheeper pay for its mortgage than pay the rent. And the equity was going up so quickly that was an investment to good to not try. Soon he were induced by his sister, who was already legal resident, to share half/half an apartment as investment. And they bought these one too.

Later on the market was so exciting that he didn’t resist to buy a big house, using one of his brother-in-laws name who also was legal resident. At that time you could call him a successful businessman. His investments in Brazil was going well but here he was doing better. And he start to invest on the house, making some improvements and modifications that was expected to add value to the property. It was just when he got the shot on his wings.

Their imprisonment not only was arbitrary. The guys were even transferred from Massachusetts to Texas, to be deported, in a nightly operation without family, friends and even lower be notified. In there they lost more than a month before the family assembled some amount of money for their bale. I am talking about Jose and his brother-in-law because the other one was deported without any mercy. The judge gave him six months to settle down his business and self deport. He didn’t gave a better chance because of his previous problem with the involvement of the police in his fight with his girlfriend.

The conservative would say that he got more than was worth for. Ok. It is one point-of-view. But even from Brazil he tried to kept his possessions here asking favor from his relatives to take care of it. But soon the meltdown of the market came in and his investments was not worth of anymore. As he had a variable mortgage and his tenants asked for a down price in the rent, and was not here to work and cover the difference, he was forced to put the house and the apartment in a short sale. He kept the studio because it was bought long ago and he is managing to pay for it. The intention is to pass it to his American born daughter.

But they got another situation now. As the years past his relationship with his undocumented girlfriend here, and mother of his daughter, would never workout for them. He can’t come to United States and she can’t visit Brazil because they don’t are allowed to do it. And he got another girlfriend in Brazil and she an American boyfriend here. The problem is that she got pregnant and mothered another American son. And her relationship with her American boyfriend didn’t workout for long.

Now we have a single mother with a Brazilian born teenage son, a Brazilian-American born preteen daughter, and an American toddler son. She is getting child support for her second and third children and struggling hard to keep it all together. All the mothers in United States must understand what she is passing through. At least, the ones that are from the hardwork class.

By the law and the will of some conservative she should be immediately deported with all her children. I don’t know why such behavior from the fundamentalists that call themselves by conservative Christians. I admit that, I am some kind of conservative in some Christian values like am favorable to the definition that life start at the conception. And it don’t come from just a religious belief. It is also because I know it is true. But in other points I am liberal. The mother made many mistakes on her life. But is totally anti-Judeo-Christian belief to make the children pay for their parents wrongdoings.

About Jose, economically he is doing well in Brazil now. His properties that he bought when the prices were down had a skyrocket valuation. His life is in a balance. He have a 18 years old girlfriend. And his first daughter gave him his first grandson. He will be only fourty and two years in 2,012. Before he went back to Brazil what he most wanted was stay here and keep his life going.

Even for about the first four years that he was there his will was to come back. Now he is settling down to his faith. I don’t think he want come back anymore. Instead he is more up to give support to his former girlfriend here be back to Brazil, where she have mother and other relatives to help raise her kids in a more friendly enviroment. He don’t want her anymore but love the kids he knew.

To United States his deportation were a small loss. If he stood here was two less residences that would go to the meltdown market. His properties in Brazil can be evaluated in up two hundred thousand dollars, in a conservative estimation, that he would rather sale there and invest in here because the housing prices here are much more competitve now. He may don’t have much of schooling education but is smart into make money.

He is only one of the millions of examples of deported immigrants. And is not worth for the conservative to launch their stones on me because I am remembering them about it. Their prejudice against all Jose, Jesus, Mohammad, Francisco, Antonio and others is what is backlashing on the United States economy.

I will call the third of our characters Richard. Is not his real name but is something close to it. He is brother of the first one. The one that were deported without any chance to appeal. And brother-in-law of Jose. He also is from an extended family. His father was born in 1,905 and had a first marriage fathering seven children. Later on he remarriaged and fathered eleven more children that got to adulthood. I am more close to Richard because his father’s first wife was my grandparents cousin.

Richard had a similar History of life as Jose’s. He didn’t went all the way of schooling education. Went Sao Paulo where he lived for more than one decade. Later he went back to Minas Gerais State where he worked as selfemployed and served as employee of the city where he lived in. But things went bad for him too, and he went United States. He were oriented by smugglers to go through Bahamas. It was an well known scheme by immigrants. You would buy a touristic package to Bahamas with a extension to Miami, by ferryboat.

Before the 9/11 attacks the security wasn’t so tight and thousands may have taken the same path. Bahamas was one of the best options to come to United States ten or more years ago. Usually you expect that only rich people would choose such paradise to vacation on it. So the entering in United States through Miami was an welcoming one because, supposedly, you was a rich person. It is a clear discrimination in the behavior of our security services. Well, as a whole it is a behavior from all society. If you is already a rich person you are welcome everywhere. If you are poor, nobody want know what your potential of become rich is. It is the cruel truth.

Our friend Richard went United States and began work with his brother-in-law Jose. Soon his wife also came. She got the visa but waited for her husband come first. And they began to work hard. And also invested on something to escape from rent. Firstly they bought an apartment where they lived for some years. Later they bought a single house and kept the apartment because its rent could pay for the mortgage and give them some spare.

Richard loved his house and the country. He worked six days/week as landscaper and in the weekend loved to do landscaping around his house and have a garden at his backyard. He had a pool and loved the visit of his friends to share it. Every weekend in the summer he had barbecue party with his pars. It was his best pleasure.

The ICE made the case against him. In these was declared he went United States illegally. But it wasn’t true and he had his I-94 card and the stamp on his passaport to prove it. After months of suffering and unnecessary headaches the immigration judge dismissed the case and set him free of all charges. Since then the immigration police couldn’t use the data they got from his wrong imprisonment against him. But he never again felt free.

He were allowed to stay home while his case were concluded around a two months after his imprisonment. When he went back home his four years old daughter was traumatized. He couldn’t say to her he was going out to work or for anything else without she questioning if he would come back safely. He himself couldn’t drive a car anymore without be three times more alert than usually any driver would be. He worked as professional driver in Brazil and the only difference now was that he hadn’t a valid driver’s licence.

It is another contradition that American laws and undocumented immigration situation created. Anyone can buy a car and pay its insurance but, even if the owner have not another impedement, the lack of documentation impede the person to ask for a driver’s licence. Thousands, maybe millions, of undocumented immigrants drive without the proper documentation by these reason. Not because they are willing to break the law. But because they don’t have option of a transportation that link them to whatever job they need to do.

I understand the conservatives and I also think that nobody should deliberated break the law. But equally I understand the undocumented that is been denied the chance of pay their debits with their immigrational situation. In my point-of-view, United States was in need of immigrants and that’s why they came and found jobs. To put on their shoulders the blame for the undocumentation is the same a to condemn any person to death because the person was extremely hungry and without job furtively take something in an abundant market to keep the life going. Condemn such person to even a small penalty is just the most genuine expression of anti-Christianity.

Before condemn the undocumented immigrants for break the law part of the American people should know better what is don’t have papers in these country. None of them is more willing to end the undocumented immigration than the regular undocumented immigrants themselves. Every undocumented immigrant want to be legalized and integrated in the American society. What impede them to achieve these goal is the prejudice against them.

If they were all rich they would not have any trouble to be accepted in our society. Also the racial component is a decisive factor for them to be denied. If most of immigrants were from English origin I doubt if we already didn’t had an approved comprehensive law of amnesty. But the biggest majority of our undocumented immigrants now got three sins in the conservative point-of-view. They are poor, illiterated and Latino. Doesn’t matter if their contribution to the society wouldn’t be different from that one that would come from a more white people.

I had the opportunity to know Richard and talk with him for many times. And I like to share with the reader some remarks that he made. I don’t share the same opinion on everything that he told me. What I want here is present his authenticity of mind. The reader need to understand that he is not an illiterated person but his opportunity of schooling was way less than what I got. Let it be his voice.

“I love this country. It is an wonderful country. Even I having no paper I am here and having opportunities that I never had in Brazil. In Brazil we got to work years and even so was difficult to buy a bycicle. Here we start to work one day and in the next month we get the credit to buy a car. It is a country too wonderful to be true.”

“God immensely bless America. If somebody say that it is not an wonderful place is lying. I can’t say anything bad about America. The country gave me all that I have. I came here as a begger and now I have a house, two cars and all I got inside it. Saint God, how I am blessed for be here! But I don’t understand the American people. They have the most wonderful country, could have peace with all the world, but they choose to go to the other side of the globe to create confusion. I simply don’t understand this people!”

“I know. You understand much more than me. You are schooling educated. But I don’t believe that the man went to the Moon. It is like you see in the movies. They made a scenary. Another thing, you can say to me what you believe about technology but to me technology is a Devil’s thing. It will end in death to the humanity. I don’t believe in that it will give us an happy end!”

“This is an wonderful country, but God forgive me for say it, the people here is too much of a burro. If I was American I would never be against the immigrants. If the problem is not have paper I would call everybody and give them the papers that they need to work legally. Looks like they don’t know how much more passenger the airlines would get from it. The immigrants would take back a great part of the investments that they done in their country and apply it here. But they see us with too much prejudice to see what really is going on here.”

“Look, the others immigrants is asking for driver’s licenses. I don’t. I want legalization. Driver’s license don’t give me permit to go to Brazil and back to here. I want to see my mother. I lost my father after years without see him and couldn’t go to comfort my mother. My mother is getting older. When we was children they did all sacrifice for us. I can send her lots of money. But I know that what she want is see her children and grandchildren around her. It is our culture. It is in our blood. A person separated from the family is nothing.”

“If United States passed a bill saying that, We will give paper to all undocumented immigrant in a condition that all that they have will be seized by the government for they start again from the zero, I wouldn’t think two times in to grab such opportunity. I am not a donkey. I can work and gain what I have again. But what I can’t is keep away from my mother, my relatives and friends in Brazil. If Americans was that intelligent as they think their are they would put a price of US$ 50,000.00 for a greencard and they would make enough money to clean part of these mess they created in the American economy.”

“Look, these country is each time more looking alike Cuba. You want to let your daughter go to Disneyland, you can’t because don’t have papers. You want to travel abroad you can’t because you will put everything at risk. You know what!? We better go back to Brazil before they create a law putting walls around the whole country and prohibiting us to go back home. Now it is my fear. They imprison us here and don’t let us go home anymore.”

“The Americans that I work for are pure donkey! Some days ago I was cutting grass and my machine broke. I knew what to do to fix it but my boss was around and said to not try anything because he was going back to the firm mall pick up the right tool to fix it. But we had a schedule to do. And if I waited we wouldn’t do it in time. I didn’t want loose the time and later be obligated to work into the night. So, in the minute that he turned his back on us I quickly fixed the machine. When he came back the work was done. And he said: “Brazilian is so clever!””

“But we are not clever. We just are accustomed not have tools. In Brazil everybody knows different ways to do the same thing. It come from the necessity. We must be creative or we don’t live in there. Just a few portion of the population there is rich. The other’s have to learn how to jump by themselves. The worst thing in our job is have the boss around. If we are getting the leaves and the wind is blowing from one side, he would say to us, “Go pile the leaves against the wind”. But it is because they know only one way of do things. And if we try to do anything different from what he knows he say, “That is not the way of do it”.

“But we are the ones who have to do the job. And we know how to do it making the wind work for us, not against us. I tried many times to explain it to him but I don’t know how to explain it in English. And he is so donkey that don’t try to understand us better. If the American was clever as they think they are, they would have bigger schedule and let us do the job. They would make more money and we would do the job in peace.”

“I can’t stay here anymore. After more than ten years away from Brazil, my family and friends, I don’t even want papers anymore. When you were legalized you had to wait four years for they granted you the greencard. Now have much more people to be legalized than in your time. If a law be approved tomorrow I will say, no no no, thank you. I am too tired to wait four or more years without my family. Now I am afraid of a law be approved. I feel like to go back to Brazil but would be a hassle to decide between go back or be legalized. You know what, I feel sorry for the millions who will stay here but now I am praying to God for a law not be approved.”

Richard went back to Brazil in December, 2011. The last years that he stayed here he had lots of sufferring to work as landscaper because he had an accident and got a sequel from it. After the accident, for one week he kept working against all pain he was feeling. But it was getting worse and he finally went to the hospital. But the damage never totally retrieved. Now he got a constant swelling foot. Although the accident were at work he didn’t summoned his employer.

He also have a miracle in his family. Living in Brazil he and his wife got two pregnancies that ended in natural abortion. She was diagnosed with an infantile uterus. Here she got another pregnancy and were offerred to do a provoked abortion. They refused and the pregnancy went all the regular way. From it came their only one daughter.

Around six years old, Duda, the daughter did a design so well done in class that her arts teacher sellected it to be exposed in the vestibule of a local library. It is what she came to love to do. But now in Brazil, living in a small city without any arts assistancy she will have less chance to went all the way as a professional in these area. Although not impossible the odds now are that she will got a spoilled talent. Otherwise, if she be successful against all odds, United States will loose her talent as American from the birth on.

Richard and family are in an honeymoon like with Brazil. Now he is the happiest man in the world. His wife went back to her old job. Even their daughter is facinated by the first time known. She got lots of relatives there. She’s amazed with making so many new friends and with the freedom that children get there. The children can play outside all year long. And will start school just after the Carnival that is going on in these exactly days. Today is February 20, 2,012.

Richard had investments there and with some spared money is hoping to begin a business for himself. If he was granted to stay legally in United States he’s plans was to do it in here. And he wouldn’t put one more house in short sale as his house here is in. Their first apartment is long sold out for a depreciated price. So will be the house. Taking only what the posses of the family would worth, it could be another two hundred thousands, also in a conservative estimation, that is going out through the drain that the American immigration policies have been creating. Lets though go to the next chapter. Issue, economy.

The primaries from the Republican Party keeps going and the former governor of Massachusetts, Mitt Romney, won in New Hampshire some time ago. The liberals have been trying to diminishs his gain because it came by just a little more than one hundred votes over the other candidate, Ron Paul. New Hampshire is considered a backyard for Romney because there he have one of his houses. And they said that if he can’t have a big win in his own backyard then can’t win the general elections. I am not sure about it. The death of Whitney Houston also helped the media to deviate the issue from politics.

At first I was looking for a chance to vote in a Republican candidate. President Obama broke my heart in the question of immigration. I think the best way to let United States economy goes down is do something against the undocumented immigrants or do nothing to integrate them to the society. And he opted for the second alternative. But the alternative indicated by the Republican candidates is so worse that they are convincing me to vote for the reelection of president Obama. More I see their debates more convinced I am that, Obama will be less damaging to our economy. They are been not fair even to themselves. If president Obama be reelected I think his first thanks should goes to the Republican candidates!

I don’t think is a good move to manipulate the news in favor of one or other candidate as any of them would be easier to bit in the general elections. Last year I wrote an article, published by the newspaper Brazilian Times, that was predicting a close dispute at the 2,012 presidential elections. Not matter who would be the adversary, president Obama have to win to keep his chair. But I said that, the Republican Party had only to have a good candidate and fair policies to win. But looks like the members of the party failled to present us either condition.

Yesterday, February 22, we got another debate between the last four runners to the Republican Party candidacy. It will be the last contest before the Super Tuesday. Arizona and Michigan are the states at stake now and they are closely disputed by Mitt Romeney and Rick Santorum. They ignored the latino vote and made anti-immigrants remarks because don’t have much latinos voting in Arizona and the Republicans in that state are clearly anti-immigrants. These kind of behavior on the Republican candidates is one factor that make them suitable to not get the immigrants votes. They are flip-floping in the issue and presenting opposite opinions, depending on the state they are doing campaign. So is clear that we can’t have confidence on them.

The other three were unanimous and agreed on make treats to Iran and Syria saying they are up to start a preemptive war against them alleging they are a treat to the international community. Only Ron Paul were sober in the issue. He presented the same opinion as mine that treatening only make things worsen. As the dictators feel treatened they will not back up on their decisions on persuit of weapons of mass destruction. He gave the example of the Soviet Union which had 30,000 warheads with nuclear bombs and had killed one hundred million people. Even so, we did talk to them and the result was the end of communism in that country. It is one more stimulus to the dictators in the world go after the weapons of mass destruction. Because we have two faces, one to deal with weaken and another to deal with strong.

The three “Mosquiteers”, Romney, Santorum and Gingrich discussed the issue that Iran and Hezbollah are getting influential in Latino America. They spoke about as it is a bilateral relationship between United States and Iran. As if Latino America still been the United State’s backyard and is up to our government let it be or not. But the issue is too old for myself. In my blog we got the text,

In it I mention my prevision that the anti-immigrant feeling in United States and the prejudicial attitudes against the undocumented immigrant population would make some parts of Latino America suitable to the influence of anti-American powers abroad. So, is not the Obama administration that is permitting it as the former Speaker of the House, Mr. Gingrich, is suggesting since my prevision was before he was secured at the White House. Its a problem caused exclusively by the rushed attitudes against immigrants that the Republican Party is leading.

The bilateral relationship between Iran and Latino America have nothing to do with United States. And if United States want to intervene on it, I would counsel not do it underminding the sovereignty of the Latino American countries. If it be done we will get more enemies than we need right now. United States need to aknowledges that, it abandoned Latino America long ago. And the question of undocumented immigrants is only raising more distance between us. Any rush attitude towards any international relationship in Latino America only will sparks in the barrel of powder.


When I came to United States I would never dream of have something to teach about capitalism here. Is more than hilarious it come to happen. No, no, no. As my friend Richard would say. Don’t take me as serious as an doctorated in the issue. I never went any basic economy school. I know nothing. What I want show is just an elementary point-of-view. So nobody need be expert to understand what I got to say. Please, read first and later think about if it is true or not.

I would address such message to the Republican Party candidates in second place. In first place I am regarding it for the American people get a different view of what is happening now-a-days. The conservatives in these country may say about me, What do we have to learn from a Brazilian? What the Brazilian experience could teach us? They are totally losers!

Yes. I don’t came to claim any victory. But I am also American in first place. And I said since the begining that I was using the Brazilian example because I am born there and is what I better know about anything because my 35 years of experiences there. So I better talk about what I know than otherwise.

The American common people may don’t know much about Brazil. And in a conservative point-of-view it can be classified as a loser. Brazil have a bigger territory than the continuous continental American territory. It mean that, without Alaska Brazil is bigger than United States. And may have more natural resources, more waters, more rivers, more hot beaches, more aggricultural lands, bigger forests as we all know. Apparently the only visible item that would be against Brazil already be a similar economy to the one in United States is its smaller population. Now its around two thirds that United States have.

Then we can’t say Brazil is not a loser because it have everything to be economically in a better position than it is now. But it is gaining positions and from the position number eight it is expected to assume the number five in a short period of time. But it doesn’t depend only on itself. If the rest of the world enter in another recession the positions can be wildly changed and we don’t know what will be happen after.

About myself I described all my loser curriculum in the chapter 15. And even openly said that, it wasn’t all. I assume I’m a loser and isn’t worth to be ashamed for it. Sometimes be a loser can help you see things that are beyond imagination. And the thing that I am seeing now is that, the best thing the candidates of the Republican Party should do is study the 500 years of Brazilian History, from 1,500 to 2,000. They will not see a successful example to be followed. They will see how don’t be victorious although it was supposed to be. And them should question themselves, Why we are taking the Brazilian model of do things wrongly and try to bring it to apply in United States?

Unfortunately, what the Republican Party candidates are proposing to United States is something similar to what Brazilian tried for 500 years and fail to become successful. Brazil always protected rich people and turned its back on the poor. I already told about the Minister of Economy in Brazil that said, “We need first make the cake bigger to later share it with all”. Brazil always produced rich people. If we compare it proportionally, maybe the richest people there are many times more richer than the poor ones than the richer here are than the poor.

Brazilian economy can’t be more magnificent than the one in United States. So we don’t have so many billionaire Brazilians as Americans billionaires. But if you compare the richest and the poorest in Brazil it is proportionally bigger. It give us the answer why Brazil is not in a better position in the worldly ranking of greatests economy. The apparent success of the Brazilian economy in the last decade is due to the changing in the governamental economic policies that is trying to put an end in the distance between the richest and the poorest. If it will be successful all the way to the end, I don’t know. But it is working for now. And I think I know why.

Let us though take the traditional symbol of riches sharing in a population. The pyramid is one of the good examples of it. Taking all the people and representing in a pyramidal form we have the richest on the top and the poorest on the bottom. Logically the middle class will be in between the two parts.

We could say that, these representation is perfect. We wouldn’t have any rich person in the world if we don’t had thousands and millions of others working for it. And the Republican Party candidates, in special Mitt Romney and Rich Santorum, are totally ignoring it. They are forgetting that the pyramid also represents the society as whole. The declaration of Mitt Romney that he is not ashamed by be rich and the saying from Santorum that he hope that the difference between rich and poor always will be are the most clear sign of disconnection with the entire reality. When Romney said he don’t care about the poorest, because they got assistance from the government, he clears showed his detachment from the human misery as an whole.

Let though explain something about riches and rich people. Firstly, how people get rich? Let take a prehistoric example. The first family that went Americas would be called the richest people in the world. Even the fortune of Bill Gates today would pale in front of such riches. But if we had a time machine and could take a look at them we probably would say that, they look to us like the poorest people in the world. They don’t have cars, they clothes are a mess, they smells, and need to go after their food day-by-day. What a losers!

To be successful as the conservative’s understand you need to have. Not necessarily to be. To have depend on numbers. Numbers of hands you have. But God Gave only two to each one of us. So we need the others hands, doesn’t matter what we do. To be rich you don’t need only a good idea. You need also to work with the biggest possible number of people and is from the small contribution of each person that the richer get the return of their riches.

Let me say that, as a prehistoric human being the person would never be rich in the conservative conception even if the whole world was his or hers. The prehistoric people had to work hard everyday, seven days/week just to have food and shelter. It changed when some places start have a bigger number of people and the work were distributed between groups. Some would make only shelters. Others would supply food. And it is the only way anybody acquire more than two hands.

Imagine that, if our friend Bill Gates had to make all of his products by himself, go to the streets to sale it, or in a store, go to the whole world to personally sale each product that is commercialized abroad, would he be rich? And also if he had to make his own ways of, and discover, drill and refine any petroleum needed for his transportation. If he had to plant his own food, construct and clean his own shelter, take care all the time of his children and every and each aspect of life, even with the help of Melinda, he probably wouldn’t be not even richer than our prehistoric ancestors.

When the movement “Occupy Wall Street” came about, and the candidate Herman Cain was in the dispute, he said to the people: “Go, get a job. Don’t blame Wall Street. Blame yourself”. Unfortunately he were prematurely kicked out of the race because accusations of harassment of women. I said unfortunately because what he was showing, also when he proposed the electrified fence in the Mexican border, was the hid face of the Republican Party. Not all Republican are like him but a powerful group is. And for those we need to explain something. If they will learn anything is up to themselves.

Let use our friend Bill Gates as sparring again. Imagine that, if our three hundred million of United States inhabitants were Melindas and Bills Gates. By the thinking of the Republican candidates we would have all the billionaire around here. Santorum for example thinks that we live in a meritocracy. How dumb! Look, if half/half of our population was Melinda/Bill Gates with all the skills they got, but in a similar way of History we have, obeying the same rules of capitalism; what we would have is that, some Bill Gates would be billionaire, some more would be millionaire, most of all would be middle classe and a big number would be poor. Does not matter the degree of intelligence which most of we have.

We work as society since the prehistoric era. Bill Gates only could be the chairman and creator of Microsoft if some people were teachers, some were cleaners, another group were farmers and so on. And to it was vital that, the numbers of each group of professionals had to be immense. If all were Bill Gates then we should see him as taxis and buses drivers all over the place, as doctors, as teachers and also as homelesses and everything else. Microsoft only would be realized with the big number of costumers. And then we got the question, what is most important for a big company, its chairman or its costumers? Lets answers it later.

It is too simple for not to see. Since one Bill Gates became the chairman of Microsoft not other could take his place. And in case of all the others begins similar companies, because all the numbers, every and each one would be broke in no time. The system were not made for everybody get the same opportunity. And the produced riches in our human capitalistic society wasn’t made for all. It was made for some get more, others get some and most get little. It is why our pyramid model is perfect to describe what is going on in here.

Even so, the system can be manipulated to be more or less fair. It is possible because not everybody want to be like Bill Gates. I don’t mean anything bad into say it. What I mean is that, everybody is different. We were made to complement each other. These is the key for a more fair capitalism work well. Probably, everybody in the world wants to be rich as Gates does. But some don’t have a good idea how to get there. Others know the hard work it would cost to them. But most just don’t care about it. They are just followers. Just a small part of our population have some disability which impede them to be competitive in a fair society and is our duty as human beings provide for their basic needs.

If every and each one of us began a competition to be rich as Bill Gates we would all be doomed because wouldn’t be any cooperation between us. Would be a war of everybody against everybody. Even our prehistoric ancestors were more intelligent than that. They thrived for tens of thousands of years, passing through the most difficult situations, thanks to their cooperative system.

I would say that, our ancestors only became successful because they were good socialists. And now, with a so small capitalist experience, the Republican Party candidates and their followers think they are the authors of life! Since the beginning, human beings had a social contract that says, in some way or another we will cooperate with each other and everytime we broke such contract we got problems.

We need to pay attention on the followers. They are as smart as anyone else. They are equipped with skills to be rich too. But they see the presence of some leaders as their opportunity to work in their team and have a more modest life without stresses. To them, its OK if a Bill Gates and others got the big companies. What they want is to work together, be fairly paid and get some sharing. But this sharing must make them comfortable in our society as a whole.

The problem with the surge of movements like “Occupy Wall Street” begins when those start to see the richer became more rich and them start been squeezed out of the fairness. The really rich and powerful here in United States like Bill Gates, Warren Buffett and George Soros must be worried by the attitudes from the Republican Party candidates supposedly on their and others behalf. They must been thinking, With friends like those we don’t even need any enemy! It is what Brazilian use to say in situations like that.

The comment from Herman Cain, “Go, get a job” could be compared to the one attributed to Marie Antoinette to the poor of France in the Franch Revolution. Is said that, some gave her the advise that the people was out of bread and she said, “Let them eat brioches”. We are not in the same situation as France was but is not wise to put “lenha na fogueira” (wood in the fire) in any given moment. To blame the people for what bad is going on, while “we the people” are solely taken all the consequences of the bad behavior of some in the society is, at least, an attempt to stimulate radical answers. If it was Cain’s intention he failled.

I am not the one who would blame the rich for be rich. But they need to pay attention on the Pyramid. Because it is also a good image for explain how money flows in the society. If we put the pyramid upside down we can associate it to a funnel. In the Brazilian conception it is called a Devil’s thing. It because in the normal position make hard to anyone from the lower classes to ascend to the top. Upside down the ascension stands hard but the flow of money obey the gravitational law. Sometimes “we the people” don’t understand why we see ourselves in the right position although what was in our pockets tend to go up inside the pyramid. In our poor understanding we should go where our money goes, but it doesn’t work well for us.

Otherwise what the Republican candidates is saying is that, the rich people need to have an elavator to reach a point in the space and from there they would pull the whole pyramid with some ropes. But if they went space they will not have point of support to elevate so much heavyweight. Into space the rich people will be weightless but here on the Earth’s surface we will keep our weight and doesn’t matter how hard they will try to pull us up, they will more likely end coming down. Let make it in a more simple words.

What comes first, the rich or the costumers? These is our question. The Republican model call for the rich became richer and then invest in our society to create more jobs. Let me say though, supposed a multibillionaire decided to install a thousand factories that would give jobs to 50 people per factory. We would have the creation of 50,000 thousands jobs. But in our situation now he probably would soon lose all of his investments in such dumb initiative.

It is so because the answer is not arbitrarily creation of jobs. The answer is raise the number of costumers or raise the power to shop of our costumers that already we have. If we increase the salaries, let me say, to about US$ 20.00/week of every lower class employee in these country, probably, we would create much more opportunities than 50 new factories would do. It is like that because our lower class people is living day-by-day and they can’t afford to save money right now.

And such small amount of money is multiplied. It works like the comparison between a 20 and 100 dollars bills. The 20 dollars bill is the right size to go to a store and shop a little thing. Then these bill went to another costumer as a change. Later on it is transformed in gas at the gas station. And then get back to another costumer that won a small amout on lottery. And the story goes on for a entire week. And, at the end, the 20 dollars bill make the happiness of a great number of costumers. While the 100 dollars bill doesn’t work so well, unless for the few costumers that had the opportunity to have it during the week.

The 20 dollars bill create more riches. And if everybody gets one more each week, the small business owners will get more shares. They then will start to feel more confidence and will buy a better car, a better television, etcetera. The small business owners themselves will also start to hire helpers. And it begins to lubricate the economy’s engine. At the end of all, as the economy went in a spiral of optimism the flow of money, as always, gets back to the top of the pyramid. You can obtain whatsoever result you want raising the minimum wage. In our condition today, maybe US$ 20.00 per week will not be enough because the depriciation of our salaries for so long time.

I don’t think the American economy will produce anything good from what we have now plus the intervention of the Republican candidates. They only see the pyramid from the top down. I am around here for almost two decades and what I saw all the time was our salaries shrinking. As I said before, just collecting cans from my old cleaning job I was able to fill up my car’s tank and live on for one week. Today the cans would still giving me US$ 10.00 and what can I do with it?

18 years ago my shopping bill was US$ 50.00/week. Today is two hundreds and the minimum wage wasn’t even doubled. And we can see the difference at the same supermarkets around. Then we had a long line of ful carriers. Today we have a little line, less attendants and empt carriers. I confess, I don’t got the least clue how the Republican candidates plan would work from the top to bottom. I only can see from the bottom to top.

The other way to improve our economy is increase our number of costumers. Without the actualization of the power of shop of the dollar and the lower class workers we need to sale more abroad or bring costumers from abroad to shop here. It is already happening right now. The people from China, India, Russia, Brazil and others are invading our market and buying as never before. Particularly the Brazilians are interested in two types of investments.

The first one is the construction sector. The market in Brazil is so hot right now that the price for consumers there is alike the ones that we had here before the crisis. So the investors are been fished to buy around here because the prices are now more affordable. I know people from Brazil that invested in houses in Florida. The price is so cheep there that one buyer gave the rent for free for another fellow Brazilian because these other one know how to improve the property. Then they made the agreement for exchanging the improvement by rent. Is an win win situation.

And I also saw someone be interviewed on maybe radio or television where an American person was worried about such type of investment. He challenged the validity of it to the American people. In his view it will be a bad thing to American people because later on, when our economy be improved, the aliens will sale the properties and get the juicy. When I heard it the only thinking that came to my mind was that, Welcome to the capitalism my friend.

Our smartest executives created the situation in our construction market. And the Republican Party’s should be more awared of it if their nomenee be Mitt Romney. It is just an alert. They are the ones that let the people down. They trashed our nation in a dark pit situation. And as we wasn’t prepared, we couldn’t help ourselves out. The aliens are helping us. Doesn’t matter their motivations. If they refused to do it our situation could be worsen. Be against their help looks to me like be the mad dog that bites anyone who try to help it.

The other type of investment is what in Brazil is called by “sacoleiro” (baggadier). The person travel as tourist but the visits are more to the bargain stores than anything else. One thing that is helping a lot the baggadier is just the presence of relatives around here. And doesn’t matter if the relatives are considered illegal or undocumented. Less they spend on hotels, restaurants, taxis and others, more they will spend on the bargains.

The baggadier went back to Brazil and sale part of his baggage. Then make money enough to pay for the visit and save money for the next one or even take it for living. Where is the magic on it? Simple. A sneaker that we buy around here for US$ 50.00 can be sold in Brazil by US$ 180.00. Since the person don’t collect taxs for it in Brazil because pass it as his or her personal belongings, is no much of work to live on it. It’s possible only because the particularities from the Brazilian market. What comes from abroad is too much desired and the Brazilian system of taxation is so unreal that make clothes, shoes, eletronics and others so expensive that every trash become luxury.

Let us now exercise our minds about the undocumented immigration situation and the Republican Party candidates plan to deport all of those “criminals”! I am sorry. I feel sorry for those who hate the undocumented immigrants but I also feel like laugh when they talk about it thinking they are doing anything good. As I said before, my laugh is not from pleasure. It is like when somebody have broken ribs and laugh about something else. More you laugh more it hurts. But you can’t let down your laugh because life without laugh hurts more.

When the former candidate, Michele Bachamann, announced her plan to use more than one hundred billion dollars to deport all undocumented immigrant from United States I said to myself, There is someone that don’t even know what is talking about! But the others candidates, even those remaining four, are no much far from say the same thing. The only difference is that, Ron Paul is avoiding to talk much about the issue and Gingrich clears know it is the wrong way to treat the issue but he feel like need to secury the nomination before be serious about it. Both of them are politically right on it.

Lets take though the image of our pyramid to explain something more. If you go to a professional constructor he would explain that, a pyramid need to be constructed in exact measurements or will not stand for long. I am here considering the material used by Egyptians to put up the monuments that witnessed more than 40 hundreds years of human History. If the angles from the top to the base be different, the pressure will provoke the collapse of the building. And the base is the most fundamental component to make it stand tall and sound. The pyramids must be constructed as a perfect tetrahedron.

The Republican candidates have been describing the come in of undocumented immigrants as a back door entrance. It is not true. My entrance can be described like that because I got visa and almost was invited to stay. Generally speaking, if the rich call a servicepeople to come to their house the entrance is done through the back door. They reserve the front door to their pars.

Who came without visa have an entrance better described as under the fence. Or over the fence. “When the fence be electrified”, will be only under. And these humble people came only because the American people was so rushed to make a bigger pyramid that everyone that was placed in the base of it started to going up. So it was creating empt spaces. The administrators knew what was going on but failed on to create an organized system for the entrance of newcomers. And it isn’t secret to nobody.

Canada for example, since long ago, have its own way to welcome the newcomers. There is a system were the alien can be admited accordingly some pontuation. If they know some profession, know the local languages and others criterias the person can add points to the curriculum. And from some number of points on the alien is legalized.

What was happening to United States is that, it didn’t offer an orient to the regular newcomers but openly ignored their presence in our country. Then when the Republican people blame the undocumented immigrant of be illegal or criminal they should know first that undocumented were used and abused by Republicans. It is a problem that come from long ago and we had the eight years from a Republican president, for we don’t forget, the former president George W. Bush, that were unable to making things rights on his two terms. The undocumented people in these country is not author but victim of a monstrous Ponzi Scheme.

The undocumented immigrants filled the empt spaces in our pyramid and since then they are the ones that are supporting it tall and sound. The plan mentioned by Michelle Backmann to deport all undocumented immigrant is the biggest shot on our own food I ever heard. If I was terrorist or sympathizer of Al Qaeda at the time of the 9/11 attacks I would suggest to them rather create a situation that would scares all immigrants out of United States. I never told it before because I was afraid to give such idea to the enemy but since the Republican Party and the Obama administration is doing just that until now, I felt free to talk about it.

Just looking at the numbers we can see it better. If we have 12 million or even 10 million undocumented immigrants right now and send all back home, what would be the consequences of it? I don’t want give more details. I will repeat the address, I will cite here just a glimpse of what would be if that come about. Firstly would be like to totally empt of people many states of our country. Here at the Northeast would be like to kick out the population of Massachusetts and Connecticut (10 millions) plus Vermont and Maine (12 millions).

Our pyramid would just crumble down like a castle of cards. And is premature to think that make the undocumented leave would be the end of everything bad that would happen to us. We can’t have a precise idea how many American professionals would lose their work. At least 10 millions people must give numerous jobs to doctors, teachers, policemen, firemen, bus drivers, and anything else in between.

The most reasonable argument that I heard until now came from a representative from New York. I heard an interview with him but I don’t memorized his name. What I know is that, he declared his fait as Jew. So he said that, in my words, it is not a question of they need us because we need them. It is a clear mathematical situation.

Our population without the immigrants is shrinking. They are the ones that are balancing our equation. We not only need to legalize them but also offer opportunities to their children go higher and higher. They need go to our universities. They are our hope. They need to have well paid jobs because in the future, not far from now, they will be the ones that will pay for the social security. If they don’t, all retiree will regret. They are the ones that will pay for our retirement.

Probably it doesn’t matter for Mitt Romney, Rick Santorum and Newt Gingrich. They don’t have plan to depend on social security for their retirement. But we, the 99% of our population, can’t be so confident about it. The deportation of such population for them is a matter of give us a shot in our feet not in themselves feet. More I think about the problem, more I become amazed that Mitt Romney is always claiming that he is the one that got the economic expertise to lead our country. How he claim such knowledge if the math facts are in front of him and his proposal is do just the anti-logic solution?

Recently a saw another interview on CNN. The interviewed was the author of a book. If I remember the name of the book it was, “How Baby Jesus Will Save America”. He refers to the name Jesus be the most popular among latino babies. Now-a-days is the most common baby’s born name in United States. He also pointed out that Mohammed is also one of the most popular baby’s name around here. So we need to let any prejudice out of our “patriotadas” equation because our descendance will inherit genes from that newcomer population. So we better take good care of all because we will be doing a great favor to our own descendance.

The author of the book also point out that, in today’s economy nothing is more precious than babies. Babies are the future of any nation. And the adopted policies largely defended by the Republican team, mainly in the Mexican borders states and endorsed by the Republican candidates had been the right recipe to dismantle our economy from now to the future. If in one way the Obama administration had taken on the immigrants at least it also have put some legislation on hold. The presented opinion of Mitt Romney is make the life of immigrants here so hard that they will prefer a voluntarily deportation. But what had been done is already doing it.

I already told about my friend Richard that voluntarily went back to Brazil. Also Jose. Richard brought with him his only one daughter. Jose is planing to bring three children from his ex-girlfriend. But it is not all. In 2.010 my neighbor and long time friend brought to there another three children. What is different on his case? He is citizen and the children are all American. Stories like these we got many and the number of American children that I know and are been brought back to Brazil can be counted in dozens. And I am not a social worker or someone else that know so many people to bring an exact idea of what United States is already losing in babies capital.

Mitt Romney also suggested a supposed law for legalization that would send back the ones interested in be legalized for them wait there in a imaginary line before be legalized and only come back after the legalization. It is so dumb that if I was a chairman in some firm and any of my commanded presented me such suggestion about the firm’s employees as serious issue I would fire him with great pleasure. And just the saying of fire somebody give me goose bumps because I am too kind to fire somebody even through imagination.

I know people that accepted to go back to wait their legalization and are all repentant. They wasn’t expecting to take so long and some are there for years without a good answer. Even some made a secret return. In a management point of view we have too much undocumented skilled workers already working. Is too dumb to send these people back imagining we have more applications than that from people that is coming through the “right way”. Until a newcomer be able to completely substitute a skilled worker we will lose months, maybe years of productivity. If it is what Mitt Romney have to teach us about his “skilled management” he is already fired and I will vote for Obama.

I worked for almost 10 years for the ESP. And I confess that anyone could substitute me in my job because it wasn’t so skills demanding. But even so year by year I improved my skills in doing it. And at the end my productivity became easier and better done to me. The person that taught me how to do the job in the beginning would have much to learn from me if he went back to the same position. If I had to teach what I knew at the time I was gone, my trainee would begin from a step further from what I began because I developed my knowledge from what I first learned.

But if everybody be send back in a rushed way, nobody will learn what they know and everything will start from steps back. And if someone went back to the country home to wait for papers, the employer can’t wait to have the job done. So he will need hire someone else. Then when the another immigrant come back his position maybe will not be available to him.

American born are not always up to stay for long in jobs that usually is left to undocumented immigrants do. It is another problem that make small hard work businesses prefer hire immigrants than a fellow American. They can’t afford to have too much alternation of employees because it makes productivity goes down.

I already mentioned about the disaster that would be if all undocumented immigrants be deported to the construction industry. I don’t want talk for long about it anymore. In my text indicated above anyone can got more information. I just know that, the deportation would provoke a pain beyond imagination to Americans. Would be another shot in our own feet.

About these issue I want be beyond our time. Everybody is focusing only in the present moment and what is been done is not enough. We have two issues that will hurts badly our future economy if not be resolved right away. It is the housing and scholarship problems. Some days ago the candidate Rich Santorum scorned president Obama because he said that everybody should went college and have a degree. Santorum doubt because he thinks we always will have the stratification that we call lowerclasses in our society. But I think Obama is seeing beyond our time. And not long ago only visionary people would see that today we would need a better education. And is because we didn’t prepared before, our schools system is crumbling down.

To resolve it once for all I would propose the creation of a permanent fund. And doesn’t matter what the conservative will think about it, it could be mandatory. And every child born in United States would have the right to an account for housing and scholarship. It would be taken from every parents paycheck and be deposited and, in case of be people under the line of some poverty, taken from a governamental fund. The final amount would be calculated to, in the right time, the child have the total scholarship needed to have a degree and the total to pay for the first house.

Many would argument that, some people will never go to a college. And some will be impaired and in a way that would not be responsible for an own house. No problema. I would even say that, some will die before achieve such need. Ok! The use of the money can be flexiblized. Even a couple could choise use one part to buy an house and another part to start a family business. And if not used at all can be taken as retirement fund. The idea is not let for later what can be done sooner.

I don’t think we have been smart enough letting our children have two mortgages in the beginning of their lives. It is making people slave from the banks. And it is taking a hard toll from our youngsters creativity.

It said, what is the alternative? I think we can see it since now. We have seen our children back to their parents home. Most of the children of today is spending more time living with their parents. Which I don’t say that is always a bad thing. It is always a bad thing when it comes out of necessity and not by option.

We need just project our mind a little beyond our time to see what can come on there. Firstly we are helping our children. But those who will lose their parents in a meanwhile may will have no means to keep the house. And if we put in practice the Republican alternative, our recession will be longer than some expect and even worse. Then I would suggest to anyone who doubt me pay a visit to Rio de Janeiro. Go see what in Brazil is called Wonderful City. Don’t forget to take a close look at the slums there because these can be the alternative to have our social fund. Just note that, it would ensures not only the population but the construction industry and the core of our civilization. Our knowledge.

I don’t know how the other Americans is understanding the Republican proposal on shrink our government. To me looks like a deceit, a Trojan horse or, modernly, a cooking. The Republican created the idea that the government is our enemy. And looks like many people is taking such bait. They are presenting it as if our people need to be against the government and a small government would be better to the people.

Adding to it they also are defending the idea that the economy need to be emancipated from what they call by excessive intromission from the government. They are saying that the government is making difficult to the rich make more money and invest it to create jobs. I would say that, many people is defending the idea not making a better exercise of mind about the consequences of it. I even think that, is too much honest people been useful innocent in such issue. But, as Brazilian use to say, “De boas intencoes o inferno esta cheio” (Of good intentions the Hell is totally full).

Let me say that, if all human being was saint what would be the need for any law? The law is not made for good people but to prevent bad people from take the power. Imagine if all the rich people among us today are good people and is incapable of do anything wrong to us. And also was because of that they would be uncomfortable with so much laws since they don’t need it to behave. Then, what guarantee us that amongst the next generation wouldn’t come some bad ones?

Everyone of us heard the ancient wisdom that a couple of bad apples can damage the whole basket of the fruit. In our case, a small government plus a powerful couple of bad rich apples can be desastrous to the whole population. Americans are acting just like Brazilians in these issue. They are taking themselves from the role of government as if the government was a entity separated from the people.

Government is “we the people”. “We the people” can’t let nobody take the government hostage from us. We need be the government, although each four years we select some to represent us, but we can’t forget that our representatives will act in our behalf. So, if they not do what we want is our right not reelect them in the next election.

Still, democracy is our only hope. And “We the people” acting as government need to elect a government which will defend us because anyone of us alone is nothing. We, the 99% others, only have power if we stand together. And the democratic government is our power. We need a strong government not for command us to do what we don’t want do. But to be our shield against the cleverness of others.

Now imagine that, tomorrow we will have a small and weak government. And also a small bully minority with all the power of money at its hand. And also all the deregulation that the Republican Party is asking for. What can we do then? Many things but I think the consequences will always be disastrous in all the cases. We will be only repeating History. Anyone may remember what happened to the people when the powerful Church from the Middle Ages was just in such position having all the power in a few hands. Also when the nobility and the kings took all the power for themselves.

The problem with the deregulation combined with a small government is that, it would put a minority over our heads and it would be a not elected minority. So, if we don’t like we will not have the power for vote them out. What “We the people” could do is start another revolution taking the risk of be obliterated. But if we be smart we can avoid any confrontation since now, saying no to such proposal. We need a better balance of power. The government must be our shield not our lord. And the rich people must be satisfied with the power of money and don’t try to bite bigger than the throat.

If I was super rich like some in these country I was in the front line to avoid such situation. I would comply with all the understandable regulation, not try to interfere with government matters unless to put myself on the people’s side, and be happy to be able to pay my fair share on taxes. A strong government also is a good shield for the rich people.

We know that our now economic situation came from the bad decisions taken by the Bush administration. Yes, it is crystal clear that what we got now is consequences of what were made by prior administration. And I say more. All first term from a new president will be consequence of the work done before. And we can look at all the records of unemployment from the last since the administration of John F. Kennedy to understand what happened to us now. He passed to Lyndon Johnson a not so good record but what was prepared worked. The unemployment went down to 3.6% in 1,968.

From there it passed to Nixon, Ford and Carter. And the unemployment went in a crescendo to a spike of 9.7% in 1,982. The Republicans are nostalgic about the Regan administration but Carter had been kicked out of the office because the bomb prepared by Gerard Ford exploded at his hands. But Carter were the responsible for controll the situation and although passed to Regan the 9.7% of unemployment, ther success on the first term of Regan was due to his administration. And Regan had his second term but were unable to left a better than 5.3% of unemployment.

And Bush, the father, gave us the bad favor of give us a 6.9% of unemployment in his last year, 1,993, of administration. Even so, I attribute to him the preparation that turned possible to Bill Clinton have a successful first term. And looks like that Bill Clinton did a good job also during his second term because he left office with the respectables 4,0% of unemployment. Even so, the American people elected the Republican Bush, the son, which one decided to brought us to two unecessaries wars at the same time, paid not attention on what was going on around the minds of the jerks on Wall Street etcetera.

The result of it we are living in day and night the consequences. And if you look at the records you can make some correlation between the facts. Looks like that wars brings us unemployment. And really it is suppost to be like these. If we are concentrated on make wars we can’t use our reserves to create jobs because you never know how much we will need to support the war. And also, as we are destructing others countries, they will not be a good market to us because the destruction brings only poverty to them.

So what we got now still consequences of the George W. Bush administration. And the Republican candidates, even Ron Paul, are saying that, the Bailout of Wall Street and the autoindustry is the cause of the problem. How dumb they think we are? The Bailout was so bad as take a medicine against cancer. I am a medic and I know something about what bad a medicine can do to a patient. And I would recomend nobody to take any medicine, unless strictly necessary. We take medicine obeying the equation cost/benefit. If your alternative of not take a medicine is death, so I would prefer take the medicine.

If senator McCain had been elected, or even anyone of the four pre-candidates from the 2,012 Republican team were president just after the disastrous Bush administration, they wouldn’t think two times on bailout Wall Street and everything else. They know that the future of the Party would be at stake. No Party would resist the nostalgia of don’t have American auto industry anymore. They wouldn’t survive the millions more of unemployments that a not bailout would cause.

Even so, you can see how the government can be a good shield to the rich people. The anger against our economic situation could be all directed to Wall Street right now. But the government is getting its own share of it too. Is better for the rich have a strong government to put itself between them and the angry mob. Otherwise!

The Republican Party candidates are defending also the tax break to rich people saying it will make them more rich and it will create more jobs to the poor. These is the most “pious baloney” I ever heard in my life. Since you are rich you already use the elevators that start only after the thousand steps of the pyramid. You don’t need such help from “We the people”.

We have to look what are the obligations of a government first. And I am talking about government in all levels, from the towns to Washington. Do you see rich people paying for basic schooling, bring services where don’t have profit or even paying to pave our common ways? It is said that those are basics services provided by the government to the people. But not. It is provided by the people to the common use of all. And I have two kids in public schools. And I know I am paying for the paving in front my house through my house and cars taxs. And some time I need to go to Boston through a public way to bring my children or myself to doctors appointments.

But the rich people need it more than me. If I had no choice I could go to Boston on foot. Our ancestors did it for centuries. But I would laugh to see rich people transporting their goods from coast to coast without the help from the people. The people pay for public schooling. And we are accustomed to think we are doing something good to ourselves. And it is true. But the rich people need our schooling for we be more informed and smart so they have better employees and better consumer market that will transfer riches to them. Some times we use our own government benefit but rich ones used it all the time. So, why they would get tax breaks and we don’t? At least, why we all don’t pay a fair share since we all depend on the benefits from our society?

I am not against the rich people be rich. What I don’t like is unfairness. I just think they are irreplaceables as human beings but their money is not. And we need an example to explain it better. Imagine if all big company just disappears and all rich people have no more their big money. But we would conserve our knowledge, our basics structures and our economic level of today, excluding only the rich and the tax breaks.

What would come after is a booming economy where the place of the rich would be substituted by a higher middle class. But, if we follow the same rules that we are following today, soon a class of rich people would surge again. These is not a trick is just the reality. Tax break don’t create more jobs, create only people more rich. And I would challenge any mathmatician to prove it wrong. Tax break is the elevator that only rich people can use to get to the top of our pyramidal Ponzi scheme.

Now, on the bottom of these pyramid the play is completely different. And by coincidence I personally got an example of it. I have some friends that told me something before but I didn’t paid much attention because I thought it wasn’t my case. And the fact is that, my family was using the Masshealth insurance because we are low income family. And on the last year we jumped to 35K of income. It is 35 thousands not millions. For our family of four people.

Last month came the bad news. My wife and I were cut short on our coverage. Now we will be obligated to pay a co-payment on every visit to the doctors, hospitals or pharmacy. The younger people may don’t realize what it really mean because they rarely get sick and still have energy to move forward. But what we made last year is more or less US$ 100.00/month more than the amount that we could get the whole coverage. And the situation became like that,

I got glaucoma in my eyes and high cholesterol. I will need to co-pay for my month supply of medicine. If I see my primary doctor, see the many specialists that I am subjected to and, just in case, go to a emergency room as some times I needed, I can spend well more than the hundred dollars/month. Visit to dentist will be a luxury away from our reach. And I’m not including my wife’s needs. She also need to occasionally go to her doctors too and have some medicine. Just in time, one of her crowns fell off and she thinks would to be too shameful to her not put it back on place. I don’t feel it in the same way!

Where is my loophole? Unfortunately it will be the non go to the doctor even if my life be at risk. If I get something less demanding for a start it have to get much worse before I look for help. Sorry folks. It is not an hypothetical supposition. I mean and have not alternative on do it. So, the defense for the tax break to rich people presented by the Republican candidates is forcing me to vote against them. Not because I don’t like the Republican candidates or the rich people but because I can’t see how their proposal will give to senior people and me any break.

I yet had written these whole chapter and now was editing it. Then decided to introduce some paragraphs because something else was happen. Today is March 12, 2,012, Monday. At the end of the prior week I was so angry that didn’t want to write. I have been trying to be neutral. I don’t want be driven by the anger.

With the changing on our health plan we got some misunderstanding. I had made an appointment at the last month. And had to transfer it to these month. For that I had to prolong for one more month an uncomfortable situation. As is said in Brazil, a nuisance. And did a first consult to the medic that has been approved by the prior Health Plan. We made a surgical procedure for tomorrow. Just a simple touch. And then came a letter from the Plan announcing that my request had been denied because the new medic wasn’t in their payroll.

The immediate consequence is that I am obligated to pay for the first appointment. The second one was to pass through the humiliation for cancel the surgery. I will not what it is about but the surgery would correct something that have causing me so much humiliation that I almost paid the US$125.00 for the surgery at the doctor’s office. I didn’t just because they wouldn’t accept my credit card. The rejection gave me the conclusion that will not make much difference to have some more humiliation for change the actual medic by another that will be in the payroll of the Health Plan.

To me will be some lost. Anyways I am these eternal loser that I am accustomed with it. But it could be a loss to the state population. When I talked the first time with the first doctor he wanted to perform the surgery at the hospital. But I questioned how much I would pay for it and he informed me that I would have to pay some to the hospital too. Then he said the surgery could be done at his office and I would have the free hospital cost. With the changing of plans I can’t say that if I will have the chance to ask for cheaper.

Anyways the people should think it better. What shall be better to the society as an whole, to keep producing more losers like me and a few winners or to bet on the reduction of losers? To me the best answer is look for a society where all get equal opportunities to become winners. We need to have conditions to produce winners and winners, not concerns for the side of the aisle of our militancy. Less losers means that our society will be more just to all. I don’t think a society can expect to stand for long as long these society will left behind more and more of its people.

De qualquer forma as pessoas deveriam refletir melhor. O que sera melhor para a sociedade como um todo, continuar produzindo mais perdedores como eu e poucos vencedores ou apostar na reducao de perdedores? Para mim a melhor resposta eh buscar uma sociedade em que todos tenham oportunidades iguais de se tornarem vencedores. Temos que buscar condicoes de produzir vencedores e vencedores, nao importando o lado da nossa militancia. Quanto menos perdedores tivermos mais justa sera a nossa sociedade.

What I was saying before was that, some of my friends already had told me about it. Even one of them simple quit from a part time because it was giving him just headaches. He had to work 10 hours/week, use his car to get US$ 5,000.00 more each year. And he was paying the same amount of Income Tax. Since he quitted, his headaches are gone and even got some return. And he concluded, “I will not work for the government for free”.

The fact is that, “We the people” rather than have an elevator got an economic barrier to not go up on the pyramid. To go there we need to, as Brazilian use to say, give a step longer than the leg. From 30 thousands we need to jump to, at least, 70 thousands/year to be able to pay a private insurance and everything else that life demands on the middle class. We can’t go step by step. And we know that, unless you win the lottery, doesn’t have much economic miracles around here anymore.

May the Republican candidates don’t mean it but what they are trying to create will gave us a fourth branch of government. Traditionally we have legislative, executive and judicial. Those three power need to be in balance for our democracy work well. But the Republican candidates are trying to create the super rich branch that would domain all the others without need to be elected. It is a failed historical scheme. And it is where the past is meeting the present.

Another gaffe by the three stooges from the Republican Party team is the willing for start a commercial war saying that they would bring back the jobs exported to abroad. I understand it is a campaign so the candidates say whatever they want to gain most of the votes but it doesn’t add to the equation of reality. Firstly if the businesses abroad are working well it is doing its social function of distribution of income. Making a richer society abroad means that we are making stronger our own pyramid base because a richer market will buy more from us.

So bringing back those jobs without an alternative to others to keep their income will pull out part of our list of costumers. And also will raise the resentment against ourselves. From there on we should expect anything but cooperation between us. The next pace shall be the application of reciprocity. The Republican candidates may don’t know what the word mean because they have been playing just an arrogant character where they thinking, We are everything and the rest of the world is our backyard.

Let me translate it in minor letters. When we start bringing back the jobs that supposed we exported, the world could start have the same right of claim the jobs that it exported to United States. Some would say that, I am crazy on say it because they never heard about jobs come in to United States from the other countries. But those are forgetting that we are moved by raw material that come from all over the world. And the people from there can start cutting short our supply. Lets mention only petroleum and iron.

(Note: Today, March 13, 2,012, I saw at the news the mention that somebody is trying to sues China because it is limiting the exportation of “rares terras”, which are minerals and China is the furnisher of 99% to the international commerce and it is the raw material to make most of the high technology products. These must be a small tips of what going to happen in a commercial war).

The other countries can say to us we will not send such materials to you anymore and will refine it in our countries. If you want it from now on will have to buy the products from our raw materials not the raw materials itself. And the conservative will say, You are hilarious. They don’t have the technology and the expertise to do it now. But they would say to them, No worries. We have two options. Firstly you can wait us develop our technology to get the job done. Secondly you can bring your technology to us and some experts to lead what we wanna do. It is your choice. Otherwise we can take the expertise from another country else.

The Republicans plan to bring back jobs to United States is like a plane come out of California to New York but end in Chicago. So they want take off again because they imagine that they know the way. But they will end in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean without gas. They think the problem is only the pilot but the tools are damaged. We need firstly fix our tools. And secondly help the rest of the world to be out of poverty because it is the way to make the base of our pyramid more stable.

Now the reader use good imagination to think how many good jobs more we would lose if we start such tug of war against the rest of the world! I just think that, nothing is more anti-America than some kind of American candidates. And the Tax Break to the rich could be also be understand as Tax Bribery.

After write these chapter I am coming back for some comment on what is going on right now in United States. Yesterday president Obama received for talks the prime minister of Israel, Benjamin Nathaniahu. Israel is menacing preemptive attacks against Iran alleging the Arab country can’t have nuclear weapons because it can be used in terrorist attacks. President Obama gave him the assurance that United States will be at the Israeli side but he is hoping that the economic pressure will cause effect and make Iran let the international community monitors its nuclear facilities.

But the Republican Party is making pressure on president Obama to start an war game against Iran and Syria. The former candidate of that Party, senator McCain, even is asking for aerial attacks against Syria and the three stooges candidates already declared war to Iran. They are recklessly talking about war because they don’t have the responsibility for such decision. What they mean is only gain the vote of the more conservative Republican electorate. But we can exercise our minds and see something beyond. Lets say, if we start an war against Iran right now, what will come in consequence of it forty year from today?

We don’t need any crystal ball to see it. The Israeli prime minister is willing to do the preemptive strike thinking it will save Israel but he is totally wrong. Even if they don’t do nothing the only way to avoid what I gonna say here is start put in place a Peace Plan between Arabs and Jews and embrace it as the only safeguard for the future.

Obama is vulnerable in these exactly moment because he need his reelection and the vote of Jews and those that recklessly support anything Israel does is important to it. But what he needed to do was put a rope around the neck of the leaders of Israel and Palestinians and say it, I will lose the rope only when both side kiss each other. After they kissed then he would say, now is time to talk to Syria and Iran.

Otherwise, anyways, 40 years from now the petroleum in the Middle East will be scarce or have none. And as the countries around didn’t made peace, and are losing the money that they are making from these raw material buying weapons, and not paying attention in alternative ways to live, the poverty and desperation will come to the people. And the turmoil will come forth again. Firstly the people around will expel any dictator that served as spear point of the American Imperialism. It includes the Saudi Royal Family and others.

And the people will look at Israel and United States and will see its success. And the people from which is said that have no memories will start to ask, Where is the money that our petroleum made? Why the others used it to make them rich and we got only the crumbles and now the famine? It is wrong. And the desperation will make them do what was unimaginable. Does not matter if Israel got the nuclear bomb or not.

The situation will unite some Muslin countries. Even Pakistan which one already have the atomic bomb. By the way, the Taliban will be in the head of that and maybe another countries. And the result will such as, Israel will need to win all battles. And the other side will need win just one. Anyways the costs for both side will be so catastrophic that will be like both side lose. And I ask to anyone, Is just to left such faith to our descendants?

Lets take some humor from the situation of today. Seen Nathaniahu coming to kiss Obama’s hands made me do some analogy. What appear is that the American concerns about Israel is so great that it makes that country the fifty first American State. And the definition goes like that, Israel is an away California surrounded by Mexicans Muslims.

Similar consequence can be expected from the deportation policies that the Republican Party’s main candidates are defending. Lets say, we will send back the, at least, 10 million undocumented workers to their original countries. To think such craziness the person must been thinking that, it will cause no damage to our construction industry and our overall businesses. So we will exercise our minds only over the next step which is this multitude of human beings coming back home.

Again it would raise some reciprocity. Firstly it will cause some poverty at the other countries because the number of undocumented will not find jobs. Secondly because most of them is supporting family members over there and these help will end. Automatically it will raise more resentment against United States. Just after somebody will have the “great idea” to start a blockage against the use of American products. If needed they will start substituting American by Japanese and European ones or even Chinese.

Next you can visualize what would come next. The anti-American feeling would raise so greatly that the substitution become no more a tool of pressure but a pleasurable vengeance. I don’t want see the Ford auto industry in Brazil come from the third place as vendor there to a closed company. The Coca Cola Company be kicked out from the rest of the world and assume a dwarf sized only American national. It would make millions of Americans lose their jobs. And we may get ourselves a Revolution like those that are occurring through the Arab Spring. I don’t want live in a Syrian like country right now.

You don’t imagine how things can change in a blink of eyes. As the wisdom of Lavoisier says, we can not take ourselves as irreplaceable. It is pure arrogance. We need to remember that, in the talks in a country to country level we can say something stupid and later on ask for forgiveness because the interests are higher and obey a common sense. But we can’t say the same when the talks start going to a level that one part is a foreign government and the others is nationals from others countries. Interference on the mobs interests will get a mobs response. And we can’t control it.

Some two years ago was happen to me a event that we can use in our exercise of mind. I was in a school bus stop waiting for my daughter and saw an Asian woman. She was wearing a T-shirt with a FBI letters written in it. And I didn’t paid much attention on her because I thought she was from a different culture of mine. Days later my daughter got out of the bus talking loudly to her daughter. After some words that the mother said I perceived she was Brazilian too. Since them we became friends because we had no language barriers. And our daughters are best of friends too.

What I would never expect was to coming. Talking to her and hearing her accent I asked from which state from Brazilian Northeast she had come from. And almost with indignation she answered, “I came from Sao Paulo!” And nothing was adding to me until she explained her parents really was from the Brazilian Northeast. Only then I got the equation right.

Sao Paulo State and its Sao Paulo Capital are as much cosmopolitan as New York. Also the two capitals are almost the same size. It have a similar History on migration. And today the state is the most populated in Brazil. Something around 40 million people which is a little more than one fifth of the Brazilian population. The second more populated state is Minas Gerais with its 20 million. Together they count one third of Brazilian population.

But Sao Paulo is far way more richer. Since the beginning of the Brazilian industrialization it concentrated most of it. So, from the beginning of the 19 hundreds it also attracted all other Brazilians and people from abroad. Firstly came the “mineiros” together with Middle Eastern, Japanese, Italian, Portuguese and all other European. But from the beginning of the second half of the XX century on it experienced the Brazilian Northeastern migration. With all the movement Sao Paulo took the title of most populated from its neighbor “General Mines”.

The Brazilian North Eastern population is the most authentic original Brazilian we have. The North Brazilians are comparable to the Northern ones but these ones numbers overwhelms those. Usually they are mixed races, African and Europeans plus a more proportion of Brazilian native. They skin is dominantly brown. A sign of the past and the present climate dominated by the brightness of the sun. They looks can be mistaken by the other Latinos looking. But it is a totally mix.

As the Brazilian Northeast always suffered from endless droughts the people were submitted to a cycle of come in and goes out from the native land. As most of them was poor they always had to confront some prejudice against them from some more European fellow Brazilians. Even in Brazil have some minority from the extreme Brazilian South that advocates the silly idea to create a separated country more racially pure out of the Southern states. They say that the Brazilian Northeastern are lazy and they are the ones to blame for the Brazilian poverty.

But the people from Sao Paulo, called Paulistas, know how important the Brazilian Northeastern are to its economy. They just can’t live without the hard workers on their booming plantations of sugarcane, orange, coffee beans, construction industry and all the other service sector. And these population is now so merged into the social component of the state that you can say anymore who is who just by the faces.

It justifies my mistake on to identify my friend. After years here at the American Northeast we became more pale faces because we don’t see the sun as we are used to. But what I mean recalling such passage on my life is that, if Americans want to keep the title of the richest country in the world also need to be open to a bigger number of migrants from the whole world. We know that, the numbers count.

China is coming forth after us and soon can pass us. It doesn’t mean that it will soon dethrone us as model of civilization. But while it get more riches and if do well its home work, applying it in good education, research on advanced technology and so on we will be lived on its dust. If we treat the worldly population with fairness, like United States been the chief state, like an engine in a train, where the others can share with us our riches and advancement, we will succeed. But if we treat the others as undesirables they will treat us in the same way. Do not forget the Mirror of Gandhi.

If our power come from the money we got from the world then we must accept the presence of the people of the world in our house. The people goes where the money is, not to only shares it but to create a more vigorous market. And it is not all. We need do it keeping a balance with the participation of the whole world. To secure the permanence of our civilization we need to share power, knowledge and brains with the whole world.

Would be healthier to create from 5 to 12 sectors in the globe that would work like a Federation. The minimum five is represented by the continents, North and South Americas, Europe, Asia and Africa. But Australia, India, Middle Eastern, Central America and Caribbean, and three others sectors also could complete such Federation. The goal on it would be the development of confidence on each other and the sharing of population, economic and knowledge powers. I pretend to take on these issue on other chapter to be more clear.

Lets comment something about politics now. The campaign from the Republican Party is clearing. I didn’t commented before but the candidate Mitt Romney got four more wins. Even on his birth state of Michigan. Today is March 4. Yesterday he won the State of Washington. His win in Michigan were the most significant one. In That state all voters can vote on both primaries no regards for the parties. And, as the polls was indicating some tie between Romney and Santorum, came a proposal to the Democrats vote for Santorum because he seems less strong in the dispute one/one against president Obama.

To me the trick back fired in some way. I don’t think it mobilized a good number of Democrat voters but did it to Republican ones. Maybe all the voters that was unsure before to who to vote decided to vote for Romney. It gave him a close win although it is what is counted for. I think that, in the general election he could use it saying, he is more electable because he bit the Santorum’s supporters together with the Democrats. Apparently, the ones behind such cleverness was trying to put in doubt the eligibility of Romney in the general election and at the same time give a booster to senator Santorum, supposedly, an weaker adversary to president Obama.

I think, behind the scene is another thing going on. To me, Mitt Romney is the weaker candidate of all possible four. What he got is the power of money but a disastrous curriculum. Remember when I said that I agreed with the “pious baloney” said by the former Speaker of the House, Newt Gingrich, that Romney didn’t sought for the reelection because he wouldn’t be elected? They never entered in the core of the question. Why it is so? And it will come out on the general elections.

Then, what is about to say that Rick Santorum is the weaker one? In my point of view it’s true. But the ones that are voting for Romney now are ideological voters. They have two things in mind. They are voting for him because he looks stronger. To them doesn’t matter the ideological details because they know Romney is not so conservative as Sonrorum is. Anyways they would vote for a Republican candidate.

Otherwise, the Santorum’s electorate is the passionate one. They are voting for him as an alternative to Mitt Romney because they just don’t like the former governor of Massachusetts. So, at the general election a good chunk of those will vote for nobody. But they would vote for Santurum as well most of the Romney’s electorate would do, because they want see Obama out, doesn’t matter what or who.

The whole thing is that, I believe Ron Paul would be the best candidate for the Republican side win. All the others voters would vote for him in the general election. And he is the only one that are bring young blood to the Republican Party. He would unify all voices. He would even get some Democrats vote for him because the deception with Obama.

But is another cleverness around here. And the tale of the Party in Heavens can teach us something. The younger may don’t know the tale and is better resume it here. It says that, Once upon a time had a party in heavens. All the animals were invited but only those who had wings could go. And the frog began to think how he could attend such party.

Talking to his friend vulture he saw the guitar that the vulture was bring with him. So he waited until the vulture wasn’t looking at and went in. They had a great party and before it ended the frog went back to his hid place to take a ride back. In its fly back the vulture feel some heaviness on the guitar and took a look on it. Seen the frog he got mad and said it would drop the frog down to the Earth. The frog implored him not do it but he was unmoved by the frog’s words.

Looking down, the frog said to his friend. OK, I just ask you not let me down into the water because I am afraid of drown. Throw me on the rocks because I will die quickly. And the vulture was so mad that it thrown the frog into the water. And it was just what the frog wanted.

The same thing we are seen here. The Democrats are playing with the Republicans making them do what they want. The problem is that, will it work well as planned? I am not sure. I would never vote for a second term for president Bush and thought that the other Americans wouldn’t do it too. I was wrong as I can be wrong in my suppositions right now. Only the time will say what it will be. The day after tomorrow will be the Super Tuesday. And, with the last four wins, the Republican voters can be drove by the impression that Mitt Romney is an inevitability. If so, they will give him a comfortable win on most of the ten states in dispute, and it will transform the inevitability in reality.

The main problem to the Republican Party today is its extreme right wing. It took the Party as hostage and the extremism will put away a good number of votes from the moderate population. It is a old problem in the system. Some time ago the Workers Party got a similar problem in Brazil. As it is a moderate left directed Party its problem was the extreme left wing. It was a small part but also the most financial active, with extreme political positions. The Party lost many elections due to the fear from the common electorate of the Party as a whole be communist. Only after the extreme leftists be invited to go away and form their own parties the Workers Party became a real competitive force. The Republican Party should use the same recipe to become more trustful in the future.

Now, as Mitt Romney seems to be an inevitability, I will talk about I think is his Achilles heel. Surprisingly is his partnership with Bain and his meteoric and successful career. And I will point out why he should be ashamed of his success. To be successful you don’t need necessarily be super rich as many think. Be successful can be a totally different thing. We have example of animals that are been successful for millenniums in survive through thousands of natural disasters. But we don’t know if any rich will survive through the catastrophe created by themselves.

The problem with some people now-a-days is that, they know how to make easy money and think they are successful because of it. And they also think the others that don’t have the same know how are not successful or are inferior to them. But what is happening is that, the self named successful are no more than addicted to make money. Yes! Some will say I am creating something new that don’t exist to make my point. But I know that anything which became excessively needed without a real organic need is a vice.

Just because money is not alcohol, drugs, food or medicine you can’t say nobody can be addicted to it. We can be addicted to anything since you get an extravagant desire for have it. I myself can be addicted to information and write. These is why I am planning to, maybe, make these book my last one. So I can concentrate on give my family a better future. But not everyone is capable to understand the problem on themselves. The drug addicted always got problem on admit their selves vice. And without it no addiction can be treated.

Let me say something about the Romney’s addiction to money. “Joint Vulture”, as our friend Rick Perry called it, is the best definition for the action that Romney used to make his and others money. He is defending his record on creation of jobs through it and he probably did it. But what he did is not good to our society. Let us take as examples the creation of Staples and Starbucks Companies.

Not long after I came to Massachusetts I start to writing my new books. I had no intention on immediately publish it because I didn’t have enough money but I decided to make many photocopies to distribute as presents to friends and relatives. Yes. I am good enough to do such gracious offerings in name of friend and kinship, without let anybody know how much it costed me. And I used the services from small businesses, one in Holliston and another in Ashland, because it was in my way to work. Some time later I came back to ask for more and those family stores was no more in business.

Now I know that if I need the same service I can go to a nearby Staples in Framingham and will get the same work done. What is different is that I will be attended by a mechanical employee or do it myself. No more talks to a familiar face. I think that the Starbucks worked in the same way. Had many small businesses offering the same service but it used the power of money to replace them all. And I am sorry for say it but the Starbucks coffee is the worse that I ever got. We drink because we are addicted to it but I would avoid it anytime I had alternative. Specially if was a homemade like coffee.

The problem with the “Joint Vulture” is that, they are interested only on make a quick money and pay no attention on the consequences. They are creating monstrous companies in a pace too accelerated to small traditional businesses compete with it. If Henry Ford had the same assistance on his time, today we would have a monstrous company but nobody else to compete with it. What we would have would be just an auto monopoly called by Ford.

And why it is bad to our society? Firstly it is making the distance between the rich and others bigger. It is bad because is creating jobs but diminishing the opportunities. Why instead of create more big companies out the services that are already been offered by small owners the “Joint Vultures” like Bain didn’t invested on a better service of each small companies? You can understand it in only one way. Work with a bigger number of people is more difficult than work with a small number. And to work with a bigger number would may give more money but would demand more time.

So the “Joint Vultures” are not here to make a better world. If anyone think they are creating jobs its action is also killing opportunities for a bigger number of people. They are just taking the opportunities from many and giving it to a few. A few that are becoming super rich when most is becoming poor.

How it is bad to the society? Let me say it, if I was owner of the Cadillac right now I would say to Mitt Romney, “You are fired”. And please, don’t use our brand name in your demagogy. If I was owner of any big company I would prefer to have millions of costumers owning one sample of my product than couple thousands buying 10 samples of it. The Cadillac don’t need a Mitt Romney driving couple of its cars. It need a solid market with millions of costumers.

I would say that, it is a good cause if a real Joint Venture start looking out there for really new ideas. Ideas that creates jobs that had never been created. It need to offer opportunities to new people with ideas although to others those people could appear more like losers. It could be a big booster to old ideas too since favoring the smaller partners. What our economy needs is creation of opportunities, not only employments.

I think the Republican Party candidates are showing only the vulnerabilities of the Party. Rick Santorum said something about we be in a meritocracy, where the excellence is rewarded with a better portion of riches. And we need to remember Albert Einstein here. Nobody doubt that the man were a genius. Then, why he never got billionaire? Today we can say that, almost everything we have in technology came from Einstein mind. And what we will get from the Republican candidates mind?

What is more important to our society as a whole, our medics or our trash collectors? Give yourselves a time to think about. Because I am in doubt. I thank all medic personnel that attended me my whole life. And I think they are worth of all the money they can honestly make. But I don’t agree with is paid for what the trash collectors do. The medic personnel is good because attend us in our most difficult needs but the trash collector work every day to make us need a least time to go to the doctor. We pay to the medics what they work for and we don’t pay the same amount to those that make us suffer less.

Another sign that we are living in no meritocracy is the payment to our teachers. I would say that, would be better we pay a US$ 1,000.00/week for each teacher in these country than give bonuses to any CEO. Otherwise some of the Republican Party advocates don’t agree with me in no way. I am totally in favor of we start a meritocracy right now. Even if I have no merit at all. If the meritocracy be put in practice for real I will be happy with the crumbles under the table.

The sign that the Republican advocates are totally out of touch is their position against unions. What an union is supposed to be? Is just the way that a nobody individual get together with his nobody pars to be a collective somebody. Somebody that is strong enough to demand the rights for everyone. The position against the unions make the Republicans appear like there are more Mitt Romney on their side that we never imagined.

For now I will say no more about economy. At least not in these chapter or about the issues involving our today’s economy. I will add here some news about my studies of my family’s genealogy. Some days ago I contacted one of my cousins in Brazil and he gave me the clue. We talked about his grandfather and family and he said they are descendants of a important figure in Minas Gerais State History. The person is known as Baron of Cocais. The name is Jose Feliciano Pinto Coelho da Cunha.

What my cousin said is that, his grandfather Waldemar Leite was son of Luiz Furtado Leite and Luiza Nunes Coelho. He didn’t know exactly how to place Luiza in our Genealogical Three because he knew not if she was daughter or granddaughter of my uncles Joaquim Nunes Coelho and Francisca Eufrasia de Assis. We are looking for the answer. And also said that, Luiz Furtado Leite was out of marriage offspring of the Baron of Cocais. So I did some research in the net about it and found the page, It didn’t reveal much. Only made the possibility of the tradition right be more credible.

I confirmed some results from that address with the data from the Portugal and found what came before in their Genealogical Three. The baron, Jose Feliciano Pinto Coelho da Cunha was son of Antonio Caetano Pinto Coelho da Cunha and Ana Casimira Furtado Leite de Mendonca. And look two genealogical sequences that I got from it.

Ana Casimira Furtado Leite de Mendonca* – Antonio Caetano Pinto Coelho da Cunha
Inacia Custodia de Sa* – Manuel Furtado Leite de Mendonca
Ana Inacia de Oliveira* – Custodio de Sa
Maximiano de Oliveira Leite* – Inacia Pires de Arruda
Mariana Paes Leme* – Francisco Paes de Oliveira Horta
Fernao Dias Paes Leme* – Maria Garcia Betim

Then D. Ana Casimira was descendant of the “Bandeirante” Fernao Dias, one of the most popular historical figures from the Brazilian History. Let though put the other series.

1,792 Jose Feliciano Pinto Coelho da Cunha* – Antonia Tomasia de Figueiredo
Antonio Caetano Pinto Coelho da Cunha* – Ana Casimira Furtado Leite de Mendonca*
1,700 Luis Jose Pinto Coelho da Cunha* – Antonia Joana Miranda Costa
1,671 Antonio Caetano Pinto Coelho* – Maria Josefa Azeredo Coutinho
1,640 Francisco Pinto da Cunha* – D. Francisca Maria da Silva e Castro*
1,600 Antonio Pinto Coelho – D. Francisca de Ataide*
1,560 Francisca Maria da Silva Coelho de Noronha – Francisco Pinto da Cunha*
1,540 Aires Coelho – Maria de Noronha*
1,510 Goncalo Coelho da Silva – D. Maria de Melo*
1,470 Aires Coelho – Maria de Castro*
1,435 Goncalo Coelho – Violante de Magalhaes*
1,420 Martim Coelho – Joana de Azevedo
1,370 Fernao Coelho – Catarina de Freitas*

Here we came back to the couple that make our ties with all the European Royal Families. I took a quickly touristic looking in the ancestry data of our supposed ancestor Jose Coelho de Magalhaes* who is also offspring from the same couple and noted that he was more connected with others noble lineages than was before in my prior studies. My intention was locate the shortest link between the Baron of Cocais and him. But the number of links is so great that I preferred don’t look for details because would be to much time to spend.

The impression is that, no matter where we look we are attached to everyone. My cousins back in Brazil come from the Coelho Family as much from the Leite Family. And many of their more close relatives are now living in United States. We are, in some extension, documented close relatives of 32 out of the 44 American presidents. I am saying close because we are so many times descendants from the same ancestors that our DNA contents must be too similar to ones that our ancestors had. And as the 32 American presidents are also descendants from the same ancestors, our DNA contents is more like our common cousins or common uncles from the past. So we are more close than expected.

About it I don’t have any doubt that we are close relatives of American population as an whole. We have a female cousin in Brazil, from my parents generation, who is called by the nickname of aunt Lulu. She was our clever math teacher and also a remarkable observer of facial details on others people. Our common cousins use to say that, whatever place she was, for example traveling in a bus, instantly she start checking the other passengers faces and soon would come with such comment, “Look how these person over there is so and so” somebody we know. So her nephews and nieces joked about it proposing, “Lets play aunt Lulu!?”

What is about it is the similitude between Latino faces and American faces. And I observed it in relationship to the candidates now playing elections in United States. The former candidate Rick Perry for example is so and so our hero of WWII uncle Otacilio Barbalho. Even our uncle used to play oops moments just to make us laugh. My son said other day that Ron Paul is the Magneto for all his classmates at high school. They don’t mean anything bad because Magneto is a villain. They just meant the remarkable facial similitude with the actor playing Magneto. By the way, if Ron Paul was the Republican candidate he probably would vote for him and maybe convince me and his mother do it as well. And Ron Paul also resembles our uncle Murillo Coelho.

It is not all. Newt Gingrich have some resemblance with my father. But what is more remarkable is his physical resemblance to my brother in law, Ricardo. If anyone pick up the photos of both of them and say they are brother, nobody would doubt it. What is not so remarkable is the resemblance between president Obama and our great-grandfather, Joao Baptista Magalhaes. Uncle Little John as he demanded to his grandchildren called him by was a mixed races like Obama and the most cleverly humorous person in our family.

Another curiosity involving our relative Baron of Cocais is a tradition that I can’t say for sure if is true or not. But he had a great fortune. And it came from his investments, particularly from his shares from the Morro Velho Mine. Even today the mine is the biggest one from the General Mines State. The tale says that, he had a big deposit in gold and money in an English bank. He died in 1,869 without cash it and the heirs didn’t knew about it.

Back in 1,965 the English government contacted the Brazilian government warning that the money would be taken by the English Crown if nobody claimed the inheritance. Many descendants were contacted but the tale keep going on and added that, the descendants didn’t made any agreement and five years later they lost the fortune which were about 120 million pounds. Maybe the tale got some truth in it but what I don’t believe is not one got some. One of the descendants was the late Carvalho Pinto, former governor of the Sao Paulo State.

Anyways we got a very common happen in our History. The big money always end in the richer hands. If not in some Brazilian rich heirs hands it ended in our cousins English richest hands. The analyzed data and the tale gave the impression that the cousins that we were raised among them may not be heirs of such inheritance. Looks to me they were descendants of one brother of the Baron. Colonel Luiz. Anyways, the Baron, by the time he was born, 1,792, to 1,970, must had more than thousand descendants. Among those, many that was in financial difficult as is usual in a common population. And those certainly were left behind as also not unusual.

From the Family Furtado Leite around my birthplace we got some personalities from the present generations. One of those is the soccer player Leandro Almeida who once played for the Athletic Mineiro Club, from Belo Horizonte. Now he is playing in Ukraine. The other is the awarded cinema director, Savio Leite. He own the firm Leite Filmes. I can’t forget to mention our cousin, Ronalde Cesar Coelho Leite who gave me the clues to come to decipher these branch of our Genealogical Three.

Parallel to what else is going on in United States we got a storm of tornadoes these past week that caused the sad death of 39 people. The devastation is enormous and we are just in the beginning of the season. It made me remember when the former president Bush didn’t signed the treaty to control emissions of CO2 into our atmosphere. At the time he made me angry with such defiance to what we all know is coming to us. I don’t blame president Bush for the actual deaths. Even he had signed the treaty it was yet too late to avoid what will happen for the next century because the pollution that men caused for two and half centuries will have consequences for many years to come.

The problem with not take any prevention in his time is that, from now on we will need to do more and even so the consequences will stay with our descendants for longer. When the people show shock by the devastation caused by the tornadoes I don’t feel it in the same way. I feel the sadness but not surprised. And we should expect and be prepared for worse to come.

At that time I wrote a letter to the Boston Globe Journal. It wasn’t published. I felt compelled to write but didn’t knew any English so I did it in Portuguese. And in my vision I said that, the tropical nations would be reached by the consequences first but soon the other nations would have their share. Nobody needed a crystal ball to see it.

In the aftermath of the unfruitful discussion about contraceptives in the political race, I got something to tell about it. I said before that I am conservative enough to say that the life begins at the conception. So anything done to end the development of a baby after that moment is a cruel killing of an innocent. And I don’t believe in that, is the women right to terminate a life in name of anything.

Then I also am liberal in some ways. And let take some story that I heard long ago about some indigenous Brazilian tribe. It was said that, in their tradition women were made to serve men. And one of the custom in the tribe is the fathers of women ask the favor of older friends to initiate their daughters in the arts of sexually serve their future husbands. So the young women went the house of the older friend and practice with him what they are supposed to do with their future partners.

But they would have a problem. The young women could get pregnant and it wasn’t the intention. Then the tribe had also the answer for it. They used a tea made from plants roots that make women stop their cycle and have no ovulation as long they want. After the classes be given the women get another potion from other plants and get they cycle back.

I know. The female reader will be nauseated by what they interpret as male chauvinism in the tale. Some men will be excited by these dream coming through to them. Most of the religious conservative would call me a perverted for just recall the tale. But none of those are my intentions. I am talking about it because the tale exists although I can’t prove it is true. But, if so, I just want to point out the significance of these revelation. Medically speaking it say to us that, is a switch on and off for reproduction in women’s bodies.

If so we have another problem around here. I don’t believe the pharmaceutic industry don’t know about it. And why they are not interested on reveal it would be because money is always the main objective for them. And sometimes money is all but solutions. Imagine if women could use such potions through their lives. They would use just a few doses and was all done. But the daily use of pills and many more types of contraceptives channel a true pipeline of money. So it had to be investigated.

As I already said many times, I am Catholic. And the discussion about the mandate from the Obama administration to the Catholic Health Insurance pay for contraceptives for the female employees that want it don’t bothers me since all the others Health Insurance are supposed to do the same. I am totally on the Church side when it mean the termination of a life. Otherwise I am with the majority of the Catholics that believe in that, we, women together with their partners, need to decide how many children we can have. We can get accidentally more or less than we want but is an insanity not pay attention to how many people our planet will support.

The Catholic high administration through some dogmas is been recklessly taking decisions that, unfortunately, the administration itself can not take responsibility for it. Here we have only a glimpse of the problem. Brazil is the biggest Catholic country in the world. And the majority of the population there don’t buy the idea of not use natural or artificial contraceptives. And these is only one of the issues that the Catholic high hierarchy is against the people’s decisions. The majority of Catholics don’t see any problem on men priests be married or we have priestesses among us.

What the problem with our high hierarchy is that, we have only old men, totally detached from the reality in some issues, organizing their Church. Yes. Unfortunately they owned the Church from the people through laws from the past never actualized. The pope that is mainly an older man names all Bishops and Cardinals. And acting as common men they only name the ones that shares with them the same opinions. It is not for unite the faith or the people. Is a simple quest for impose their unilateral vision to the future. What we see in the Catholic Church today is the old fashion tyranny from the Middle Ages.

And what we will, better saying, our offspring will, see if the right wing of the Republican Party grabs the power and impose their rules on minimum government and all economic power to the rich is also tyranny. A tyranny that would be removed only through revolution because the high hierarchy also wouldn’t be elected.

About the contraceptives, the right wing of the Republican Party say that they are the true conservative pro-life. I wouldn’t gave credit to them on that. They are pro-life when it is about unborn children what I also am. But they are totally in favor of totally unnecessary wars. So I don’t think someone is pro-life if the same someone is nor in favor of life from the conception to the natural death. what I also am. But they are totally in favor of totally unnecessary wars. So I don’t think someone is pro-life if the same someone is nor in favor of life from the conception to the natural death.


Is nothing wrong with the title of these chapter. The Occident Powers say that we are at war against terrorists. But the method used in these war against the called terrorists is also terrorist. May in our point of view we can say that, the others are the terrorists. But the people that are been targeted, their loving ones, their fellow citizens, the casualties of wars and its consequences and even the Muslim World that feel victimized by the war have no doubt in say that, the Occident Powers are the terrorism itself. So, in some sense, I agree with both side in that, terrorism is been played in both ways.

The question of who is winning the war of terrorists is not easy to answer. Some experts would say in their military point of view that United States and its allies are far ahead to the victory because of some points gained by killing the main leaders of Al Qaeda. But I am interest in others questions. These war is making the world safer or not? And what will be the consequences from now on?

But also we have an alternative to the answer above credited to the experts. To understand better we should ask ourselves what medium or small military power in the world would stand up for months against the full military power of United States? I am here excluding others military superpowers like China and Russia because an war between each one of them and United States would cause a massive destruction that nobody would be allowed to call victory at the end. And I am talking just about combats where the Army from both sides would stand organized and not taking the time of occupation as part of the war itself.

Although an war against medium or small official military power is not expected to extend for more than months we are now in a more than one decade saying we are at war against Al Qaeda and its affiliated. And more, when the war was in the beginning Osama Bin Laden and his pars announced that the war was expected to prolong for unaccounted time. They also said they was prepared to die for their cause and preparing the future generations of combatants to assume their places when they were gone. So, basically, to claim victory for killing such kind of person is a waste of time because it was what they already anticipated before happen. They are not in it to defend their lives. They are in it to defend their cause.

Now we have to ask it, Is their cause been hurt by any killing of themselves? I don’t think so. And the methods used to kill them is hurting the American relationship with the rest of the world, now and in the future? I imagining the answer is a big yes. So what is wrong in the whole issue then?

In my mind is a simple answer to the question. But a whole world of consequences that could be analysed. Let me just anticipate the answer. What is totally wrong in here is that, The allied forces lead by United States against terrorists decided to do a war against terrorists using as weapon some terrorists acts when the solution for the problem is mainly to eliminate the terrorism itself, not necessarily the terrorists. How do it? Is another interesting question!

We could went back to History and determine when terrorism began. Some think that it is an actual phenomenon but it is almost as much old as History itself. Even the Bible describe some events. At the book called by the name of Leviticus, chapter 26:16 we have: “I also will do this unto you; I will even appoint over you terror, consumption, and the burning ague, that shall consume the eyes, and cause sorrow of heart: and ye shall sow your seed in vain, for your enemies shall eat it.” And in many other parts we have some kind of terrorism been applied, not always described by that word in the books.

At this point I just have to open a parenthesis to discredit the biblical references to God as causer of anything wrong or bad. The terror were introduced to our lives by men and some used the God’s name to excuse themselves for the wrongdoings. God always want bring peace to us, to Him doesn’t matter if peace come to ones that are called bad guys or to those that claim for themselves the title of good guys. We all are sinners.

Terror was also used by others conquerors. Around 700 BC the Assyrians used the crucifixion as an way to make quiet the peoples under their helm. Romans did it as well. Genghis Khan ordered the death of entire populations to make the terror march before his troops so no one would dare to confront his Armies. Attila the Hun, the Barbarian Vandals, Vlad Dracula, the Church authorities in the Middle Ages, all the absolutist princes and princess, the dictators from our more recent History and everything in between used terrorism as tool to grab and maintain power. We are accustom to think only in one way where the bad guys are always the others never ourselves.

Terrorism is, at least, a more than three thousand years old failed policy. Why our government keeps daring on to use it as useful tool? Must be because the main goal is not make peace! And here we need to ask ourselves, If our main goal is make peace why we insist in not try to make the world fall in love with us? Why our actions have always some malice that end make others to hate us?

Again, we need to measure our efficiency. Again, I can’t say that is a conspiracy around here but lets be honest, if our main goal is make peace is more than clear that we are using the wrong tools. So, in these case we have been the most inefficient power ever. Otherwise, if our government have been using the word peace as a disguise to cover the real intention, is not been wise as well because is accumulating victories that some day will attract all the harm to our people. We may use the Romans as reference around here. We are repeating all of its errors along its History.

We can simplify the History of the called modern terrorism to say what will come to our descendants if we don’t act now and stop the madness. Around the earlier 1,900 we had attacks with small bombs that could harm a limited number of people. In some case the target person show to the place where the action was planned accompanied with member of the family and the action were immediately suspended because a casualty of war would harm the whole cause.

From there we come to the sixties and earlier seventies. I was not more than a child at the time and mostly of the actions was to take hostages and hijack some plane to negotiate any demand. From there some hard line conservatives start blocking negotiations and even taking measures to confront it with force not talks. I vaguely remember the massacre in Munich where Israelis were target and killed at the Summer Olympic Games in 1,972. Later on the perpetrators were hunt down by the secret service of Israel.

In 1,976 came the hijack of a plane that were held at the Entebbe Airport in Uganda. Uganda was under the cruel dictator Idi Amin Dada who was favoring the pro-Palestinian group of hijackers. Special forces were sent from Israel and taking the small forces of terrorists there by surprise liberated almost all the hostages and shot dead all those that was in the plot. The action were claimed successful and were even transformed in a real life based movie. It was a small victory with harmful consequences.

I refer as harmful consequences what come later. Every time a countermeasure is taken against a terrorist action the next action comes better planed with more harmful consequences. Beginning in 1,979 we had the diplomatic crisis between United States and Iran where 52 Americans where held hostages for 444 days. At that time the sequesters didn’t stood in only one place and kept moving the hostages to avoid similar raid done by the Israeli in Entebbe.

Now we know that Al Qaeda were created from the lost battles and is the most powerful non governmental terrorist group until now. Gradually the other terrorists are learning from prior mistakes and getting better on the bad things they do. What immensely contribute to they learning is the engagement in the war. And it would be possible only because the war is against the terrorists not against the terrorism itself.

What I mean is that, our hope for peace will be totally in vain while the causes of terrorism not be removed. I don’t expect a better world for tomorrow until the right of existence not be recognized for all people on Earth. With the advancement of technologies of destruction we can’t expect a better world for our offspring if we kept piling up lists of enemies. The conservative think that advancing our knowledge of destruction will make us safer but what it will do for sure is that, make more available technologies more affordable that can be used against ourselves. It was just what happened to the Roman Empire which trained the Barbarians and later were defeated by them.

In my point of view the only one solution is make peace with all. Start a new paradigm where none of us would be left behind. The Earth population must be taken as our own people and not separated as undesirables and privileged. We have enough enemies to combat together and many of them are far powerful than us alone. We can not distract ourselves from the reality that we are losing precious time in conflicts against each other while the true enemies, the ones that can destruct all of us in a singular event, are hidden and we have no idea when or how will be their next strike.

And I am talking here about the end of the petroleum, the scarcity of water, the pollution, ourselves malice etcetera. All of those problems can drive us to another cycle of wars if not be resolved. And we can’t take it as problem for the others because we live here in these only one planet that support our existence and only one we have. We are inside of these natural spaceship and many of us are thinking that the solution will came to us as always have. Those are just ignoring History. History have been teaching us that when we are not prepared the crisis come and only after long suffering the solutions come.

We can’t act as people from the Middle Ages anymore when the plague killed more than one third of the population from the planet and everybody had to be conformed with the these faith. Back there they didn’t knew nothing about bacteria but nothing prevented them to learn about hygiene that could diminish the number of deaths. As I said before, go back to what was before will not put us in the right direction but from here where we are we can correct our direction to make the same goal.

Lets talk about the actual situation of terrorism in our planet. Looks like that things were made more clear after the 9/11 attacks. We got it for real. And our government prove how unprepared it was to confront the situation or, otherwise, was just expecting it to start the secret plan to try to conquer the world. As I said before, I am not in the party of the Conspiracy Theorists. But our government reaction were so amateur that I have doubt on it was on purpose to justify the wrong actions to come or pure incompetence.

The 9/11 plot was the most clever one I ever heard from the part of Al Qaeda. They could choose many other targets which would be more harmful to the American economy such as the nuclear facilities or our biggest hydroelectric and so on. They used ourselves pride to choose their targets and only God Knows what would happen if the fourth plane had take down the fourth target. I don’t have the information if their choice came from an haphazard shot or from a deliberated intention. What I doubt is that, anyone could anticipate what would gonna happen after. So, for the terrorists was like they bought something else and we gave them a ticket in a winner lottery.

They did something to harm us. And our response harmed us too much more. Even if they had anticipated the spectacle of the falling Towers they could never precisely determine what would be the American answer and we shot many times against our own defense. And I agree on that, just some of our responses was perfectly expected to outsiders because our reaction looks like come from a manual book of responses. Two things are salient in these manual, we are always vengeful and we don’t evaluate the long term consequences of our actions.

Those two rules above added to the expected human mistakes and failures is the direct recipe to make us entangled on do exactly what the enemies want we to do. And in a war is nothing more dangerous than the enemy be able of anticipate mostly of your next moves. The attacks on American soil was an invitation to we go combat them in their own field. And we not only accepted the invitation. On a spectacular move of the Bush administration we did it twice open another front also in Iraq. They had one goal, make United States spend the maximum of money because everybody knows that a broken enemy is easier to defeat. And our administration fulfilled their dream.

I may need to explain some alternative that we had. As I said before we had at least to act as we was open to talks to Al Qaeda leaders. Unfortunately, would be better if we had talked to them long before the 9/11 attacks but the Bush father administration underestimated the response of Osama Bin Laden for not let him take Saddam Hussein down at the first Gulf War. That war could be fought like the one that occurred recently in Libya where we acted like spectators with the power to trigger some buttons. But anyways we don’t know what would be the next step Bin Laden would have done after take Saddam down. We need to pay attention on our own steps. And nothing that we do will be permanent, until the solution for the problem Israeli/Palestinian. I will talk about it later.

What hurt most our cause was the spectacle and poor judgment that came just after the 9/11 attacks. The Bush son administration as always is done in preparations of wars began advertising Bin Laden and Al Qaeda as a superior power, worth of suffer the might of our all military power. It is a procedure that come from the books. The enemy is always the boogeyman or Axis of Evil. It is done like this to pre excuse any misleading act done by the administration before our own public.

Let me say, if the enemy was never painted as boogeyman, how then justify those imprisonment at Guantanamo Bay? How justify torture if the tortured was not monsters? We are assigned in the Human Rights advocacy! So torture can be excused only if the tortured be not an human being, like the out space aliens from Al Qaeda planet.

The same scare tactic is used on both sides. The Al Qaeda militants proclaim the idea that they are at war against another race from a different planet. They call their enemies by the name of Crusades. And also call them by the name of infidels. These is a term used long before in our History to designates the ones that can be killed without mercy because they think different from the “perfect standards”. As these “standard of perfection” was made up to exclude some behavior previous known to most of us and is a more terrestrial standard, it can be more effective to be manipulated as tool for their cause.

What intrigues we others, common citizens of the planet Earth, are those two alien races come to these only one land we have which one once belonged to human beings to make war against each other endangering our lives and putting the future of our children at risk. The dehumanization used by both sides give them a tie score points of inhuman to themselves.

How United States acted as a terrorist power? Firstly the following wars was premeditated to show to the world our military mighty not to obey a reasonable response. The show at UN to convince others to be part on it will be ever emblematic. The guarantees that Saddam Hussein had weapons of mass destruction didn’t convince nobody except those that was aligned in the same way of thinking. And it didn’t matter to our administration if most of the planet was against the war. We was right and the others was wrong. Lets though eat freedom fries from now on! The French, the Germans know nothing. And the Brazilians? Bunch of losers!

Again came the question, Why the people from the rest of the world hate us? The tragic answer that our administration gave on it were symptomatically, backed by our entire media, was, “The world hate us because is jealous of our success.” Accordingly with such thinking we could do nothing to change it because the problem is in the others not in us. As Brazilians use to say, “Freud explains”.

Is so infantile such excuse that I start to think if is wise to put in the hands of the Pentagon a trillion dollars budget a year. Art thou serious? Why didn’t we start to try to change the hate for love? To think that we are unable to conquer the love of the world because the world is only able to give hate is the most terrorist thinking of all. How we know if never tried?

The engagement in the unnecessary wars and our hurt pride was just part of the key that can bring us down. The biggest score that the others terrorists achieved with the plot of 9/11 was make the American population show how divided was before. These is the key that they used to open the Pandora Box in our society. That some people already hated immigrants was well known. Before we was living in a Fantasy Land in which all immigrants was welcoming to realize the American Dream.

Now we know the truth and even the majority of the American population been in favor of the approval of a Comprehensive Immigration Law we know that immigrants are been persecuted in every corner of our country. And it does not matter to the perpetrators of the persecution if it will hurt us more than have them assimilated by our society. They are so jealous of the undocumented immigrants success that they are preferring to put our society in a brink of suicide than allow them be recognized as benefactors of our society.

Seen the campaign of the Republican Party in 2,012 is a good opportunity to be aware about ourselves fragility. We dream about a country of tolerance. But we have a country where minorities like Africans and Latinos, specially undocumented Mexicans, are allowed to be here since they don’t try to step up on our pyramid. Even the majority of our electorate, because are the women, is considered a second class citizen. The others minorities are substantially ignored by the candidates, unless they have something green to present to them.

About women, I am not sexist but the Republican Party really lost a great opportunity to present a creditable woman as candidate. Michele Bachmann is too out of touch to represent all of the women from these country. The Republicans had better possible candidates like Madeleine Albright and Condoleezza Rice.

I am not saying that they are the candidates of my dreams. I don’t agreed with all they did as Secretaries of State. What I believe is that they are intellectually better prepared for the job, even in comparison with the front runner three male candidates. Now the Republican Party have a problem. If the president be reelected in the 2,016 the Democrats will have the opportunity of elect the first woman president in United States. It is not a question of sexism. It is a question of obvious opportunity. The Democrats can score twice.

The Republican candidates even have been trying to deny that is an open war of classes in our country. They are afraid of it be used by the Democrats to gain the votes from the absolute majority that is in the bottom of the pyramid. They are not afraid to bombard the undocumented populations with prejudicial comments because those populations can’t defend themselves through the vote and their relatives that have papers is a minority. Again, deny the problem will not make it go away.

In some sense we could even thanks Bin Laden for his attacks on our pride. But we had to be humble in recognize our failures. Our society is mentally ill. Our hurt pride made a good chunk of the American population show their real prejudicial faces without masks. And would be great if had assistance from an intense psychological care. The first goal to be achieved is restore our sense of humanity. Because we are the richest country in the world, until now, we are not necessarily better person for it. The money we have only can buy more things that we don’t need but it doesn’t make our core different from the one of others.

We need to learn to share, to assist, to respect and to see the others as equals and as partners, not only as adversaries. Our paradigm need to be exchanged from pure competition and hatred, by love and partnership. Only them we can expect respect from the others. Look through the Gandhi’s Mirror. The others are not others they are us in a different vessel.

The rest of the world is tired of the bossing around from United States officials. Is common we see the reference to the American president as the most powerful person in the world. And it is not more than a wishful thinking. When president Obama was campaigning for the elections in 2,008 he made promises such us, he would liberate us from the two wars that was going on, legalize the undocumented immigrants and close the prison in Guantanamo Bay.

Among others promises I said to myself, he doesn’t know what he is talking about or it is a candidate’s promises. The only one promise that I knew that could be done because it was essential to United States economy was the legalization of the undocumented. And he did it not. Why not? He can blame the “do nothing Congress” for it. And I think the nick name of “do nothing Congress” is a eulogy to most of our representatives. They decided to work hard to make sure that these president would be seen as serial killer of dreams.

In my innocent commoner conception of government, when we have any problem to resolve we need first recognize it as a problem. So if is a problem the second step is present solutions. Solutions can be different from each others but in our case the important is aim it to the same goal. And then we can lose a little time to decide which solution will be used. At these point some politics can be played because is supposed the parties compete for give a better solution.

But what we saw is that, in the case of immigration solution, the Republican Party is blocking any solution and aiming an wrongdoing just because never got conformed with the defeat in 2,008. To them doesn’t matter how many million of people will suffer by their hardened head. The most important for them is their own suffering pride.

I think I better get back to the real issue. How the American administrations have been helping the terrorism in the world? I will not take much time discussing the Bush son administration. Everybody know that it lied to UN to start the war in Iraq. Have the killings and tortures in Abu Ghraib Prison and Guantanamo Bay. The administration sent prisoners to countries where the human rights are not respected to be tortured. Accordingly to interview conceded by the journalist Julian Assange to the magazine Rolling Stones in the Christmas of 2,011, the total of civilian deaths in Iraq is already superior to 100,000. So it used the deceits as tactic as the one used by Pontius Pilate.

As I said before, the Bush son administration painted Al Qaeda and Bin Laden as a much superior power than it was at the time. They was trying to glorify themselves for defeat a monster. But it only back fire against ourselves because the advertisement encouraged the engagement of knew followers to their cause. And the Al Qaeda that was a little fabric of terror became a big corporation that now we know.

From the side of Al Qaeda the advertisement were better done. They just painted United States and its allies as new Crusaders. It is enough to be understood in the Muslim world. We don’t think much about the terrorism perpetrated by Europeans in the time of the Crusades but it lives like recent memories in the Middle East. For us it is a forgettable past. But they feel like suffering the consequences of the same past. And the advertisement add to it our infidelity for we not follow the same principles of Islam.

They just say in their advertisement what we will do, to prove we are beasts from the Book of Revelation. And them arm their traps to we make our mistakes or wrongdoings. Any time we fail on respect any of the Islamic rules they only say to the people the old, “I told you so!” On friendly soil they don’t need to be in a totally war as we expected. They just need to time by time do some attacks as a reminder that they are there while we need to be all the time alert, getting fatigued and easy on make mistakes. The recent events in Pakistan and Afghanistan is proving they strategy.

And is nothing more horrible to the Muslims conservative people than exchange their traditional culture by anything else. So is too simpleton not see that, favoring groups that admire the westernized culture is some short cut to bring more followers to Al Qaeda causes. The conclusion is that, even winning the war and have a pro Occident administration in those countries will not guarantee any time of peace for long.

Unfortunately, the Obama administration did not much better than the prior one. The broken promises wasn’t the real issue here because the promises he did wouldn’t give him any vote to be elected outside United States. The problem is a not definition of what the administration really want.

My theory about it is that, not human being is able to take so much decisions in a so great variety of issues. So any president will ever be in the hands of others to decide something. The title of Commander in Chief of our nation is no much more than a title. You can say that, the last word is given by the president. Yes. His staff present him a cake and ask him, Do you want made out chocolate or Strawberry? He can chose between the two but he didn’t in first hand decided what to do, if a cake or pie.

Is an illusion to think that the Falcons in the Pentagon would let any president know about everything that is done with the trillion dollars a year spent by that office. To know it the president had to be someone from inside. And I am not mention it as theory of conspiracy. The details are so huge that is humanly impossible to an only one person know everything about what is going on at the same time on education, defense and health. Just to mention only three of the offices under the presidential administration.

In our case now, the security of our country is in the hands of the Falcons in the Pentagon, although I doubt if they know exactly what security mean. Maybe they know but are some kind of inefficient. Which is normal for human beings. I think it is why they work in so much of secrecy. My point is that, presidents come and go. They stay no more than 8 years. The Pentagon administration have a long life term plus the suggestions of the ones that will succeed its personnel in all positions. So the Pentagon is some kind of Vatican in our defense sector.

And I mentioned before that the Republican Party candidates are trying to create the fourth branch of government giving all economic powers to the super rich. I forgot these detail that the fourth branch already exist. It is represented by the Pentagon and its Falcons. So the Republican Party is willing to create the fifth branch. My friend Richard without knowing what he was talking about said he was afraid of stay here because he was horrified to be under a secret power that could prohibit him to go back to Brazil. And in some way he is right in that.

The power that he is afraid of, yet does exists. I am not sure if it will be used to do his worries come true. My sensation is that we are too much close to became the image and likeness of what Soviet Union represented in the sixties. Since the Patriot Act were signed and now the military have the power to imprison anyone for undetermined time, without prove and judgement, or assassinate anyone for be suspected allied to the other terrorists, and our experience with our “intelligence” is not so good, I am worried for the innocents who will suffer.

Please. Don’t say we have a creditable record on the defense of human rights because, as Brazilians say, Everything works well in paper. Paper accepts everything written in it. In practice the talks are different. The Scotland Yard was credited as the best police department in the world. In a short period of time it failed on prevent the bombing of the London subway; failed on prevent a second attack which one just didn’t worked because, thanks God, the terrorists made something wrong and the bombs don’t exploded; and to crown they totally failure they executed an innocent on his way to work.

If the Scotland Yard have no clue about the difference between a Brazilian workers and a militant terrorist, I suspect the secret services in United States are no much of different. What aggravated the situation was the denial of the wrongdoing by the police and the justice were never done. The name of that young man was Jean Charles de Menezes. Born at the City of Gonzaga. One of those towns that was emancipated from my birthplace, Virginopolis.

Menezes is a common name among Portuguese, Spaniard, Brazilian and overall Latinos. Is a noble name linked to all Royal Families in the world. Jean Charles was probably a distant cousin of Your Highness Queen of England, Elizabeth II. Not even it prevent him from been assassinated in that curious mistake. Like in our family the name is present in the name of many of our cousins since long time ago. I just suspect he have some recent ties with us. I will not guarantee it because have not his ancestry to make sure.

The difference between combat terrorist and combat terrorism is that, you go after terrorists and make mistakes. It stimulate others to join the cause because mistakes are also interpreted as wrongdoings. You combat the terrorism when remove the causes that are causing it. For example, if United States was up to combat the terrorism it should talk to the prior terrorists before attack. Because the group that Americans are engaged against in these war is Muslim, United States should obey all Islamic laws to avoid stimulate the engagement of more fighters.

Lets give the example of the killing of Bin Laden. United States were engaged in so many false steps that until today I am in doubt if the entire operation were done to stimulate terrorism. For sure was not done to prevent it. And if the prevention was the goal I would say that were executed with a total incompetence.

First of all some time before was said that Bin Laden was an irrelevant target because he was not playing any fundamental role as head of terrorism. If it was a false information that was used to distract the attention of the public in some way I don’t think that it worked. What worried me more was the operation been done in a supposedly friendly country territory without any communication with the officers from that country. Again, it can be another false information to mislead the population of Pakistan into believe that their leaders wasn’t involved in the killing. Could be some kind of electoral protection.

What I am not sure is that, the deceit worked as planed because the invasion of the territory of the country without the authorization is not less defiant. And the almost cordial response of the Pakistani leaders were a sacrilege to millions of its citizens. We can only imagine that the Taliban may have gain thousands of volunteers for its cause in that country. And the ones that was yet enlisted in the cause now are probably more hardened in their opinions. The math works like that, you kill one and get thousands of new enemies. I don’t think it can be called by the name of combat of terrorism. Probably the opposite is true.

The operation was done anyways. In here are so many details involved that is difficult to determine what was the best option. Just for the reader know my preference was for capture Bin Laden. Kill him would be a most probable to happen since he had vowed not let himself be taken. But what appeared to happen was the decision of kill him not take him as captive. What was filtered through the official news is that, would be to expensive give him a fair trial. But it was essential to show to the world that, at least, we are acting as good guys. He is a killer without compassion. And we are different. These had to be our line of behavior to not stimulate others become engaged in his business.

In a second thought anyways he was already killed. And our “intelligence” gave the counsel to bury on high sea. And it were what worried me the most. Our “intelligence” in two consecutive opportunities made the same mistake. How can we allege that we didn’t know how sacred the bodies of the dead are to Muslims? How our “intelligence” lost the opportunity to give that body back to his family and make clear we are different? Instead, the option for dispose the body away from them just gave to the Muslim world the impression that Christians are the beasts. How a valued trillion dollars office do such misleading?

But the list of mistake doesn’t end. The allegation to dispose the body in the high sea came like these, If the body was given to his family they could make a shrine and it would be use as an way to convoke more fighters for their cause. Hello! We know that, even the mortal rests that are under the Saint Peter Church at the Vatican are not the ones of Peter the Apostle. Even though we have Saint Peter Shrines all around the world. What make people do it is the believe in something else. The disposal of a body will not prevent the creation of shrines in name of Bin Laden. What would do it is prove to the people that believed on his cause that we are the good guys, not the killers and defilers of bodies.

I wouldn’t think no time to decide give back the body of Bin Laden to his family. Even if they said to me they would make a shrine in his honor. Because any time somebody went the shrine had two remember to things. First of all, the Americans had acted honorable with us because didn’t violated our laws. Second of all, it would be a shrine in honor to a dead man. Every pilgrim to the shrine would never forget that, whatsoever he did, ended dead and the proof is in the shrine itself.

Saying that the Americans would give Bin Laden’s body back because it would be used to make a shrine was the worst excuse ever. Does not matter how we interpret it. To Bin Laden’s friends will ever be, They hided the body because are afraid of us. What else would be? So it is a direct stimulus to them keep the Jihad.

What came after the killing also was bizarre. Was said that the Pakistani secret police handle over an American helicopter that crashed in the operation to the Chinese. And they were described as been so mad with the operation without consultation to them that some could went in war against United States in no time. To me it was not even curious. Curious was the expectation from Americans that they would do nothing crazy after they been deceived.

Just after United States started to pressure the Pakistani government to handle over the documentation that was left in the fortress where Bin Laden was hiding. In all news here in United States the mantra was the same, How Pakistani secret service would have the enemy so close to its most important military academy and know nothing about it? All the suspicion were raised against the Pakistanis. The senator for Massachusetts and former Democrat candidate for the presidency in 2,004, John Kerry was in the front with rushed words and accusations to the Pakistani government.

I would repeat the Brazilian phrase, “With friends like these nobody need enemies”. And I am referring to our fellow American citizens. Lets though learn something about hideouts for bandits. Nobody questioned the former governor of California, Arnold Schwarzenegger, because he would be hiding James Whitey Bulger, a mafioso from Boston who were for 16 years fugitive of the police and was found in that state around the same time that Bin Laden were killed.

Another information about it that could be used come from Brazil. In the seventies Brazil had his “Jesse James” copy. His name was Lucio Flavio. His life became movie too. Was the most bold bank robber there. After some year in the red carpet he got his end in the hands of the military police. Brazil don’t have the death penalty. So when someone became famous in that time the police had a recipe for be rid with him. Was just put the bandit in the same cell with another criminal who would be bribed to kill the subject. And “justice” was served. But in his memoir Lucio Flavio revealed that the best places that he had used was always next to some Police Station. Was the strategic point because he could watch without be watched because was the least place someone would think he would be.

If the Pakistani secret service got mad wasn’t it without reason. Not only the secret service but all Pakistani officials should be worried about what United States have been done there. We need to understand they position. Lets say that, if the Tea Party get something more crazy than what it already is and start to arm itself to impose its way of thinking to the rest of the country; and lets also say, if most of the members got weapons but keep it legally. Should nobody else be worried about it?

Pakistan is a society more divided in its core with more people having more radical opinions. And one of the groups that have a powerful presence in Pakistan is the Taliban which are looking for retake the power in Afghanistan and take it also in Pakistan. And United States invaded the Pakistani territory and killed one of the most respected associated to the Taliban and furthermore want the Pakistani officials accept it as something to commemorate?! I think we are in different pages of reality.

The Americans have been complaining about the dubious behavior of the Pakistani officials but I think they are only conscious about what is going on around themselves. They know that as soon Americans make the goals that they are planing for, they will have no more interest to keep themselves in the region and will be gone. But the Pakistani people perfectly know that the Taliban will be there for much, much longer. And what probably can happen is the Taliban become a major power around. They already know the consequences of war, and certainly don’t want be in it over and over again.

Unfortunately the Americans in power don’t know other way to peace than the one imposed by weapons. And the peace imposed by weapons is dangerously ephemeral. A peace like this is comparable to everybody start piling powder in the basements. At some point one house can get in fire and a series of explosions can come along. To the American administrators it doesn’t matter because we are safe if a civil war comes to the Pakistani people.

So, since the Americans have no responsibility, the Pakistani officials can act like crazy to our eyes but they probably only are putting in practice a contingency plan to shield themselves against furthermore insanity. The Pakistanis can appear crazy to the Americans, what they can’t do is appear fools to their own people.

If I was in the President Obama’s shoes now I would try not take the killing and the subsequent acts as electoral argument. I would let the Republicans say whatever they gonna say and just make the remark, I did exact what any Republican would do if was in my position. They can’t deny that those mistakes sound exactly like the regular behavior from the Republicans. So, in it they are even.

And if they insists Mr. Obama have one more argument. If he was thinking in use it in the electoral campaign he would better take Bin Laden alive because Bin Laden would still alive through the whole 2,012 year. Bin Laden would be a monkey in the cage to collect votes in favor of Obama. And from then on I would look for a better advises from someone else with less Republican ideas in the Pentagon.

Anyways. Still very difficult to me to determine what is the main goal to the American administrations. I don’t know if is on purpose that the mistakes are repeating so often or if it is intentional errs or, I tend to believe in these, is pure inefficiency. I can’t say for sure if United States have any program of peace with the world or its program is keep going, provoking minors wars like fire controlling fire. Anyways, what have been happen indicates that something is going on and we don’t know exactly what.

Is reasonable for example to think that the attack perpetrated by drone on a Pakistani check point at the border with Afghanistan was no more than an accident. Also the killing spree that an American soldier went on, killing 16 villagers in Afghanistan, could be expected since war is a machine to drive even saints do craziness. To kill Taliban fighters can be a question of kill or be killed since we are at war against them but to urinate on the corpses of some, is too creep. The burning of Islamic sacred literature is a little over my perception to understand it as not provocative. But all the above in a compassed time, looks more like a plan. But plan for what?

About the burning of sacred books, just after the fact the Afghanistan people revolted in what I consider a justifiable repudiation of a stupid procedure. And some of them got killed. So it brought more anger to the crowds. President Obama, comprehensively, asked for forgiveness alleging the burning were done by mistake. And two American soldiers got killed in the confusion. At these point the Republican candidate Newt Gingrich took the stage to condemn Mr. Obama for his kindness with the Afghan people. He also said that, the Afghan president should ask the forgiveness of the American people for the death of our soldiers.

The show demonstrate how disoriented Mr. Gingrich is. He must be delusional because so many defeats he is getting in about many of the polls. First of all came the burning. And it provoked the popular reaction. The death of our soldier were a direct consequence of the burning which one didn’t came from any Afghan initiative. So, if someone had to ask forgiveness to our nation and the soldiers relatives and friends these someone has to be our own Commander in Chief. Is more than clear that the primary affronted person in these was the people of Afghanistan.

In these case Mr. Gingrich just show how opportunist he is. He thought he could grab some votes from our conservative electorate scolding the president but he failed on precise analyse the facts. And just in the sequence a Taliban agent posed as Afghan soldier killed two more of our personnel. And it is just the kind of action we need to be prepared to encounter all the time. Probably if Mr. Gingrich was our president he would respond it with his unprepared spirit. And by it he would be playing exactly as the terrorists wanted.

I want to put here one more fact like parable. Living in Belo Horizonte City for an while as most of poor people in Brazil I used to take buses to travel through the town. And was in an holiday I took a different bus to some outskirt of the city. At the time the city had no buses with air conditioner and most of the time the cars made their itineraries with open windows. It was just a way to moderate the tropical hotness around.

Because was holiday the bus was almost empty. Had only the driver, the ticket vendor and around five passengers. We use to enter through the back door, pay the passage and go to the some seat next to the front door through what we get out. Was my custom to stay around the back seats and chose what appeared to me a best place there. Another guy had take his place at the very end of the vehicle. The other passengers had already gone to the front seats.

The bus stop in front an station and the last passenger came in. He stayed up at the vendor station and looks like he was outspoken. Talk loudly to the vendor who just responded the questions not fixing his eyes on the guy. He appear been bothered by the talks. But the guy kept talking for long minutes. And the the driver stop the bus for another passenger get out and two young men was at the station, probably waiting a different bus.

The chatter wait for our bus start getting out and yelled some harsh words to them thinking all of us other passenger would be delighted on see the others angered. But one of the guys outside saw some sand around, pick up a handful of it and tossed on the bus direction. The sand came all over the bus and the guy that was seated at the very end took a little in his eye. The chatter then got angry too and called us to get out of the bus, and take some mob to give a lesson to the sand tosser.

The guy who got the sand into his eyes immediately got up and gave a punch so well done on the chatter thorax that he passed through the ticket vendor station been unable to balance his body until he tumbled next to the bus driver. The author of the punch even yelled at him, “Do you want some more?” The chatter slowly put himself up and look at all of us staring back at him. The scene was humorous but nobody was laughing. And the chatter understood what our eyes was saying, gave sign for the next stop and quietly stepped away.

When we suffered the 9/11 attacks and our government start yelling words of war I think the ones that got involved lost a good opportunity of also gave the same look at it. A look like that would give us more time to think better the next strategy which should have less damaging consequences. Unfortunately we can’t change History. What we did before to buy a response such as the 9/11 attacks may not be a so terrible thing. But we were warned that it made Bin Laden and his gang mad. So we should have talk to them.

But we have these false impression that we are the owner of the deck. We give the cards and the others have to play by our rules. These is kind of pure arrogance. And the response gave by Al Qaeda may were away beyond what we did. And we scaled the counter response with a much disproportional force. So we can’t have a peace of mind that what will come later shall be friendly, unless we start since now to re-access our behavior and change our old ways by a respectable one.

Just by coincidence, yesterday I was bothered by what was been played on the news at the channels that I use to watch it and made a mistake pressing the number 0111, from Verizon and opened the ESPN-3. There was playing the show, Iran & Hezbollah Treat Assessment. Basic was a Republican Congress representatives meeting with servant from some of representatives of security agencies. And they was talking about terrorism sponsored by Iran and the ways that Hezbollah is controlling the commerce of drugs to finance its activities. Well, not much of news for me.

What was mentioned is that, the security services have been watching closely the Southwest Border, the fantasy name for the Mexican border, and taking less care of the Canadian border which can be used to smuggler anything terrorists want. Basically I am not so worried about such possibility. I think the problem is bigger. And I don’t think the ways United States is using to combat terrorism will work forever. Again I say, combat terrorists is the way to fail. What need to be done is combat the terrorism. How do it?

In case of our border with Mexico we have to acknowledge three problems. We have the undocumented immigration, the drug traffickong and the possibility of terrorists been involved with it. In both situations we can identify that, the traffickers and terrorists are teaming up because is one factor driving them to do so. It is the money that is attracting them. Just like business men they are attracted by the opportunities that the borders mean to them, and it is the easy and big money.

What the suggestions lifted by most of conservatives try is to tame people. Like lets put some electric fence or great wall around the border, prosecute the immigrants and anything else to combat the consequences, not the cause. Since I was in Brazil I had the idea of take a different approach to the problem. If the primary goal of traffickers and terrorists is make money how can we impede them to succeed on it?

To me is more than clear that a comprehensive law of immigration is fundamental to address the problem in the right way. Legalizing the people that already is here with the only intention of work and give to their children the American dream is the only way to freed these people from the harms ways in the hands of the bandits. At the same time we will be diminishing the pressure over the border patrol because it will have less volume of work looking for more people. Taking the pressure from the border will also give less money to traffickers and terrorists because no many people would pay them to cross the border.

The problem of drug trafficking is some kind of a little more complicated but also only exists because the traffickers make money out of it. We need to acknowledge that it involve the people addicted to drugs. And the addicted person must be taken as victim of the problem as much as the undocumented is in the trafficking of people. The addicted person can’t be seen as entirely responsible because the addiction is an illness not exactly a choice. And as an illness it must be treated.

How can we do, at the same time, treat the illness and take from the traffickers the opportunity of make money from the illness? The answer come from the price of the drug itself. For example, the coke plant is a commercial source of income to a legal business. The plant have its products other than the drug. And the drug itself is easy to produce and very cheap on the farmers hands.

Many times we see on the news the announcement that the police made such millionaire busting on drugs and money. It is a false conception. The drug only become money after be sold and the money be collected. In truth, while the drug is in the traffickers hands, it is much more cheaper. It is even possible that the traffickers use the tactic of, time by time, let the police localize some volume of drugs. Just in these moment the police will be distracted with what was done and the traffickers will be transporting the true smuggling that will be served in the market. Lose a little of the merchandise doesn’t mean much for them. It because the main volume pay for everything.

What can be done is legally buy the drug from legal business and use it as treatment to the addicted people. If the addicted have the opportunity to get the drug through a governmental oriented chain they will have no need to buy it from a dealer. The dealer losing his clients will lose the income and the trafficking will collapse. While the addicted is treated with the drug the government protection will have also the opportunity to orient them to leave such way of life.

The conservative people think the other way, the prohibition, imprisonment and others would work better, increasing the hardness of the law. But anytime we do in this sense more sophisticated and dangerous the trafficking become. As it became more costly so the pressure on the traffickers to have some results. In these case they tighten even more the pressure over the addicted who in the end of the line start to commit more crimes to pay their debits. They become slaves in the traffickers hands and it have consequences on the increasing of violence in our society. At the end the society suffers more in both ways, economically and emotionally.

Is not without reason that the super conservative Pat Robertson recently asked for the liberation of the legal use of marijuana. He fought his entire life on the conservative side and only now perceived that his fight were in vain. They wanted put the force before reasoning. United States got now more than six million of imprisoned people. And the majority is involved in trafficking and use of drugs. These is only one side of the statistics. At the other we got millions more assassinated, families destructed and wasted lives. I won’t see any success in such kind of fight.

The addicted people need first our help to freed them from the traffickers hands. And then to freed them from the addiction. And in our side we can win the war against the traffickers and terrorists. They will lose their income and the slaves that do things for them that they would be unable to do by themselves.

It would be only the beginning of a war with a happy end. Because the traffickers will keep looking for ways to make easy money and they will find other ways of trafficking or rob something. But the important thing is to take first the slaves from their hands because the addicted is a slave under the influence of something that make them act like beasts. Taking the pressure over the addicted on pay for they vice would make our society more secure. And the security would be more cheaper with less and less imprisonments. I believe in that, what the society would spend on such prevention would be far beyond paid by the economy in security and damages.

Today we can be more aware of that the commerce of drugs is moving towards the common pharmaceutic drugs. Looks like legal laboratories are making more money selling legal drugs to the illegal market than on the right way of the business. If we really want solve the problem it also must be addressed in the right way.

About the borders is too vital to prevent the need for the crowds crosses it irregularly. The terrorists as much the traffickers are always looking to mix themselves into the crowds as way of be undetectable. It put the crowds at risk of be attacked by both sides as real casualty of war. And we can’t keep trying to combat terrorists with weapons that are so frightening that causes terror to common people. All of us are common people until something different happen.

I am not been good organizer at this present chapter. The ideas are coming and I am writing it some paragraphs each day. I am not sure if it is because I am getting tired on write the book as a whole or it is symptom of any other thing. Today is March 24, 2,012. And I am writing seven days a week for more than seven months, and keeping my other responsibilities done as well, except in relationship with my own health. The confusion may be attributed to I got some ideas about the issue terrorism since I began. Now I have to recall all the ideas and others are coming mix together. Anyways let put some that came last night.

The main goal of Al Qaeda was make us spend our money and resources. And it is been done with our own collaboration. The option for hunt down terrorist instead of combat terrorism works exactly as they planned. They knew that, the most probably they would be killed or imprisoned. So what they have to do to make goals against us is make harder their own capture. Lets take Bin Laden’s capture as example. How much millions or billions were spent on his killing? And how much Al Qaeda and himself was spending to hid? For sure is a equation totally disproportional.

And it is the way they work. The terrorists don’t need do much of research on weapons. They need only to observe while we are doing it for them. Nobody on their side ever constructed any airplane. So they took ourselves airplanes and aimed it against us. It is a war of intelligence. And we are always going behind. It was true on their attack on the S. S. Cole; 9/11; the London subway; the Spanish train and so on. They are leading the war putting fire on and leaving to us only the job of firefighters.

The situation became like this, as the Arab wisdom warns us, “Dogs barks while the caravan comes through.” The problem is that, while we are combating terrorists and not terrorism the saying is going more like that, “While the dogs barks on each other no caravan is coming through.” It means that, is not wise do so much attention to the dogs and none to the caravans.

On it is the wisdom of Al Qaeda and its affiliated. We are paying billions to hunt the terrorists one by one. If we had spent half of the money doing good things for the poor people around the world we would combat better the terrorism because we would gain the confidence from the population around it. The population around the world would see us more as problem solvers than creators of illusions. It would work in the prevention of terrorism because should make harder to terrorists gain more followers. And the hunt on man by man would be made easier. While only some dogs are barking, the caravans would come through back and forth and its business could help to pay for the hunt of the worst terrorists.

We have being worried about the terrorists acquire weapons through their own research. But they wont do it. They will let us do it for them. Some of us think that we need to develop better weapons to be prepared against anything. And they only need to find an way of take our weapons from us and use it against ourselves. Mirror on what they done with three of our airplanes. And imagine if instead they had sequestrated some armed planes from our Air Force! What would be the damage? These will be always the goal of terrorists from the other side.

We think we are more secure now because we have the most advanced system of defense. But the reality is shown how risky it is taking. Imagine if some terrorist break the codes to use our atomic bombs against ourselves! Or use it to start an war against another nuclear power. They can use the opportunity in the time of any difficult in relationship between nations. And in the course that our History is going on we shall have no doubt that many opportunities will come.

Not long ago was revealed that the Israelis was able to bre